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Encyclopedia > Moai
Ahu Tongariki, restored by Chilean archaeologist Claudio Cristino in the 1990s
Ahu Tongariki, restored by Chilean archaeologist Claudio Cristino in the 1990s

This is about the statues of Easter Island, for the seamount see Moai (seamount) Image File history File linksMetadata AhuTongariki. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AhuTongariki. ... Ahu Tongariki with Poike Volcano in the background. ... A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the waters surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. ... The Moai Seamount is a submarine volcano, the second most westerly in the Easter Seamount Chain or Sala y Gómez ridge it is east of Pukao (Seamount) and west of Easter Island. ...

Main article: Easter Island

Moai (or mo‘ai) are monolithic human figures carved from rock on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), mostly between 1250 and 1500 CE. Nearly half are still at Rano Raraku, the main moai quarry, but hundreds were transported from there and set on Ahu (platforms) which were mostly at the island's perimeter. Almost all have overly large heads three fifths the size of their body. The Moai are the 'living faces' (aringa ora) and representations of chiefly, deified ancestors.[1] Sitting on their Ahus with their backs to the sea, these statues were still gazing across their clan lands when Europeans first visited the island, but most were then cast down during conflict between different clans on the island. Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Something that is monolithic is something created in one piece, resembling a monolith such as an obelisk. ... Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ... Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ... BCE redirects here. ... Rano Raraku Moai Rano Raraku is a volcanic crater formed of consolidated volcanic ash, or tuff, and located on Easter Island. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...


The production and transportation process required significant intellect, use of resources, and creativity, and is considered a remarkable feat of human endeavour.[2] The tallest moai erected, called Paro, was almost 10 metres (33 ft) high and weighed 75 tonnes;[3] the heaviest erected was a shorter but squatter moai at Ahu Tongariki which weighed 86 tons; while one unfinished sculpture would have been approximately 21 metres (69 ft) tall with a weight of about 270 tons. This article is about the metric tonne. ... Ahu Tongariki with Poike Volcano in the background. ...


From 1955 through 1978, an American archaeologist, William Mulloy, undertook extensive investigation of the production, transportation and erection of Easter Island's monumental statuary. Mulloy's Rapa Nui projects include the investigation of the Akivi-Vaiteka Complex and the physical restoration of Ahu Akivi (1960); the investigation and restoration of Ahu Ko Te Riku and Ahu Vai Uri and the Tahai Ceremonial Complex (1970); the investigation and restoration of two ahu at Hanga Kio'e (1972); the investigation and restoration of the ceremonial village at Orongo (1974) and numerous other archaeological surveys throughout the island. For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... Ahu Akivi, the only moai facing the ocean. ... Ahu Akivi, the only moai facing the ocean. ... Orongo is a ceremonial centre on Rapa Nui/Easter Island, which was until the mid nineteenth century the centre of the Birdman cult. ...

Map of Easter Island using moai to show locations of various ahu
Map of Easter Island using moai to show locations of various ahu

Contents

Image File history File links Easter_Island_map-en. ... Image File history File links Easter_Island_map-en. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...

Description

Rano Raraku moai buried to their shoulders
Rano Raraku moai buried to their shoulders

The Moai are monolithic statues, their minimalist style related to forms found throughout Polynesia. Moai are carved in relatively flat planes, the faces bearing proud but enigmatic expressions. The over-large heads (a three to five ratio between the head and the body, a sculptural trait which demonstrates the Polynesian belief in the sanctity of the chiefly head) have heavy brows, elongated noses with a distinctive fish-hook shaped curl of the nostrils. The lips protrude in a thin pout. Like the nose, the ears are elongated, and oblong in form. The jaw lines stand out against the truncated neck. The torsos are heavy, and sometimes the clavicles are subtly outlined in stone. The arms are carved in bas relief and rest against the body in various positions, hands and long slender fingers resting along the crests of the hips, meeting at the hami (loincloth), with the thumbs sometimes pointing towards the navel. Generally, the anatomical details of the backs are not detailed, but sometimes bear a ring and girdle motif on the buttocks and lower back. Except for one kneeling moai, the statues do not have legs. Download high resolution version (750x1000, 131 KB)Moai at Rano Raraku taken during January 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Moai Rano Raraku Around the World in 80 Treasures Categories: User-created public domain images | NowCommons ... Download high resolution version (750x1000, 131 KB)Moai at Rano Raraku taken during January 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Moai Rano Raraku Around the World in 80 Treasures Categories: User-created public domain images | NowCommons ... Rano Raraku Moai Rano Raraku is a volcanic crater formed of consolidated volcanic ash, or tuff, and located on Easter Island. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ...


Though Moai are whole body statues, they are often described simply as "heads". This is partly because of the disproportionate size of most moai heads, and partly because from the invention of photography until the 1950s the only Moai standing on the island were the statues on the slopes of Rano Raraku, many of which are buried to their shoulders. Some of the "heads" at Rano Raraku have been excavated and their bodies seen, and observed to have markings that had been protected from erosion by their burial. Rano Raraku Moai Rano Raraku is a volcanic crater formed of consolidated volcanic ash, or tuff, and located on Easter Island. ...


Material Properties

Tukuturi at Rano Raraku, is the only kneeling moai and one of the few made of red scoria.
Tukuturi at Rano Raraku, is the only kneeling moai and one of the few made of red scoria.

All but 53 of the 887 moai known to date were carved from tuff (a compressed volcanic ash) from Rano Raraku, where 394 moai and incomplete moai are still visible today (there are also 13 moai carved from basalt, 22 from trachyte and 17 from fragile red scoria[4]). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixels Full resolution (1536 × 967 pixel, file size: 931 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The only kneeled Moai at Easter Island. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixels Full resolution (1536 × 967 pixel, file size: 931 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The only kneeled Moai at Easter Island. ... Rano Raraku Moai Rano Raraku is a volcanic crater formed of consolidated volcanic ash, or tuff, and located on Easter Island. ... Rano Raraku Moai Rano Raraku is a volcanic crater formed of consolidated volcanic ash, or tuff, and located on Easter Island. ... Scoria Scoria is a textural term for macrovesicular volcanic rock ejecta. ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... Rano Raraku Moai Rano Raraku is a volcanic crater formed of consolidated volcanic ash, or tuff, and located on Easter Island. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... A sample of trachyte Trachyte is an igneous, volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ... Scoria Scoria is a textural term for macrovesicular volcanic rock ejecta. ...


Characteristics

Eyes

Moai at Ahu Tahai, this tuff moai with Pukao was re-erected and restored with replica coral and red scoria eyes by the Rapa Nui archaeologist Sergio Rapu Haoa
Moai at Ahu Tahai, this tuff moai with Pukao was re-erected and restored with replica coral and red scoria eyes by the Rapa Nui archaeologist Sergio Rapu Haoa

In 1979 Sergio Rapu Haoa and a team of archaeologists discovered that the hemispherical or deep elliptical eye sockets were designed to hold coral eyes with either black obsidian or red scoria pupils. The discovery was made by collecting and reassembling broken fragments of white coral that were found at the various sites. Subsequently, previously uncategorized finds in the Easter Island museum were re-examined and recategorized as eye fragments. It is thought that the moai with carved eye sockets were probably allocated to the ahu and ceremonial sites, suggesting that a selective Rapa Nui hierarchy was attributed to the moai design until its demise with the advent of the Birdman religion. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 566 KB) A close up of the moai at Ahu Tahai, restored with coral eyes by the American archaeologist William Mullo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 566 KB) A close up of the moai at Ahu Tahai, restored with coral eyes by the American archaeologist William Mullo. ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... Moai statue with its Pukau Pukao are the hats or topknots that some Rapa Nui (Easter island) Moai (statues) used to have. ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ...


The archaeologist William Mulloy reconstructed and mounted a pair of replica eyes in a moai at Tahai.


Pukao topknots and headdresses

Main article: Pukao
Moai with pukao and replica eyes on Ahu Ko Te Riku in Hanga Roa, with Chilean Navy training ship Esmeralda in the background.
Moai with pukao and replica eyes on Ahu Ko Te Riku in Hanga Roa, with Chilean Navy training ship Esmeralda in the background.

Some Moai had pukao on their heads; these were carved out of red scoria, a very light rock from a quarry at Puna Pau. Moai statue with its Pukau Pukao are the hats or topknots that some Rapa Nui (Easter island) Moai (statues) used to have. ... Image File history File links Moai_and_Esmeralda. ... Image File history File links Moai_and_Esmeralda. ... (This is about the main town on Easter Island and not the Hangaroa river located in New Zealand). ... Esmeralda (BE-43) Esmeralda (BE-43) is a steel-hulled four-masted barquentine tall ship of the Chilean Navy and currently the second tallest and longest sailing ship in the world. ... Moai statue with its Pukau Pukao are the hats or topknots that some Rapa Nui (Easter island) Moai (statues) used to have. ... Punau Pau is a quarry in a small crater or cinder cone on the outskirts of Hanga Roa in the South West of Easter Island (a Chilean island in the Pacific Ocean). ...


Markings (post stone working)

When first carved, the surface of the moai was polished smooth by rubbing with pumice. Unfortunately the easily worked tuff from which most moai were carved is also easily eroded, and today the best place to see the surface detail is on the few moai carved from basalt, or in photographs and other archaeological records of Moai surfaces protected by burial.


Those moai that are less eroded typically have designs carved on their backs and posteriors. The Routledge expedition of 1914 established a cultural link[5] between these designs and the island's traditional tattooing, which had been repressed by missionaries half a century earlier. Until modern DNA analysis of the islanders and their ancestors this was a key scientific evidence that the moai had been carved by the Rapa Nui and not by a separate group from South America. Katherine Maria Routledge, née Pease (1866-1935) was a British archaeologist who initiated (but did not complete) the first true survey of Easter Island. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


At least some of the moai were painted; Hoa Hakananai'a was decorated with red and white paint until 1868 when it was removed from the island.


History

The statues were carved by the Polynesian colonizers of the island, mostly between circa 1250 CE and 1500 CE.[6] In addition to representing deceased ancestors, the moai, once they were erected on ahu, may also have been regarded as the embodiment of powerful living or former chiefs and important lineage status symbols. Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... CE is an abbreviation which can have the following meanings: Capillary electrophoresis the CE mark is a stylized CE placed on products to signify conformance with European Union regulations. ... CE is an abbreviation which can have the following meanings: Capillary electrophoresis the CE mark is a stylized CE placed on products to signify conformance with European Union regulations. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ...


Completed statues were moved to ahu mostly on the coast. Then erected, sometimes with red stone cylinders (pukao) on their heads. Moai must have been extremely expensive to craft and transport; not only would the actual carving of each statue require effort and resources, but the finished product was then hauled to its final location and erected.


The quarries in Rano Raraku appear to have been abandoned abruptly, with a litter of stone tools, many completed moai outside the quarry awaiting transport and almost as many incomplete statues still in situ as were installed on ahu. In the nineteenth century this led to conjecture that the island was the remnant of a sunken continent and that most completed moai were under the sea. That idea has long been debunked, and now it is understood that: Underwater structures controversially identified as remnants of Mu, near Yonaguni, Japan Mu is the name of a hypothetical vanished continent. ...

  • Some statues were rock carvings and never intended to be completed.
  • Some were incomplete because when inclusions were encountered the carvers would abandon a partial statue and start a new one[7] (tuff is a soft rock with occasional lumps of much harder rock included in it).
  • Some completed statues at Rano Raraku were placed there permanently and not parked temporarily awaiting removal[8]
  • And some were indeed incomplete when the statue building era came to an end.
Ahu Akivi, the furthest inland of all the Ahus.
Ahu Akivi, the furthest inland of all the Ahus.

Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ahu-Akivi-1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ahu-Akivi-1. ... Ahu Akivi, the only moai facing the ocean. ...

Craftsmen

The moai were either carved by a distinguished class of professional carvers who were comparable in status to high-ranking members of other Polynesian craft guilds, or alternatively by members of each clan. The oral histories show that the Rano Raraku quarry was subdivided into different territories for each clan. Rano Raraku Moai Rano Raraku is a volcanic crater formed of consolidated volcanic ash, or tuff, and located on Easter Island. ...


Transportation

Early European drawing of moai, in the lower half of a 1770 Spanish map of Easter Island
Early European drawing of moai, in the lower half of a 1770 Spanish map of Easter Island

It is not known exactly how the moai were moved across the island but the process almost certainly required human energy, ropes, and possibly wooden sledges and/or rollers; as well as leveled tracks across the island (the Easter Island roads). Oral histories and science currently support the theory that the main method was that the moai were "walked" by a rocking process. (Pavel Pavel and his successful experiment[9] showed that only 17 people with ropes are needed for relatively fast transportation of moderately small statues and suggest this technique could be scaled to move larger statues as well). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1285 × 1801 pixel, file size: 600 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) North down 1772 map of Easter Island (Isla de San Carlos) drawn by the 1772 Spanish expedition commanded by Felipe González de Haedo. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1285 × 1801 pixel, file size: 600 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) North down 1772 map of Easter Island (Isla de San Carlos) drawn by the 1772 Spanish expedition commanded by Felipe González de Haedo. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Pavel Pavel is a Czech engineer and anthropological researcher. ...


Since the island was treeless by the time the Europeans first visited, the movement of the statues was for a long time a mystery; pollen analysis has now established that the island was almost totally forested until 1200 CE. The tree pollen disappeared from the record by 1650 and the statues stopped being made around that time. CE is an abbreviation which can have the following meanings: Capillary electrophoresis the CE mark is a stylized CE placed on products to signify conformance with European Union regulations. ...


1722 - 1868 the toppling of the Moai

After the 1722 Roggeveen visit all of the Moai that had been erected on Ahus were toppled, with the last standing statues reported in 1838 by Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars, and no upright statues by 1868,[10] apart from the partially buried ones on the outer slopes of Rano Raraku. Oral histories indicate that this was part of internecine conflict among the islanders rather than earthquake or other cause. Moai were usually toppled forwards to have their faces hidden, and often were toppled in such a way that their necks broke. Today about 50 moai have been re-erected on their Ahus or museums elsewhere. Jacob Roggeveen (1 February 1659 - 31 January 1729) was a Dutch explorer who was sent to find Terra Australis, but he instead came across Easter Island by chance. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars (1793-1864). ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...


Removal

Disembodied moai fragment, at the Pavillon des Sessions in the Musée du Louvre, Paris
Disembodied moai fragment, at the Pavillon des Sessions in the Musée du Louvre, Paris
Main article: Relocation of Moai objects

Eleven or more moai have been removed from the island and transported to locations around the world, including six out of the thirteen Moai that were carved from Basalt. They can be seen in: The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ...


Belgium

Britain This article is about the unit of length. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Voodoo by Alfred Metraux ALFRED METRAUX (1902-1963), often described as an ethnographers ethnographer, was one of the most significant anthropologists and human rights leaders of the twentieth century. ... Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ... The Royal Museums of Art and History (French:Musées royaux dArt et dHistoire, Dutch: Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis) is a group of museums in Brussels. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...

  • Hoa Hakananai'a ("Stolen or hidden friend"); removed in 1868 and Moai Hava are two basalt Moai in The British Museum, London.[11]

Chile Hoa Hakananaia on display in the British Museums Wellcome Trust Gallery Hoa Hakananaia is a moai (Easter Island statue) housed in the British Museum in London. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

  • An un-named moai removed from Hanga Roa in 1929 spent 40 years in Santiago, Chile before being transported to Argentina and making a round trip to the Netherlands. It was returned to the island in 2006.[12]
  • Moai head (approximately 8ft tall) taken by Samuel Adams Green and displayed in New York City in c1960 to generate publicity for a campaign to prevent Air France building a jet refueling facility on Easter Island. The moai was confiscated by the Chilean authorities during its return from the successful campaign, and moved to the Museo Fonck, Viña del Mar (While the moai remained in the US, several castings were made by Lippencott (of North Haven, Connecticut) of which; the third replica (#003) stands at the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History.)[13]
  • (Complete) Moai FM-VDM-001 at the Museo Fonck (Corporacion Museo de Arqueologia e Historia Francisco Fonck), Viña del Mar [1]
  • A complete moai displayed in Europe, then moved to the Salón de la Polinesia, Museo arqueologico, La Serena,[14][15]

France (This is about the main town on Easter Island and not the Hangaroa river located in New Zealand). ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Coast of Viña del Mar Cerro Castillo Viña del Mar (Spanish for Vineyard of the Sea), also known locally as La Ciudad Jardín (Spanish for The Garden City), is a thriving coastal city in central Chile, in the Valparaíso Region and province. ... Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Incorporated 1786 Government  - Type Selectman-town meeting  - First Selectwoman Janet McCarty Area  - Total 54. ... Look up replica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County opened in Exposition Park, Los Angeles, California, USA in 1913 as the Museum of History, Science, and Art. ... Coast of Viña del Mar Cerro Castillo Viña del Mar (Spanish for Vineyard of the Sea), also known locally as La Ciudad Jardín (Spanish for The Garden City), is a thriving coastal city in central Chile, in the Valparaíso Region and province. ... La Serena (the serene one) is the second oldest city in Chile. ...

  • Moai (head), presented to the Chilean government by Henri Lavachery and Alfred Metraux for the Musée de l'Homme after their expedition to Rapa Nui, in 1934-35. It now stands in the Pavillon des Sessions in the Musée du Louvre, Paris

New Zealand Voodoo by Alfred Metraux ALFRED METRAUX (1902-1963), often described as an ethnographers ethnographer, was one of the most significant anthropologists and human rights leaders of the twentieth century. ... The Musée de lHomme (French for Museum of Man) was created in 1937 by Paul Rivet, for the event of the Worlds Fair. ... The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ...

USA A sample of trachyte Trachyte is an igneous, volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ... The Otago Museum is a museum situated in Dunedin. ... Alternative meanings at Dunedin (disambiguation) Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, located in coastal Otago. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

For other universities known as American University, see American University (disambiguation). ... Moai statue with its Pukau Pukao are the hats or topknots that some Rapa Nui (Easter island) Moai (statues) used to have. ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... Gates of Forest Lawn Forest Lawn Memorial Park is a cemetery in Glendale, Los Angeles County, California, in the United States. ...

Preservation

The Rapa Nui National Park and the moai are included in the UNESCO world heritage list of 1994, and consequently the 1972 UN convention concerning the protection of the world's cultural and natural heritage. Rapa Nui National Park is located in Easter Island, Chile. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


The EISP (Easter Island Statue Project) is the latest research and documentation project of the moai on Rapa Nui and the artifacts held in museums overseas. The purpose of the project is to understand the figures' original use, context, and meaning, with the results being provided to the Rapa Nui families and the island’s public agencies that are responsible for conservation and preservation of the moai.


See also

Taputapuātea, an ancient marae at Raiātea in the Society Islands, restored in 1994. ... Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Easter Island Statue Project
  2. ^ Rapa Nui National Park
  3. ^ New Scientist, 29 July, 2006, pp. 30-34
  4. ^ VAN TILBURG, Jo Anne. 1994. Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology and Culture. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. page 24
  5. ^ Katherine Routledge (1919) The Mystery of Easter Island ISBN 0-932813-48-8 page 220
  6. ^ Steven R Fischer. The island at the end of the world. Reaktion Books 2005 ISBN1 86189 282 9
  7. ^ Katherine Routledge (1919) The Mystery of Easter Island ISBN 0-932813-48-8 page 181
  8. ^ Katherine Routledge (1919) The Mystery of Easter Island ISBN 0-932813-48-8 page 186
  9. ^ Thor Heyerdahl, Arne Skjølsvold, and Pavel Pavel The "Walking" Moai of Easter Island
  10. ^ John Flenley and Paul G. Bahn (2003). The Enigmas of Easter Island: Island on the Edge, p 150. ISBN 0192803409. 
  11. ^ Easter Island Statue Project: Project History
  12. ^ Easter Island statue heads home - In Depth - theage.com.au
  13. ^ The Lope: April 2006
  14. ^ Dirección De Bibliotecas, Archivos Y Museos
  15. ^ Moai em La Serena sur Flickr : partage de photos !
  16. ^ Otago Museum
  17. ^ Welcome to American University, Washington, DC USA
  18. ^ The Moai sur Flickr : partage de photos !
  19. ^ Lapidary Journal, (November/December 1954) "The story behind Henry".

Katherine Maria Routledge, née Pease (1866-1935) was a British archaeologist who initiated (but did not complete) the first true survey of Easter Island. ... Katherine Maria Routledge, née Pease (1866-1935) was a British archaeologist who initiated (but did not complete) the first true survey of Easter Island. ... Katherine Maria Routledge, née Pease (1866-1935) was a British archaeologist who initiated (but did not complete) the first true survey of Easter Island. ...

References

  • Heyerdahl, Thor . Skjølsvold, Arne. Pavel Pavel. The "Walking" Moai of Easter Island. Retrieved August 8, 2005.
  • McCall, Grant. (1995). "Rapanui (Easter Island)." Pacific Islands Year Book 17th Edition. Fiji Times. Retrieved August 8, 2005.
  • Matthews, Rupert. (1988). Ancient Mysteries. Wayland Publishing. ISBN 0-531-18246-0.
  • Pelta, Kathy. (2001). Rediscovering Easter Island. Lerner Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8225-4890-9.
  • Routledge, Katherine (1919) The Mystery of Easter Island ISBN 0-932813-48-8
  • Van Tilburg, Jo Anne. (2001) "Easter Island." In P.N. Peregine and M. Ember (eds.) Encyclopedia of Prehistory, Volume 3: East Asia and Oceania. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-46257-5
  • Van Tilburg, Jo Anne, (2006), Remote Possibilities: Hoa Hakananai'a and HMS Topaze on Rapa Nui. British Museum Research Papers.

Coordinates: 27°6′51.23″S, 109°21′50.38″W Thor Heyerdahl Thor Heyerdahl (October 6, 1914 Larvik, Norway – April 18, 2002 Colla Micheri, Italy) was a Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer with a scientific background in zoology and geography. ... Pavel Pavel is a Czech engineer and anthropological researcher. ... Katherine Maria Routledge, née Pease (1866-1935) was a British archaeologist who initiated (but did not complete) the first true survey of Easter Island. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Easter Island Statues in Chile - Easter Island Moai - New Wonders of the World Photos (281 words)
The Easter Island Moai were finalists in the campaign to choose new World Wonders.
The Moai of Easter Island stand as tall as 33 feet (10 metres) and weigh many tons.
Archaeologists speculate that the Moai represented a god, a mythical creature, or a revered ancestor.
NOVA Online | Secrets of Easter Island | Stone Giants (620 words)
Here, the moai are more 'standardized' in design, and are believed to have been carved, transported, and erected between AD 1400 and 1600.
They stand with their backs to the sea and are believed by most archaeologists to represent the spirits of ancestors, chiefs, or other high-ranking males who held important positions in the history of Easter Island, or Rapa Nui, the name given by the indigenous people to their island in the 1860s.
This digital statue has informed her hypothesis for a potential transport method for moving the moai; the statue which Van Tilburg's team will attempt to move and erect for the NOVA program has been made to the exact dimensions of this digital moai.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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