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Encyclopedia > Mnemonic
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English mnemonics

A mnemonic (pronounced IPA: /niːˈmɒnɪk/ in RP, /nɨˈmɑnɨk/ in GA) is any of various kinds of memory aid. They generally consist of a word, each of whose letters help the user to remember the first letters of items in a list. There are also other types of mnemonics, such as visual mnemonics. Mnemonics rely on anchoring associations upon that which is familiar or distinct, and relating it to that which is novel or unfamiliar. Depending on the nature of the information, the relationship implied by the link may seem natural, or otherwise quite arbitrary. Look up mnemonic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pneuma (πνευμα) is Greek for air, wind, spirit, and breath, which metaphorically describes a non-material influence or being. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ...


The word mnemonic is derived from the Ancient Greek word μνημονικός mnemonikos ("of memory") and is related to Mnemosyne ("remembrance"), the name of the Mother of the Muses in Greek mythology. Both of these words refer back to μνημα mnema ("remembrance").[1] The first known reference to mnemonics is the method of loci described in Cicero's De Oratore. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Mnemosyne (Greek , IPA in RP and in General American) (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. ... For other uses see Muse (disambiguation). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The method of loci or Ars memoriae (art of memory) is a technique for remembering that has been practiced since Classical times. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... De Oratore (The orator) is a discourse on rhetoric written by Cicero in 55 BC. It contains the first known description of the method of loci, a mnemonic technique. ...

Contents

Mnemonic systems

Key-word mnemonics

Visual mnemonics are very popular in medicine as well as other fields. In this technique, an image portrays characters or objects whose name sounds like the item that has to be memorized. This object then interacts with other similarly portrayed objects that in turn represent associated information. Mnemonic techniques can also be strategies for encoding information so that recall is easier. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: English mnemonics Visual mnemonics are a type of mnemonic that work by associating an image with characters or objects whose name sounds like the item that has to be memorized. ...


Acronym and acrostic mnemonics

One common mnemonic for remembering lists consists of an easily remembered word, phrase, or rhyme whose first letters are associated with the list items. The idea lends itself well to memorizing hard-to-break passwords as well. Though easy to derive, they are often not as powerful as the classical systems because they do not make use of visualization techniques. A password is a form of secret authentication data that is used to control access to a resource. ...


Anamonics (Scrabble)

Main article: Anamonics

Many tournament Scrabble players employ anamonics, a form of initialization mnemonic, for the purposes of learning and quickly recalling sets of acceptable words. An anamonic consists of a "stem" (usually of six or seven letters), paired with a semantically related phrase, in which each letter of the phrase can be added to the stem and rearranged to form at least one acceptable word. For example, if a player has the tiles "ACDEIRT" on his rack, and recalls the anamonic "DICE-ART = casino math diploma", they will know precisely which letters may be played through to form 8-letter words, and will hopefully be aided in finding the words: "ACCREDIT", "RADICATE", "ACRIDEST", "RATICIDE", "DICENTRA", "CERATOID", "TIMECARD", "CITRATED"/ "TETRACID"/ "TETRADIC", "TRACHEID", "READDICT", "PICRATED", and "ARTICLED"/ "LACERTID". An anamonic is a form of mnemonic device frequently employed by tournament Scrabble players. ... The verb to scrabble also means to scratch, scramble or scrape about: see Wiktionary:scrabble. ... An anamonic is a form of mnemonic device frequently employed by tournament Scrabble players. ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ...


Other mnemonic systems

Wikibooks Intelligence Intensification/Memory Techniques has a page on the topic of the major system The Major System (also called the phonetic number system or phonetic mnemonic system) is a mnemonic technique used to aid in memorizing numbers. ... The major system (also called phonetic system or phonetic mnemonic system) is a famous mnemonic technique used to aid in memorizing numbers. ... A mnemonic link system is a method of remembering lists, based on creating an association between the elements of that list. ... Wikibooks Intelligence_Intensification has a page on the topic of Memory_Techniques#Pegwords A peg system is a mnemonic technique for memorizing lists. ... The Goroawase system is the Japanese equivalent of the major system. ... This August 2006 needs to be wikified. ... The method of loci or Ars memoriae (art of memory) is a technique for remembering that has been practiced since Classical times. ... To remember the present active indicative verb tense endings: Actual: Singular 1st person: -m/o 2nd person: -s 3rd person: -t Plural 1st person: -mus 2nd person: -tis 3rd person: -nt mnemonic phrase: Most Must Isnt (-M/O-S-T-MUS-TIS-NT) To remember the conjugating vowels of...

Arbitrariness of mnemonics

A curious characteristic of many memory systems is that mnemonics work despite being (or possibly because of being) illogical, arbitrary, and artistically flawed. A commonly effective mnemonic for remembering the color sequence in a rainbow, "Roy G. Biv", is a combination of such unlikely elements: "Roy" is a legitimate first name, but there is no actual surname "Biv" and of course the middle initial "G" is arbitrary. Associations which are exaggerated, absurd, humorous or have sexual connotation are easier to remember than normal ones. [2] Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: English mnemonics#Science Roy G. Biv is a popular mnemonic device used for memorizing the traditional optical spectrum: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet The colors are arranged in the order of decreasing wavelengths, with red being about 700 nanometers and...


One reason for the effectiveness of seemingly arbitrary mnemonics is the grouping of information to reduce cognitive load. Just as US phone numbers chunks 10 digits into three groups, the name "Roy G. Biv" chunks seven colors into two short names and an initial. Various studies (most notably Miller's The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two) have shown that the human brain is capable of remembering only a limited number of arbitrary items; chunking these items permits the brain to hold more of them in memory. Cognitive Load is a term (used in psychology and other fields of study) that refers to the level of effort associated with problem solving, thinking and reasoning (including perception, memory, language, etc. ... In cognitive psychology and mnemonics, chunking refers to a strategy for making more efficient use of short-term memory by recoding information. ... In cognitive psychology and mnemonics, chunking refers to a strategy for making more efficient use of short-term memory by recoding information. ... George A. Miller (born February 3 1920) is a famous professor of psychology at Princeton University, whose most famous work was The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information, which was published in 1956 in In the linguistics community, Miller is well... It has been suggested that Chunking (psychology) be merged into this article or section. ... In cognitive psychology and mnemonics, chunking refers to a strategy for making more efficient use of short-term memory by recoding information. ...


Assembly mnemonics

In assembly language a mnemonic is a code, usually from 1 to 5 letters, that represents an opcode, a number. See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... Microprocessors perform operations using binary bits (on/off/1or0). ...


Programming in machine code, by supplying the computer with the numbers of the operations it must perform, can be quite a burden, because for every operation the corresponding number must be looked up or remembered. Looking up all numbers takes a lot of time, and mis-remembering a number may introduce computer bugs. A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working as intended, or produces an incorrect result. ...


Therefore a set of mnemonics was devised. Each number was represented by an alphabetic code. So instead of entering the number corresponding to addition to add two numbers one can enter "add".


Although mnemonics differ between different CPU designs some are common, for instance: "sub" (subtract), "div" (divide), "add" (add) and "mul" (multiply). CPU design is the hardware design of a central processing unit. ...


This type of mnemonic is different from the ones listed above in that instead of a way to make remembering numbers easier, it is a way to make remembering numbers unnecessary (by relying on some external way to tie each mnemonic to a number).


Los Angeles, California, Downtown Streets Mnemonic

Central downtown Los Angeles can be a confusing maze, both for "suburbians" and tourists alike. Moving from North to South (actually NE to SW), it's fairly easy to go from the 101 (Hollywood/Santa Ana) Freeway to Temple Street, followed by Tom Bradley Blvd. (previously 1st Street), then 2nd Street, 3rd Street, etc. However, East to West (actually SE to NW) is a bit more challenging to navigate.


At some point, someone introduced a mnemonic sentence to recall the order of the 10 primary East to West streets. This version is courtesy of St. Louis, Missouri, native Helen Anshutz Meixsell, who began her residency in Los Angeles in 1927 at the age of nine. It was taught to her by her aunt, MayBelle Anshutz, who had been in California since 1926.


After Ms. Meixsell's graduation from Los Angeles High School in 1936, and until 1942, she worked at various jobs from downtown Los Angeles to her non-enlisted WWII military job at Douglas Aircraft across town in Santa Monica. Although slight variations can undoubtedly be found, Ms. Meixsell memorized it this way in 1935 in anticipation of traveling to work: In LOS ANGELES, you MAINly SPRING onto BROADWAY, go up the HILL to OLIVE with the GRAND HOPE of picking FLOWERs on FIGUEROA. (All roads mentioned in the saying are "streets" except for Grand, which is an "avenue".) She utilized the expression every day as she regularly walked, took city buses and rode the “Red Car” to her jobs.


UK Fuel Mnemonics

All UK petrol (gasoline) stations use a Mnemonic code to identify themselves. This remains the same no matter how many times the service station changes hands. These are made up of seven letters. The first three letters are the site name. The next set of three are the name of the town the site is located in or near. The seventh letter is always an R. For example, a site named Rock in Stamford has the mnemonic ROCSTAR. Occasionally an extra letter is added if there are, or once were, two sites with the same name on either side of a motorway or trunk road. As the sites are usually appended South or North, depending on which side of the road they are, this letter is added either between the 3rd and 4th letter or before the final R. So a site called Orsett North near Ockendon becomes ORSNOCKR or ORSOCKNR, and Orsett South is ORSSOCKR or ORSOCKSR. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... A63(T) trunk road A trunk road, trunk highway, or strategic road is a major road—usually connecting one or more cities, ports, airports, etc. ...


References

  1. ^ Liddell, H. G.; R. Scott (1889). Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910206-6. 
  2. ^ Mark Brown. Memory matters. David & Charles, New abbot, England, 1977.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mnemonic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4007 words)
Many mnemonics have been devised for remembering the digits of pi, consisting of phrases or verses in which successive digits of pi are obtained by counting the number of letters in each word.
Two mnemonics for the constant e (the base for natural logarithms) are "We require a mnemonic to remember e whenever we scribble math" and "To express e, remember to memorize a sentence to simplify this".
In the Southern hemisphere, this is reversed, and the mnemonic is "COD".
Mnemonic (1361 words)
A famous mnemonic used by medical students to remember the cranial nerves is "On Old Olympus' Tiny Top A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops" (with variations; some say "terraced tops," some say "towering top," and "view some hops" is sometimes rendered as "vaulted a hedge").
Mnemonic techniques should be used in conjunction with active recall to actually be beneficial.
Mnemonic images could be placed about this palace to link to items that you wanted to remember, ususally in symbolic form, with the images as striking as possible to enable recollection.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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