FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mizrahi Hebrew language

The Mizrahi Hebrew language or Oriental Hebrew language refers to any one of the pronunciation systems for Biblical Hebrew used liturgically by Mizrahi Jews, that is, Jews living in Arab countries or further east, and typically speaking Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Turkish, or other languages of the Middle East and Asia. As such, Mizrahi Hebrew is actually a blanket term for many dialects. Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... height=28 width=28 thumb->width=28 --> This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogenous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Sephardi Hebrew is not considered one of these, although it has been spoken in the Middle East and North Africa. The Sephardim were expellees from Spain, and settled among the Mizrahim, but in countries such as Syria and Morocco there was a fairly high degree of convergence between the Sephardi and the local pronunciations of Hebrew. Yemenite Hebrew is also considered quite separate, as it has a wholly different system for the pronunciation of the vowels. The Sephardi Hebrew language is an offshoot of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... The Yemenite Hebrew language or Temani Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews. ...


Features

The following features are generally found in the pronunciation of Jews from Arabic-speaking countries, and the variations tend to follow the Arabic dialect of the country in question. The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...

  • The stress tends to fall on the last syllable wherever this is the case in Biblical Hebrew
  • ב (Bet without dagesh) is pronounced /b/ in some countries (e.g. Syria), and /v/ in others (e.g. Morocco)
  • ו (Vav) is pronounced /v/ in some countries and /w/ in others (e.g. Iraq)
  • ח (ִHet) is pronounced like Arabic ح (unvoiced pharyngeal spirant)
  • ט (Tet) is pronounced like Arabic ط (unvoiced pharyngealized dental stop)
  • ע (Ayin) is pronounced like Arabic ع (voiced pharyngeal)
  • צ (Tsadi) is pronounced like Arabic ص (unvoiced pharyngealized sibilant)
  • ק (Qof) is usually pronounced like Classical Arabic ق , a unvoiced uvular stop(but other sounds occur, such as /k/, /g/ or a glottal stop)
  • ר ("Resh") is usually trilled (like Spanish r), rather than uvular (like French r)
  • ת (Tav without dagesh) is pronounced /t/ in some countries, and /θ/ in others (e.g. Iraq)
  • Vowels generally have the same sounds as in Sephardi Hebrew: that is

The pronunciation of Mizrahi Jews from non-Arab countries differs in some respects. For example, among Persian Jews distinctively Arabic sounds such as ح and ط do not occur, and Kamats gadol is depressed to the sound of English "awe", like the long a in Persian. A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... The Sephardi Hebrew language is an offshoot of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Jewish children in Iran in a specially designated Jewish school. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


Bibliography

  • Idelsohn, A.Z., Phonographierte Gesänge und Aussprachsproben des Hebräischen der jemenitischen, persischen und syrischen Juden: Vienna 1917
  • Katz, K., Masoret ha-lashon ha-Ivrit shel Yehude Aram-Tsova (ִHalab) bi-ִkeri’at ha-Miqra ve-ha-Mishnah (The Hebrew Language Tradition of the Jews of Aleppo in the Reading of the Bible and Mishnah): Jerusalem 1981 (Hebrew)
  • Katz, K., The Hebrew Language Tradition of the Community of Djerba (Tunisia)
  • Morag, S., Masoret ha-lashon ha-Ivrit shel Yehude Bagdad, bi-ִkeriat ha-Mikra veha-Mishnah (The Hebrew Language Tradition of the Baghdad Community: the Phonology): Jerusalem 1977
  • Yeivin, I., The Hebrew Language Tradition as Reflected in the Babylonian Vocalization: Jerusalem 1985 (Hebrew)

See also


The Yemenite Hebrew language or Temani Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews. ... The Sephardi Hebrew language is an offshoot of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ... The Ashkenazi Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. ... Syrian Jews derive their origin from two groups: those who inhabited Syria from early times and those Sephardim who fled to Syria after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492 C.E). ...

  Jewish Languages edit  
Afro-Asiatic
Hebrew eras: Biblical | Mishnaic | Medieval | Modern
dialects: Ashkenazi | Sephardi | Yemenite | Sanaani | Tiberian | Mizrahi | Samaritan Hebrew
Judeo-Aramaic (Aramaic): Biblical | Barzani | Hulaulá | Lishana Deni | Lishán Didán | Lishanid Noshan | Targum | Samaritan Aramaic
Judeo-Arabic (Arabic): Judeo-Iraqi | Judeo-Moroccan | Judeo-Yemeni | Judeo-Libyan | Judeo-Algerian
Other: Cushitic: Kayla | Qwara Berber: Judeo-Berber
Indo-European
Yiddish (Germanic) dialects: Eastern | Western | Litvish | Poylish | Ukrainish | Klezmer-loshn
derivates: Yeshivish | Yinglish
institutions: YIVO | Yiddish Theater | National Yiddish Book Center
Judeo-Romance (Romance): Catalanic | Judeo-Italian | Ladino | Haketia | Tetuani | La‘az | Shuadit | Zarphatic | Lusitanic | Judeo-Aragonese
Judeo-Persian (Aryan): Bukhori | Juhuri | Dzhidi | Judeo-Hamedani | Judeo-Shirazi | Judeo-Esfahani | Judeo-Kurdish | Judeo-Yazdi
Judeo-Kermani | Judeo-Kashani | Judeo-Borujerdi | Judeo-Khunsari | Judeo-Golpaygani | Judeo-Nehevandi
Other: Yevanic (Hellenic) | Knaanic (Slavic) | Judæo-Marathi (Indic)
Turkic Dravidian Kartvelian
Krymchak | Karaim Judeo-Malayalam Gruzinic

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Hebrew language (1895 words)
In Israel, it is the de facto language of the state and the people, as well as being one of the two official languages (together with Arabic), and it is spoken by a majority of the population.
Hebrew, probably extinct since the 3rd century C.E. as a spoken language, persevered along the ages as the main language for written purposes by all Jewish communities around the world for a large range of uses (poetry, philosophy, science and medicine, commerce, daily correspondence and contracts, in addition to liturgy).
Hebrew was preserved, however, as the language of ritual and sacred writing and through the centuries has undergone periodic literary revivals.
Hebrew language - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (5083 words)
Mishnaic Hebrew from the 1st to the 3rd or 4th century CE, corresponding to the Roman Period after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and represented by the bulk of the Mishnah and Tosefta within the Talmud and by the Dead Sea Scrolls, notably the Bar Kokhba Letters and the Copper Scroll.
The language of the Neo-Babylonian Empire was a dialect of Aramaic.
Hebrew functioned as the local mother tongue, Aramaic functioned as the international language with the rest of the Mideast, and eventually Greek functioned as another international language with the eastern areas of the Roman Empire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m