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Encyclopedia > Mixed language

A mixed language is a language that arises when speakers of different languages are in contact and show a high degree of bilingualism. Occasionally, more than two languages may be involved. The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ...

Contents

Definitions

A mixed language differs from a pidgin in that its speakers are fluent, even native, speakers of the languages concerned, whereas a pidgin develops when groups of people with no knowledge of each other's languages come into contact and have need of a basic communication system, e.g. for trade, but do not have enough contact to learn each other's language or to develop a lingua franca. A pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of two or more languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues, and usually a simplified form of one of the languages. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


A mixed language differs from a creole in that a mixed language has not evolved from a pidgin, whereas a creole has. Also, while creoles tend to have drastically reduced inflections, mixed languages sometimes retain the inflectional complexities of both parent languages. A creole language, or simply a creole, is stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many features that are not inherited from any parent. ... A pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of two or more languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues, and usually a simplified form of one of the languages. ...


It differs from code-switching in that it is set in its grammar and vocabulary, rather than the choice being left to the mood of the speaker. Speakers of mixed languages often do not know the input languages, something that precludes the possibility of linguistic improvisation. Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ...


Code-switching

A mixed language may be said to evolve from persistent code-switching, and indeed language names such as "Spanglish" are often given to persistent code-switching long before it is clear that a genuine mixed language has evolved. Other apparent mixed languages, such as Franglais and Yinglish, also are really nothing more than varieties of a language (such as French and English, respectively) characterized by large numbers of loanwords from another language (such as English and Yiddish, respectively). Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ... Spanglish — also called espanglish, inglañol, or espanglés, a blend of the Spanish-language words for Spanish and English — is a name used to refer to a range of language-contact phenomena, primarily in the speech of the Hispanic population of the United States, which is exposed to... Franglais, a portmanteau made by mixing the words français (French) and anglais (English), is a slang term for types of speech, although the word has different overtones in the English and French languages. ... Yinglish words are neologisms created by speakers of Yiddish in English-speaking countries, sometimes to describe things that were uncommon in the old country. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Yiddish (Yid. ...


Mixed languages

A genuine mixed language usually appears as the marker of a new ethnic or cultural group (e.g., métis or immigrants). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ...


Good examples of genuine mixed languages include:

  • English.
  • Michif, a mixture of French and Cree, where the nouns and adjectives tend to be French (including agreement), and the polysynthetic verbs are entirely Cree. There are two simultaneous gender systems, French masculine/feminine as well as Cree animate/inanimate, and the Cree obviative (fourth person).
  • Mednyj Aleut, a mixture of Russian and Aleut, which retains Aleut verbs but has replaced most of the inflectional endings with their Russian equivalents.
  • Cappadocian Greek, comprising mostly Greek root words, but with many Turkish grammatical endings and Turkish vowel harmony, and no gender.
  • Mbugu or Ma’a: an inherited Cushitic vocabulary with a borrowed Bantu inflectional system.
  • Filipino, primarily Tagalog with notable influences of Spanish.

Possible examples include: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Michif (also Mitchif, Mechif, Michif-Cree, Métif, Métchif) is the language of the Métis people of Canada and the northern United States, who are the descendants of First Nations women (mainly Cree, Nakota and Ojibwe) and fur trade workers of European ancestry (mainly French Canadians). ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. ... Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. ... Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is a language of the Eskimo-Aleut language phylum. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ...

Wutunhua (hua = language) is an unclassified Chinese language spoken by about 2,000 people of a branch of the Tu nationality in the eastern part of the Quinghai province in the west of China. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... The Yeniche, or Jenisch, are the third-largest population of nomadic people (or Travelers) in Europe, living mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and parts of France. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Jopará is a mixed language spoken in Paraguay, combining the Spanish and Guaraní languages. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... The Riverense Portuñol or Riverense Portunhol, also known as Fronterizo or Fronteiriço is a portuñol language (linguasphere language code 51-AAA-am [1]), spoken on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, and more specifically in the region of the twin cities of Rivera (Uruguay) and SantAna...

See also

Language contact occurs when speakers of distinct speech varieties interact. ... Language transfer (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, cross-linguistic interference or interference) is the effect of a speaker or writers first language (L1) on the production or perception of his or her second language (L2). ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ... Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of international communication. ... The word chiac has two meanings, both of which refer to particular vocabulary, accent, sentence structures and idioms spoken by Acadian French inhabitants of south-east New Brunswick, Canada. ...

References

  • Bakker, Peter (1997). A Language of Our Own: The Genesis of Michif, the Mixed Cree-French Language of the Canadian Metis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509712-2. 
  • Bakker, P., and M. Mous, eds. (1994). Mixed languages: 15 case studies in language intertwining. Amsterdam: IFOTT. 
  • Matras, Yaron and Peter Bakker, eds. (2003). The Mixed Language Debate: Theoretical and Empirical Advances. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-017776-5. 
  • Mous, Maarten. 2003. The making of a mixed language: The case of Ma'a/Mbugu. Creole language library (No. 26). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub. Co.
  • Sebba, Mark (1997). Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-63024-6. 
  • Thomason, Sarah and Terrence Kaufman (1988). Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07893-4. 

 
 

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