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Encyclopedia > Mixed Martial Arts
Mixed martial arts

Ground fighting during competition. The dominant fighter maintains side control while delivering strikes.
Also known as MMA, Vale Tudo, Ultimate fighting,[1] No-Holds-Barred (NHB)
Focus Various
Hardness Full contact
Olympic Sport No

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full contact combat sport that allows a wide variety of fighting techniques, from a mixture of martial arts traditions, to be used in competitions. The rules allow the use of striking and grappling techniques, both while standing and on the ground. Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The combatant having side control is in a dominant position. ... Vale-tudo (Portuguese for anything goes - vale - is allowed, tudo - everything) describes competitions in unarmed combat having minimal rules[1]. It is sometimes considered a combat sport. ... Full Contact is a 1992 Hong Kong action film directed by Ringo Lam. ... Tackles like this one (Womens Australian rules football) are used in contact sports including many varieties of Football. ... A combat sport is a competitive sport involving the use of punch, kick, throw, joint locks, and/or a weapon for attack and defence. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ...


Modern mixed martial arts competition emerged in popular culture in 1993 with the founding of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Initially based on finding the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat situations, competitors of various arts were pitted against one another with minimal rules or concern for safety.[2] In the following decade, MMA promoters adopted many additional rules aimed at increasing safety for competitors and to promote mainstream acceptance of the sport.[3] Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with pay per view reach rivaling boxing and professional wrestling.[4] This article covers the organization itself. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... The rules for most mixed martial arts competitions have evolved since the early days of vale tudo. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... For the NES video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ...

History

Pre-modern

Pankration was an ancient form of unarmed hand to hand combat resembling modern MMA.
Pankration was an ancient form of unarmed hand to hand combat resembling modern MMA.

One of the earliest forms of widespread unarmed combat sports with minimal rules was Greek pankration, which was introduced into the Olympic Games in 648 B.C.[5] Even as late as the Early Middle Ages, statues were put up in Rome and other cities to honour remarkable pankratiasts. Image File history File links UffiziFlorenceWrestlers. ... Image File history File links UffiziFlorenceWrestlers. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Close Quarters Combat. ... A combat sport is a competitive sport involving the use of punch, kick, throw, joint locks, and/or a weapon for attack and defence. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...


No-holds-barred events reportedly took place in the late 1800s when wrestlers representing a huge range of fighting styles including various catch wrestling styles, Greco-Roman wrestling and many others met in tournaments and music-hall challenge matches throughout Europe. The first major encounter between a boxer and a wrestler in modern times took place in 1887 when John L. Sullivan, then heavyweight world boxing champion, entered the ring with his trainer, Greco-Roman wrestling champion William Muldoon, and was slammed to the mat in two minutes. The next publicized encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob Fitzsimmons took on European Greco-Roman wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. Reportedly, Roeber suffered a fractured cheekbone in this bout, but was able to get Fitzsimmons down on the mat, where he applied an armlock and made the boxer submit. In 1936, heavyweight boxing contender Kingfish Levinsky and veteran professional wrestler Ray Steele competed in a mixed match, which Steele won in 35 seconds.[6] // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... This article is about Greco-Roman wrestling. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... For the U.S. Secretary of the Navy, see John L. Sullivan (U.S. Navy). ... William Muldoon was a professional wrestler. ... Robert James Bob Fitzsimmons (May 26, 1863 - October 22, 1917) was a Cornish native and moved to New Zealand in his childhood. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The juji-gatame armbar (see below) is one of the most effective and versatile joint locks. ... Submissions are often done in grappling by tapping the opponent with the hand. ... King Levinsky (10 September 1910 - 30 September 1991), also known as Kingfish Levinsky, was an American heavyweight boxer who fought during the 1930s. ... Peter Sauer was an American professional wrestler born and raised in Norka, a German colony in Russia, in 1900 before immigrating to Lincoln, Nebraska in 1906 where he used the ring name Ray Steele throughout his career in the States. ...


Another early example of mixed martial arts combat was the martial art of Bartitsu, founded in London in 1899, which was the first martial art known to have combined Asian and European fighting styles,[7] and which saw MMA-style contests throughout England, pitting European and Japanese champions against representatives of various European wrestling styles.[7] Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self defence method originally developed in England during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Mixed style contests such as boxing vs. jujutsu were popular entertainment throughout Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s.[8] In Japan these contests were known as merikan, from the Japanese slang for "American [fighting]". Merikan contests were fought under a variety of rules including points decision, best of three throws or knockdowns, and victory via knockout or submission.[citation needed] For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ...


Professional wrestling died out after World War I and was reborn in two streams: "shoot", in which the fighters actually competed, and "show," which evolved into modern professional wrestling.[6] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... In professional wrestling, a shoot refers to any unplanned event – that is, the event is real and not staged. ... In professional wrestling, a work is slang for a staged event (that is, one that enforces kayfabe). ... For the NES video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ...


Modern

180 lb. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu fighter Royce Gracie (white gi) submits 275 lb. champion wrestler Dan Severn (black tights) with a triangle choke in UFC 4, 1994.
180 lb. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu fighter Royce Gracie (white gi) submits 275 lb. champion wrestler Dan Severn (black tights) with a triangle choke in UFC 4, 1994.[9]

The history of modern MMA competition can be traced to mixed style contests throughout Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s; the Gracie family's vale tudo martial arts tournaments in Brazil starting in the 1920s; and early mixed martial arts matches hosted by Antonio Inoki in Japan in the 1970s. The sport gained international exposure and widespread publicity in the United States in 1993, when Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu fighter Royce Gracie handily won the first Ultimate Fighting Championship tournament, submitting three challengers in just five minutes,[10] sparking a revolution in the martial arts.[11] Meanwhile in Japan the continued interest in the sport resulted in the creation of the PRIDE Fighting Championships in 1997.[12] Image File history File links Royce_Gracie_vs_Dan_Severn_UFC_4. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Royce Gracie, pronounced Hoyce Gracie (born December 12, 1966) is a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioner. ... Keikogi (稽古着 or 稽古衣) is a Japanese word which means uniform for training (keiko means practice, gi means dress or clothes), another posibility is to use the word Dogi which means the uniform you wear on the path that you have been chosen, if you put the name of the sport itself... Daniel The Beast Severn (born June 8, 1958 in Coldwater, Michigan) is an American mixed martial artist and professional wrestler, notable for his success in the early years of Ultimate Fighting Championship tournaments. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... UFC 4: Revenge of the Warriors was a mixed martial arts (MMA) event held by the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) on December 16, 1994, at the Expo Center Pavilion in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... The Gracie family refers to the lineage of Brazilian businessman and politician Gastão Gracie. ... Vale-tudo (Portuguese for anything goes - vale - is allowed, tudo - everything) describes competitions in unarmed combat having minimal rules[1]. It is sometimes considered a combat sport. ... Antonio Inoki (アントニオ猪木), real name Kanji Inoki[1] (猪木寛至 Inoki Kanji), born February 20, 1943) is a Professional Wrestling Promoter and retired Japanese professional wrestler and mixed martial artist who now resides in New York City. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Royce Gracie, pronounced Hoyce Gracie (born December 12, 1966) is a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioner. ... This article covers the organization itself. ... PRIDE Fighting Championships (PRIDE or PRIDE FC for short) was a mixed martial arts organization based in Japan. ...


The movement that led to the creation of the UFC and PRIDE was rooted in two interconnected subcultures. First were the vale tudo events in Brazil, followed by the Japanese shoot wrestling shows. Vale tudo began in the 1920s with the "Gracie challenge" issued by Carlos Gracie and Hélio Gracie and upheld later on by descendants of the Gracie family.[5] In Japan in the 1970s, a series of mixed martial arts matches were hosted by Antonio Inoki, inspiring the shoot-style movement in Japanese professional wrestling, which eventually led to the formation of the first mixed martial arts organizations, such as Shooto, which was formed in 1985. UFC is a TLA that can stand for Ultimate Fighting Championship Umeå FC This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the emotion. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... Shootfighting Shoot wrestling is a general term that describes a range of hybrid fighting systems originating in Japan in the late 1970s, in close association with Japanese professional wrestling. ... Vale-tudo (Portuguese for anything goes - vale - is allowed, tudo - everything) describes competitions in unarmed combat having minimal rules[1]. It is sometimes considered a combat sport. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually when speaking about the United States. ... Hélio Gracie vs. ... Carlos Gracie (1901-1994) is the founder of the Brazilian martial art of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) along with his younger brother Hélio Gracie. ... Image:Heliogracie. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Antonio Inoki (アントニオ猪木), real name Kanji Inoki[1] (猪木寛至 Inoki Kanji), born February 20, 1943) is a Professional Wrestling Promoter and retired Japanese professional wrestler and mixed martial artist who now resides in New York City. ... New Japan Pro Wrestling is one of the most popular professional wrestling promotions in the World. ... Shooto logo ISC logo This article deals with the martial arts organization, for the baseball pitch, see gyroball. ...

Chuck Liddell (right) and Tito Ortiz broke PPV records with their rematch at UFC 66.
Chuck Liddell (right) and Tito Ortiz broke PPV records with their rematch at UFC 66.

The concept of combining the elements of multiple martial arts was pioneered and popularized by Bruce Lee in the late 1960's to early 1970's. Lee believed that "the best fighter is not a Boxer, Karate or Judo man. The best fighter is someone who can adapt to any style." His innovative concepts were recognized in 2004 by UFC President Dana White when he called Lee the "father of mixed martial arts."[13] Recognition of it's effectiveness as a test came as the United States Army began to sanction mixed martial arts with the first annual All Army Combatives Championships held by the US Army Combatives School in November 2005. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Charles David Chuck Liddell (born December 17, 1969), also known as The Iceman is an American mixed martial artist who fights for the Ultimate Fighting Championship. ... Jacob Christopher Tito Ortiz aka The Huntington Beach Bad Boy (born January 23, 1975) is an American mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter from Huntington Beach, California. ... Pay-per-view is the name given to a system by which television viewers can call and order events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ... UFC 66: Liddell vs. ... Bruce Lee (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: Lǐ Xiǎolóng; Cantonese Yale: Léih Síulùhng; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Chinese-American martial artist, philosopher, instructor, and martial arts actor widely regarded as the most influential martial artist of the 20th century and a... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Matt Larsen demonstrating a straight ankle lock The US Army Combatives School was founded in 2000 by then Sergeant First Class Matt Larsen and is located at building 69, Fort Benning, Georgia. ...


The sport reached a new peak of popularity in North America in the December 2006 rematch between then UFC light heavyweight champion Chuck Liddell and former champion Tito Ortiz, rivaling the PPV sales of some of the biggest boxing events of all time,[4] and helping the UFC's 2006 PPV gross surpass that of any promotion in PPV history. In 2007, Zuffa LLC, the owners of the UFC MMA promotion, bought Japanese rival MMA brand PRIDE, merging the contracted fighters under one promotion[14] and drawing comparisons to the consolidation that occurred in other sports, such as the AFL-NFL Merger in American football.[15] UFC 66: Liddell vs. ... UFC is a TLA that can stand for Ultimate Fighting Championship Umeå FC This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Charles David Chuck Liddell (born December 17, 1969), also known as The Iceman is an American mixed martial artist who fights for the Ultimate Fighting Championship. ... Jacob Christopher Tito Ortiz aka The Huntington Beach Bad Boy (born January 23, 1975) is an American mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter from Huntington Beach, California. ... Pay-per-view is the name given to a system by which television viewers can call and order events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ... UFC is a TLA that can stand for Ultimate Fighting Championship Umeå FC This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the emotion. ... The AFL-NFL Merger of 1970 involved the merger of the two major professional American football leagues in the United States during the time: the National Football League (NFL) and the American Football League (AFL). ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ...


Evolution of fighters

Ground fighting is an intrinsic part of the sport.
Ground fighting is an intrinsic part of the sport.

As a result of an increased number of competitors, organized training camps, information sharing, and modern kinesiology, the understanding of the combat-effectiveness of various strategies has been greatly improved. UFC commentator Joe Rogan has claimed that martial arts have evolved more in the ten years following 1993 than in the preceding 700 years.[16] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Ground fighting taking place in a mixed martial arts bout. ... Look up kinesiology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Joe Rogan performing at a comedy club after UFC 70. ...

"During his reign atop the sport in the late 1990s he was the prototype — he could strike with the best strikers; he could grapple with the best grapplers; his endurance was second to none. "
— describing UFC champion Frank Shamrock's early dominance [17]

The early years of the sport saw a wide variety of traditional styles - everything from sumo to kickboxing - but the continual evolution of the sport saw many styles prove ineffective, while others proved successful on their own. Frank Shamrock (born Frank Alisio Juarez III on December 8, 1972 in Santa Monica, California) is an American mixed martial arts fighter. ... For other uses, see Sumo (disambiguation). ... Kicking to left side Kickboxing refers to sport-fighting using kicks and punches and sometimes throws and bows representing a certain martial art or can be practiced for general fitness, or as a full-contact sport. ...


In the early 1990s, three styles stood out for their effectiveness in competition: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, amateur wrestling and shoot wrestling. This may be attributable in part to the grappling emphasis of the aforementioned styles, which were, perhaps due to the scarcity of mixed martial arts competitions prior to the early 90s, unkown to most practitioners of striking-based arts. Fighters who combined amateur wrestling with striking techniques found success in the standing portion of a fight, whilst Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu stylists had a distinct advantage on the ground: those unfamiliar with submission grappling proved to be unprepared to deal with its submission techniques. Shoot wrestling practitioners offered a balance of amateur wrestling ability and catch wrestling-based submissions, resulting in a well-rounded skillset. The shoot wrestlers were especially successful in Japan. As competitions became more and more common, those with a base in striking became more competitive as they acquainted themselves with takedowns and submission holds, leading to notable upsets against the then dominant grapplers. Subsequently, those from the varying grappling styles added striking techniques to their arsenal. This overall development of increased cross-training resulted in the fighters becoming increasingly multi-dimensional and well-rounded in their skills. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... FILA Greatest Wrestler of 20th Century (Greco-Roman) Alexander Karelin throws Olympian Jeff Blatnick with his Karelin Lift. Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling. ... Shootfighting Shoot wrestling is a general term that describes a range of hybrid fighting systems originating in Japan in the late 1970s, in close association with Japanese professional wrestling. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... A kickboxing match showing the typical kicking distance. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and forcing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Cross training also known as conditioning refers to training in different ways to improve overall performance. ...


Olympic recognition efforts

It was thought that Olympic recognition would be forthcoming for the 2004 Summer Olympics, held in Athens, under the banner of pankration. However, the International Olympic Committee was unconvinced that Greece could handle the total number of sports proposed. To placate the IOC, the organizers removed all new medal sports and pankration was excluded.[18] Archery competition at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ...


Rules

A fighter tapes his hands prior to putting gloves on.
A fighter tapes his hands prior to putting gloves on.

The rules for modern mixed martial arts competitions have change significantly since the early days of vale tudo and Japanese shoot wrestling and UFC 1 and even more from the historic style of pankration. As the knowledge about fighting techniques spread among fighters and spectators, it became clear that the original minimalist rule systems needed to be amended.[19] The main motivations for these rule changes were protection of the health of the fighters, the desire to shed the image of "barbaric, no rules, fighting-to-the-death" matches and be recognised as a sport. The rules for most mixed martial arts competitions have evolved since the early days of vale tudo. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Ultimate Fighting Championship (later renamed UFC 1: The Beginning) was the first mixed martial arts (MMA) event held by the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), occurring at the McNichols Sports Arena in Denver, Colorado on November 12, 1993. ...


Rules included the introduction of weight classes, as knowledge about submissions spread, with more fighters became well-versed in submission techniques and avoiding submissions, differences in weight became a substantial factor. Small, open-fingered, gloves were introduced to protect fists in punches, reduce the occurrence of cuts (and stoppages due to cuts) and encourage fighters to use their hands for striking, to enable more captivating matches and time limits were established to avoid long fights with little action as competitors conserved their strength, matches without time limits also complicated the airing of live events. Similar motivations produced the "stand up" rule, where the referee can stand fighters up if it is perceived both are resting on the ground or are not advancing toward a dominant position.[19] Mixed martial arts weight classes are weight classes that pertain to the sport of mixed martial arts. ...


Gloves were first mandatory in Japan's Shooto promotion and were later adopted by the UFC as it developed into a regulated sport. In the U.S., state athletic and boxing commissions have played a crucial role in the introduction of additional rules because they oversee MMA in similar way to boxing. Smaller shows may use more restrictive rules because they have less experienced fighters who are looking to acquire experience and exposure that could ultimately lead them to getting recruited into one of the larger, better paying promotions. In Japan and Europe, there is no regulating authority over competitions, so these organizations have greater freedom in rule development and event structure. Shooto logo ISC logo This article deals with the martial arts organization, for the baseball pitch, see gyroball. ...


Victory in a match is normally gained either by the judges' decision after an allotted amount of time has elapsed, a stoppage by the referee (for example if a competitor can not defend himself intelligently) or the fight doctor (due to an injury), a submission, by a competitor's cornerman throwing in the towel, or by knockout. A submission (depending on the context also referred to as a tap out or tapping out) is a combat sports term for yielding to the opponent, and hence resulting in an immediate defeat. ... A cornerman giving instructions. ... A boxer is knocked down and receives the 10-count. ...


Strategies

Mixed martial arts competition requires training in striking, wrestling, and submission fighting.

The techniques utilized in mixed martial arts competition generally fall into two categories: striking techniques (such as kicks, knees and punches) and grappling techniques (such as clinch holds, pinning holds, submission holds, sweeps, takedowns and throws). As mixed martial arts has no international sanctioning body, rules may vary between promotions. While the legality of some techniques (such as elbow strikes, headbutts and spinal locks) may vary, there is a near universal ban on techniques such as biting, strikes to the groin, eye-gouging, fish-hooking and small joint manipulation.[20][21][22] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2441x1231, 404 KB) Summary Author: Staff Sgt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2441x1231, 404 KB) Summary Author: Staff Sgt. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... Mark Mullen applies an armbar to Ernesto Martinez during the Open “Tap Out” Tournament. ... For other uses, see Kick (disambiguation). ... A knee (technically referred to as a knee strike) is a martial arts and combatives term for a strike with the knee. ... In the context of unarmed combat or melee, a punch is a thrusting blow, esp. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... A sweep (also known as a reversal) is a grappling technique used to advance from an inferior position to a neutral or dominant position. ... A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and forcing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. ... Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... A sideways Winiki elbow strike. ... The top combatant can attack with headbutts while being held in the bottom combatants guard. ... A spinal lock is a multiple joint lock applied to the spinal column, which is performed by forcing the spine beyond its normal ranges of motion. ... A bite is a wound received from the mouth (and in particular, the teeth) of an animal. ... The groin is the crease at the junction of the torso with the legs and the adjacent region that includes the external genitals. ... Eye-gouging using the thumb Eye-gouging is the act of pressing or tearing the eye using the fingers, other bodyparts, or instruments. ... Fish-hooking is the act of inserting fingers into the mouth, nostrils or other orifices of a person, with the intention of pulling and tearing the surrounding tissue. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Today, mixed martial artists must cross-train in a variety of styles to counter their opponent's strengths and remain effective in all the phases of combat. For instance, a stand-up fighter will have little opportunity to use their skills against a submission artist who has also trained take downs. Many traditional disciplines remain popular as a way for a fighter to improve aspects of their game. Cross training also known as conditioning refers to training in different ways to improve overall performance. ... A kickboxing match showing the typical kicking distance. ... Mark Mullen applies an armbar to Ernesto Martinez during the Open “Tap Out” Tournament. ... A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and forcing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. ...


Popular Disciplines

Some styles have been adapted from their traditional form, such as boxing stances which lack effective counters to leg kicks and takedowns, or judo techniques which must be adapted for No Gi competition. It is common for a fighter to train with multiple coaches of different styles or an organized fight team to improve various aspects of their game at once. Cardiovascular conditioning, speed drills, strength training and flexibility are also important aspects of an MMA fighter's training. A kickboxing match showing the typical kicking distance. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Kicking to left side Kickboxing refers to sport-fighting using kicks and punches and sometimes throws and bows representing a certain martial art or can be practiced for general fitness, or as a full-contact sport. ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... Full-contact karate is popular in the U.S.. Full contact karate has many different derivatives but two main fundamental styles. ... Footwork is a martial arts and combat sports term for the general usage of the legs and feet in stand-up fighting. ... A sideways Winiki elbow strike. ... For other uses, see Kick (disambiguation). ... A knee (technically referred to as a knee strike) is a martial arts and combatives term for a strike with the knee. ... In the context of unarmed combat or melee, a punch is a thrusting blow, esp. ... Clinch fighting is the part of stand-up fighting where the combatants are in a clinch, typically using a clinching hold. ... This article is about freestyle wrestling. ... This article is about Greco-Roman wrestling. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... A grappling position refers the relative positioning and holds of two combatants engaged in grappling. ... A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and forcing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. ... Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... Ground fighting taking place in a mixed martial arts bout. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Shootfighting Shoot wrestling is a general term that describes a range of hybrid fighting systems originating in Japan in the late 1970s, in close association with Japanese professional wrestling. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... These two judo practitioners are wearing judogi Judogi (柔道着 or 柔道衣) is the formal Japanese name for the traditional uniform used for Judo practice and competition. ... Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. ... Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, endurance and size of skeletal muscles. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


While mixed martial arts was initially practiced almost exclusively by competitive fighters, this is no longer the case. As the sport has become more mainstream and more widely taught, it has become accessible to wider range of practitioners of all ages. Proponents of this sort of training argue that it is safe for anyone, of any age, with varying levels of competitiveness.[23][24]


Hybrid Styles

The following terms describe hybrid styles a fighter may use, over the course of a fight, to achieve victory. While some fighters, such as BJ Penn or Fedor Emelianenko, can score victories by striking, ground-and-pound or submission, most fighters will rely on a smaller number of techniques while adopting a style that plays to their strengths. B.J. The Prodigy Penn (born December 12, 1978 in Hilo, Hawaii) is a professional mixed martial arts fighter. ... Fedor Emelianenko (IPA: , Russian: Федор Емельяненко, sometimes romanized as Fyodor Yemelyanenko) (born September 28, 1976) is a Ukrainian-born Russian heavyweight mixed martial artist and the last person to hold the PRIDE heavyweight championship. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ...

Stand-up fighting is the core of sprawl-and-brawl.
Stand-up fighting is the core of sprawl-and-brawl.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A kickboxing match showing the typical kicking distance. ...

Sprawl-and-brawl

Sprawl-and-brawl is a stand-up fighting tactic that consists of effective stand-up striking, while avoiding ground fighting, typically by using sprawls to defend against takedowns. A kickboxing match showing the typical kicking distance. ... Ground fighting taking place in a mixed martial arts bout. ... A sprawl is a martial arts and especially wrestling term for a defensive technique that is done in response to certain takedown attempts. ... A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and forcing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. ...


A sprawl-and-brawler is usually a boxer, kickboxer, Thai boxer or full contact karate fighter who has trained in wrestling to avoid takedowns to keep the fight standing. Often, these fighters will study submission wrestling to avoid being submitted, should they find themselves on the ground. This style can be deceptively different from traditional kickboxing styles, since sprawl-and-brawlers must adapt their techniques to incorporate takedown and ground fighting defense. Chuck Liddell and Mirko "Cro Cop" Filipović are examples of sprawl-and-brawl fighters. For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Kicking to left side Kickboxing is a generic term for a sporting martial art that, while similar to boxing, uses the feet as well as the hands for striking. ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... Full-contact karate is popular in the U.S.. Full contact karate has many different derivatives but two main fundamental styles. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... Mark Mullen applies an armbar to Ernesto Martinez during the Open “Tap Out” Tournament. ... A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and forcing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. ... Ground fighting taking place in a mixed martial arts bout. ... Charles David Chuck Liddell (born December 17, 1969), also known as The Iceman is an American mixed martial artist who fights for the Ultimate Fighting Championship. ... Mirko Filipović (born on September 10, 1974), often billed as Mirko Cro Cop, is a Croatian law enforcement officer turned kickboxer and mixed martial artist (MMA). ...


Clinch fighting

Clinch fighting and dirty boxing are tactics consisting of using a clinch hold to prevent the opponent from moving away into more distant striking range, while also attempting takedowns and striking the opponent using knees, stomps, elbows, and punches. The clinch is often utilized by wrestlers that have added in components of the striking game (typically boxing), and Muay Thai fighters. Two wrestlers clinching. ... A knee (technically referred to as a knee strike) is a martial arts and combatives term for a strike with the knee. ... A stomp (also referred to as a stamp) is a martial arts and combatives term for a downwards strike with the heel of the foot. ... A sideways Winiki elbow strike. ... Look up punch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ...


Wrestlers may use clinch fighting as a way to neutralize the superior striking skills of a stand-up fighter or to prevent takedowns by a superior ground fighter. The clinch of a Muay Thai fighter is often used to improve the accuracy of knees and elbows by physically controlling the position of the opponent. Randy Couture, Wanderlei Silva and Anderson Silva are examples of effective clinch fighters. For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... A knee (technically referred to as a knee strike) is a martial arts and combatives term for a strike with the knee. ... A sideways Winiki elbow strike. ... Randy Duane Couture (born June 22, 1963) is a mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter, Greco-Roman wrestler, and folkstyle wrestler. ... Wanderlei Cesar Silva, (born July 3, 1976 in Curitiba, Brazil) is a Brazilian mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter, who has competed in Japans PRIDE Fighting Championships and the American based Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). ... This article is about the mixed martial artist. ...


Ground-and-pound

Ground-and-pound in action
Ground-and-pound in action

Ground-and-pound is a ground fighting tactic consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw, obtaining a top position, and then striking the opponent, primarily with the fists. Ground-and-pound is also used as a precursor to attempting submission holds. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 637 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (720 × 678 pixel, file size: 799 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source: cropped from original image on Flickr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 637 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (720 × 678 pixel, file size: 799 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source: cropped from original image on Flickr. ... A grappling position refers the relative positioning and holds of two combatants engaged in grappling. ...


This style is used by wrestlers or other fighters well-versed in submission defense and skilled at takedowns. They take the fight to the ground, maintain a grappling position, and strike until their opponent submits or is knocked out. Although not a traditional style of striking (it was first demonstrated as an effective technique by UFC and PRIDE champion, Mark Coleman), the effectiveness and reliability of ground-and-pound has made it a popular tactic. Today, strikes on the ground are an essential part of a fighter's training. Fedor Emelianenko and Tito Ortiz are examples of effective ground-and-pound fighters. A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and forcing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. ... A grappling position refers the relative positioning and holds of two combatants engaged in grappling. ... A submission (depending on the context also referred to as a tap out or tapping out) is a combat sports term for yielding to the opponent, and hence resulting in an immediate defeat. ... A boxer is knocked down and receives the 10-count. ... UFC is a TLA that can stand for Ultimate Fighting Championship Umeå FC This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the emotion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fedor Emelianenko (IPA: , Russian: Федор Емельяненко, sometimes romanized as Fyodor Yemelyanenko) (born September 28, 1976) is a Ukrainian-born Russian heavyweight mixed martial artist and the last person to hold the PRIDE heavyweight championship. ... Jacob Christopher Tito Ortiz aka The Huntington Beach Bad Boy (born January 23, 1975) is an American mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter from Huntington Beach, California. ...


Submission grappling

U.S. Army Combatives instructor Matt Larsen applies a choke from the mount position.
U.S. Army Combatives instructor Matt Larsen applies a choke from the mount position.

Apart from being a general martial arts term, submission grappling is also a reference to the ground fighting tactic consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw and then applying a submission hold, forcing the opponent to submit. While grapplers will often work to attain dominant position, some may be more comfortable fighting from other positions. If a grappler finds themselves unable to force a takedown, they may resort to pulling guard, whereby they physically pull their opponent into a dominant position on the ground, then attempting to sweep them. Image File history File links ArmyMilCombativesChokehold. ... Image File history File links ArmyMilCombativesChokehold. ... Matt Larsen demonstrating a straight ankle lock Matt Larsen is an American Combatives instructor known as The Father of Modern Combatives for his complete rewrite of the United States Armys combatives doctrine and establishing the US Army Combatives School. ... The lateral vascular neck restraint is a very potent chokehold. ... A mount is a position in grappling, where one combatant sits on the chest of another. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... A submission (depending on the context also referred to as a tap out or tapping out) is a combat sports term for yielding to the opponent, and hence resulting in an immediate defeat. ... A grappling position refers the relative positioning and holds of two combatants engaged in grappling. ... A type of open guard, as shown in a USMC manual combatives manual. ...


Submissions are an essential part of many disciplines, most notably catch wrestling, judo, Sambo, pankration, Army Combatives and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. Josh Barnett, BJ Penn, and the brothers Antônio Rodrigo and Antônio Rogério Nogueira are examples of submission grapplers. Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... Combatives FM 21-150 Figure 4-1, Vital Targets. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Joshua L. Josh Barnett (born November 10, 1977, in Seattle, Washington) is an American heavyweight mixed martial arts fighter and a professional wrestler. ... B.J. The Prodigy Penn (born December 12, 1978 in Hilo, Hawaii) is a professional mixed martial arts fighter. ...


The Abu Dhabi Combat Club and FILA Grappling World Wrestling Games are examples of submission grappling tournaments. The ADCC (Abu Dhabi Combat Club) Submission Wrestling World Championship was created by Sheik Tahnoon Bin Zayed Al Nayan, son of Sheik Zayed, former president of the United Arab Emirates, on suggestion of Renzo and Royler Gracie. ... The International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles, also known in French as Fédération Internationale des Luttes Associées (FILA), is an international wrestling federation that holds events around the world. ...


Lay-and-pray

Lay-and-pray is a pejorative term for a strategy whereby a fighter can control their opponent on the ground, but is unable to mount an effective offense.[25] They simply seek to negate the offense of their opponent, "praying" for a decision victory. In some MMA promotions, penalties may be imposed for lay-and-pray techniques if the referee determines that a fighter is stalling. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ...


Safety

While competition in the sport is occasionally depicted as brutal by the media,[26] there had never been a death or crippling injury in a sanctioned event in North America[27] until the death of Sam Vasquez on November 30, 2007.[28] Vasquez collapsed shortly after being knocked out by Vince Libardi in the third round of an October 20, 2007 fight at the Toyota Center in Houston, Texas.[29] Vasquez had two separate surgeries to remove blood clots from his brain, and shortly after the second operation suffered a major stroke and never regained consciousness.[28] While questions have been asked about the Vasquez's health before his final bout no firm indications of pre-existing problems have yet surfaced. Since he was age 35, he would have had to undergo extensive pre-fight medical screening in order to obtain a license to compete in Texas.[28] Sam Vasquez (1972 – November 30, 2007) was an American Mixed Martial Arts Fighter. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The interior of the arena, during an ice hockey game The Toyota Center is an indoor arena located at 1510 Polk Street in Downtown Houston, Texas. ... Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


The only other verified fatality in MMA competition is the 1998 death of Douglas Dedge in an unsanctioned fight in Ukraine. There are unconfirmed reports that Dedge had a pre-existing medical condition.[30] Douglas Dedge (1966–March 18, 1998) was an American mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter who became the first & so far only recorded competitor to be fatally injured in an MMA fight, at an event in the Ukraine. ...


A study by Johns Hopkins University concluded, "the overall injury rate [excluding injury to the brain] in MMA competitions is now similar to other combat sports [involving striking], including boxing. Knockout rates are lower in MMA competitions than in boxing. This suggests a reduced risk of traumatic brain injury in MMA competitions when compared to other events involving striking."[31] The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ...


See also

This is a list of notable professional male mixed martial arts fighters in alphabetical order. ... With Mixed Martial Arts still being so new a sport and even fewer women pursueing this highly athletic contest, the ones who are have found it difficult getting a foot in the MMA federations. ... Freestyle Fighting is a kind of martial art that incorporates various styles and forms of martial arts. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hill, John. "Lincoln takes up ultimate fighting", Projo.com, May 8, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-08. 
  2. ^ Plotz, David. "Fight Clubbed", Slate, November 16, 1997. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. 
  3. ^ McFarland, Matt. "Ultimate Fighting wants to come to NY", WNYT.com, May 06, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-06. 
  4. ^ a b Trembow, Ivan (March 1, 2007). UFC PPV Revenue Tops $200 Million in 2006. MMA Weekly. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  5. ^ a b Walter, Donald (December 8, 2003). Mixed Martial arts: Ultimate Sport, or Ultimately Illegal?. Grapple Arts. Retrieved on 2006-02-25.
  6. ^ a b Willoughby, David P. (1970). The Super Athletes. A.S. Barnes & Co., Inc, 376-380. ISBN 0-498-06651-7. 
  7. ^ a b Noble, Graham (March 2001). An Introduction to E. W. Barton-Wright (1860-1951) and the Eclectic Art of Bartitsu. Journal of Manly Arts. Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
  8. ^ Journal of Combative Sport: Jujitsu versus Boxing. Journal of Combative Sport. Retrieved on 2008-05-07.
  9. ^ "Fight Clubbed: Ultimate fighting ought to be a great American sport. Instead, cable companies, Sen. John McCain, and a squeamish public are killing it." Slate, Nov. 17, 1999.
  10. ^ Fight Finder - UFC 1 The Beginning. Sherdog.com.
  11. ^ Peligro, Kid (2003). The Gracie Way: An Illustrated History of the World's Greatest Martial Arts Family. Invisible Cities Press, 79-84. ISBN 1-931229-28-7. 
  12. ^ What is PRIDE?. PRIDE. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  13. ^ Wickert, Marc. 2004. Dana White and the future of UFC. kucklepit.com. See Wikiquotes for the text.
  14. ^ Doyle, Dave (April 4, 2000). UFC scores TKO on its business rival. FOX Sports, MSN. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  15. ^ Source: UFC buys Pride for less than $70M. Associated Press, ESPN (March 27, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-15. "This is really going to change the face of MMA. Literally creating a sport that could be as big around the world as soccer. I liken it somewhat to when the NFC and AFC came together to create the NFL" —Lorenzo Fertitta, one of the UFC's majority owners
  16. ^ UFC 40: Vendetta (PPV). Zuffa (November 22, 2002). Event occurs at 1:00 into Chuck Liddell vs. Renato Sobral. "The evolution of martial arts since 1993, since the UFC came around, martial arts have evolved more than they have in the last 700 years. We know exactly now what works in a real live situation with two warriors fighting. For a long time that was just speculation." Joe Rogan
  17. ^ Sloan, Mike (June 22, 2007). "No Win" Situation is Must Win for Shamrock. Sherdog, ESPN. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  18. ^ Townsley, John. Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games Launch Pad. Invest in Greece. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  19. ^ a b Krauss, Erich (1 Dec 2004). Warriors of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. U.S.: Citadel Press Inc.,. ISBN 0806526572. 
  20. ^ Mixed Martial arts Unified Rules of Conduct. New Jersey State Athletic Control Board (September 5, 2002). Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
  21. ^ Nevada Administrative Code, Chapter 467, Unarmed Combat. Nevada State Athletic Commission (August 11, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
  22. ^ Davis, Gray (2001). Laws & Regulations Governing Boxing & Martial arts in California. California State Athletic Commission. Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
  23. ^ Green, Andrew (December 20, 2005). Kids in MMA. Innovative Martial arts. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  24. ^ Gutierrez, Luis. JKD and Children. One Dragon Martial arts. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  25. ^ Leben, an Everett fighter, is top contender in booming sport. Seattle Post-Intelligencer (July 27, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  26. ^ Telander, Rick (October 11, 2006). Sweet science morphing into Brutality TV (Reprint). Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  27. ^ Doyle, Dave (October 11, 2006). MMA's alleged brutality, and more. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  28. ^ a b c Update: Sam Vasquez Dead at 35. Sherdog.com (2007-12-02). Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  29. ^ Sievert, Steve (2007-11-26). Mixed Martial Arts Notebook: Vasquez in toughest fight. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  30. ^ Iole, Kevin. "Pain, lots of blood symbols of MMA", Las Vegas Review-Journal, August 20, 2006, 4J. Retrieved on 2007-01-08. 
  31. ^ Incidence of Injury in Professional Mixed Martial Arts Competitions - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, study published in the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, July 2006.

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May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For Fox Sports in Australia see Fox Sports (Australia). ... For other uses, see MSN (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting and producing sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UFC 40: Vendetta was a mixed martial arts event held by the Ultimate Fighting Championship on November 22, 2002, at the MGM Grand Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Charles David Chuck Liddell (born December 17, 1969), also known as The Iceman is an American mixed martial artist who fights for the Ultimate Fighting Championship. ... Renato (IPA: ) Babalu Da Cunha Sobral (born September 7, 1975 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is a mixed martial arts fighter from Brazil, who has previously fought in the Ultimate Fighting Championship. ... Joe Rogan performing at a comedy club after UFC 70. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Sherdog is the largest American website devoted to the sport of mixed martial arts. ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting and producing sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nevada State Athletic Commission (NSAC) regulates all contests and exhibitions of unarmed combat within the state of Nevada, including licensure and supervision of promoters, boxers, professional wrestlers, kickboxers, mixed martial arts fighters, seconds, ring officials, managers, and matchmakers. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Graham Davis Jr. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily newspaper published in Chicago. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Las Vegas Review-Journal, also known as The R-J, is published in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nevada State Athletic Commission (NSAC) regulates all contests and exhibitions of unarmed combat within the state of Nevada, including licensure and supervision of promoters, boxers, professional wrestlers, kickboxers, mixed martial arts fighters, seconds, ring officials, managers, and matchmakers. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article covers the organization itself. ... World Extreme Cagefighting is an American mixed martial arts (MMA) promotion. ... Elite Xtreme Combat, also known as EliteXC, is a U.S.-based mixed martial arts (MMA) organization. ... King of the Cage (or KOTC) is a mixed martial arts (MMA) organization based in the United States that was created in 1998 by owner Terry Trebilcock. ... ICON Sport, formerly known as SUPERBRAWL Icon Sport, is a mixed martial arts (MMA) organization based in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... The International Fight League is an American mixed martial arts (MMA) promotion billed as the worlds first MMA league. ... Strikeforce (or Strikeforce Fighting Championship) is an American professional kickboxing and mixed martial arts promotion based in San Jose, California. ... Rumble on the Rock is a series of mixed martial arts events held in Hawaii by Rumble World Entertainment. ... Bet may refer to: Look up bet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Affliction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Current TKO Logo TKO Major League MMA is a Canadian mixed martial arts (MMA) organisation, the biggest MMA promotion in Canada. ... Elite Fighting Championship is a mixed martial arts (MMA) organization based in Vancouver, BC, Canada. ... Mixed Fighting Championship is a U.S.-based mixed martial arts (MMA) organization. ... Combate Extremo Logo Combate Extremo is an Mexican mixed martial arts (MMA) promotion. ... Freestyle Fighting Championship Freestyle Fighting Championship is a Mixed Martial Arts tournament held in the United States and started in Biloxi Mississippi in 2002. ... Art of War Undisputed Arena Fighting Championship (Art of War) is a U.S.-based mixed martial arts (MMA) organization. ... International Fighting Championships is an American mixed martial arts organization, based in Tuolumne City, California. ... ZST is a Japan-based mixed martial arts organization. ... Look up deep in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Spirit Martial Challange(Spirit MC) is uprising South Korean mixed martial arts promotion operated by Entlian Corp. ... Pancrase Hybrid Wrestling is a mixed martial arts organization founded in Japan in 1993 by Masakatsu Funaki and Minoru Suzuki. ... Cage Force is a mixed martial arts (MMA) promotion in Japan, operated by Greatest Common Multiple (GCM). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Smackgirl is a Japanese mixed martial arts promotion focused solely on female fighters. ... Cage Rage is an United Kingdom-based mixed martial arts organization first premiered on September 7, 2002 in London. ... Promotional poster for Finnfight 6. ... Cage Fury Fighting Championships (GFFC) is an American mixed martial arts (MMA) promotion. ... PRIDE Fighting Championships (PRIDE or PRIDE FC for short) was a mixed martial arts organization based in Japan. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... RINGS was a Japanese professional wrestling promotion from 1991 to 2002. ... The World Fighting Alliance was a mixed martial arts organization based in the United States. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... HEROS is a Japanese mixed martial arts promotion operated by Fighting and Entertainment Group, the parent entity behind kickboxing organization K-1. ... BodogFight is a reality television series and mixed martial arts competition, originating from Costa Rica, and created and produced by entertainment mogul Calvin Ayre, and his Bodog. ... Shooto logo ISC logo This article deals with the martial arts organization, for the baseball pitch, see gyroball. ... The International Sport Combat Federation (ISCF) is a sanctioning body for the sport of mixed martial arts. ... The logo of the Worldwide Cage Network The World Wide Cage Network (WWCN) is a network of mixed martial arts promotions from around the world. ... North American Boxing Council The NABC [ http://www. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Bājíquán (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally eight extremes fist; Japanese: , Hakkyokuken) is a Chinese martial art that features explosive, short range power and is famous for its elbow strikes. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Angkorian warriors as depicted on bas reliefs at Angkor Wat Bokator/Boxkator, or more formally, Labok Katao(which means wielding a wooden stick to fight lions) (ល្បុក្កតោ), is an ancient Khmer martial art said to be the predecessor of all Southeast Asian kickboxing styles. ... Capoeira (IPA: ,Tupi-Guarani word for - clear area) is a Brazilian blend of martial art, game, and dance originated in Brazil, from the regions known as Bahia, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. ... This article is about the Fujian style of White Crane. ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see kempo (disambiguation). ... Kicking to left side Kickboxing refers to sport-fighting using kicks and punches and sometimes throws and bows representing a certain martial art or can be practiced for general fitness, or as a full-contact sport. ... BAMA LETHWEI Lethwei or Lethawae (Read as Let-whae, but quickly) ; also known as Burmese Boxing and Myanmar Traditional Boxing, is a form of kickboxing which originated in Myanmar (Burma). ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... Pradal Serey (; English: Khmer Boxing) is the name of the centuries old kickboxing martial arts of Cambodia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Savate (pronounced ), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French Kickboxing or French Footfighting, is a French martial art which uses both the hands and feet as weapons and combines elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. ... SIKARAN is a form of Philippine Martial Arts whose history dates back to the early 1500s before the Spaniards came, It is the art of foot-fighting where the farmers use their strong legs to drive the partners outside the designated line (pitak). ... This article is about a martial art forms practiced throughout the Malay Archipelago. ... Subak, (or Subakhi, Subak-chigi) is a Korean traditional martial art. ... Ever since 1669, when Huang Zongxi first described Chinese martial arts in terms of a Shaolin or external school versus a Wudang or internal school,[1] Shaolin has been used as a synonym for external Chinese martial arts regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any... Taekyon, or Taekkyon is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak. ... Taekwondo (태권도; IPA: ) is a Korean martial art and Chinese combat sport. ... Taido ( 躰道 / taidō ) is a Japanese martial arts or budo created in 1965 by Seiken Shukumine (1925 - 2001). ... For the 1994 Hong Kong film, see Wing Chun (film). ... WingTsunâ„¢, often shortened to WT, is a particular school of the Wing Chun style of Kung Fu developed by a student of Grandmaster Yip Man named Leung Ting. ... Like other southern Chinese martial arts, Choy Lei Fut features Five Animal techniques based on the tiger, dragon, crane, leopard, and snake but is distinguished from other southern styles by long, swinging, circular movements and twisting body motions more indicative of northern styles. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Aikido ) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ... Kinomichi, calligraphy by Masamichi Noro Kinomichi 氣之道 is a Martial art (budo 武道 in Japanese ), founded by Masamichi Noro 野呂昌道 in Paris, France, in 1979. ... Kurash is the native ancient type of upright jacket wrestling practiced in Uzbekistan. ... Mallayuddha (literally wrestling combat)[1] is the martial art of classical Indian wrestling. ... Mongolian wrestling is a traditional Mongolian sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries. ... Varzesh-e Pahlavani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e pahlavānÄ« ورزش پهلوانی) meaning the Sport of the Heroes, also known as Varzesh-e Bastani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e bāstnÄ« ورزش باستانی), meaning the Sport of the Ancients, is a traditional discipline of gymnastics and wrestling of Iran, which was originally an academy of physical training for... Pehlwani Modern wrestling, or Pehlwani , is a synthesis of an indigenous Aryan form of wrestling that dates back at least to the 5th century BC [1] and a Persian form of wrestling brought into South Asia by the Mughals. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the modern Chinese term for Chinese and Mongolian wrestling. ... Image:Ssireum-1. ... For other uses, see Sumo (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... YaÄŸlı GüreÅŸ (IPA:) is the Turkish national sport. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Battōjutsu ) is a Japanese term meaning techniques for drawing a sword. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Gatka (Punjabi: , ) is a traditional Sikh martial art. ... Haidong Gumdo, also spelled Haedong Kumdo, is a name coined around 1982 and used for several Korean martial art organizations that use swords. ... Hojōjutsu (捕縄術) or Nawajutsu, (縄術) is the traditional Japanese martial skill of restraining a person using cord or rope. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iaido (居合道 iaidō), also sometimes called iaijutsu (居合術 iaijutsu) or battojutsu (抜刀術 battōjutsu) is the art of drawing the katana, cutting down the opponent, flipping blood from the blade, and then re-sheathing the katana in one fluid movement. ... Jōdō ), meaning the way of the jō, or jōjutsu ) is a Japanese martial art using short staves called jō. The art is similar to bōjutsu, and is strongly focused upon defense against the Japanese sword. ... Jogo do Pau. ... JÅ«kendō ) is the Japanese martial art of bayonet fighting. ... Juttejutsu is the Japanese martial art of using a jitte or jutte. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... Kenjutsu ) is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese sword (katana). ... This article contains a trivia section. ... KyÅ«jutsu ) is the traditional Japanese martial art of wielding a bow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Naginatajutsu (なぎなた術, 長刀術 or 薙刀術) is the Japanese Martial art of wielding the naginata, a weapon resembling the medieval European glaive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shurikenjutsu ) is a general term describing the traditional Japanese martial arts of throwing shuriken, which are small, hand-held weapons such as metal spikes (bo shuriken), circular plates of metal known as hira shuriken, and knives (tantō). Shuriken-jutsu was usually taught among the sogo-bugei, or comprehensive martial arts... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sōjutsu (槍術, sometimes incorrectly read as yarijutsu) is the art of fighting with the Japanese spear, yari (槍). Sōjutsu is typically only a single component of curriculum in comprehensive Japanese koryu schools; for example Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu includes spear fighting techniques. ... Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts. ... BāguàzhÇŽng is one of the major internal (a. ... the Tiger Defense Bando or animal system is the ancient art of self-defense from Burma. ... Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self defence method originally developed in England during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Bujinkan (武神館) is a martial arts organization practicing the art commonly referred to as Bujinkan Budō Taijutsu (武神館武道体術). The art is widely considered to be the last legitimate ninpo, or ninja, martial art, particularly because of the influence of Togakure ryu. ... Freestyle Fighting is a kind of martial art that incorporates various styles and forms of martial arts. ... This article is about Martial art. ... Hwa Rang Do is a Korean martial art that was created in its modern form by Joo Bang Lee and his brother, Joo Sang Lee. ... Jeet Kune Do (Chinese: 截拳道 Cantonese: Jitkyùndou Pinyin: Jiéquándào, lit. ... Kajukenbo is a hybrid martial art that combines karate, judo, jujutsu, kenpo, and kung fu. ... Kalarippayattu (IPA: [kaÉ­aɾipːajatɨ̆], Malayalam: കളരിപയറ്റ്) is a Dravidian martial art practised in Kerala and contiguous parts of neighboring Tamil Nadu of Southern India. ... Krav Maga (Hebrew קרב מגע: contact combat) is a martial art, at first developed in Czechoslovakia in the 1930s. ... Kuk Sool Won is a Korean martial arts system founded by In Hyuk Suh in 1958. ... MCMAP logo The Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) is a combat system developed by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and close combat techniques with morale and team-building functions and instruction in what the Marine Corps calls the Warrior Ethos.[1... Northern Praying Mantis (Chinese: ; pinyin: tánglángquán; literally praying mantis fist) is a style of Chinese martial arts, sometimes called Shandong Praying Mantis after its province of origin. ... This article is about a Japanese martial art. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... This article is about martial art forms practiced in Indonesia. ... The leitai of the 2004 China National Sanda Championships Sanshou (Chinese: 散手, lit. ... Shidokan karate is sometimes described as the triathlon of Martial Arts, as it encompasses knockdown (otherwise known as bare knuckle) karate, Thai kick-boxing, and grappling. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... ISFA logo Shootfighting is a combat sport and martial art, with competitions governed by the International Shootfighting Association (ISFA). ... Shorinji Kempo (少林寺拳法 Shōrinji Kenpō -- note that the World Shorinji Kempo Organization prefers the Romanization kempo to kenpo) is a martial art form of Kempo that was invented by Doshin So (å®— 道臣, 1911-1980) in 1947, who incorporated Japanese Zen Buddhism into the fighting style. ... For other uses, see Systema (disambiguation). ... Tai chi chuan (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: tai4 chi2 chüan2) is an internal Chinese martial art. ... Vajra Mushti (or Vajra Mukti)/Diamond Fist is one of the oldest martial arts of India . ... Vovinam is a type of Vietnamese martial arts. ... Xingyiquan is one of the three major internal Chinese martial arts—the other two being Tai Chi Chüan and Baguazhang—and is characterised by aggressive, seemingly linear movements and explosive power. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mixed Martial Arts (1235 words)
Mixed Martial Arts is both a style and not a style simultaneously.
By far the most common addition to street-oriented MMA is Filipino martial art (FMA) training, due to its emphasis on, and practical use of weaponry, primarily the stick and knife.
Examples of Street MMA are the Dog Brothers style of martial arts sparring (full-contact stickfighting with limited to no protective gear and real sticks), Roy Harris' school in San Diego, CA, and Frank Benn's school in Austin, TX.
World Kickboxing Association - MMA Rules (1963 words)
All contests and exhibitions of mixed martial arts must be conducted under the official rules of the World Kickboxing Association (WKA) and be in compliance of all State and Federal regulations.
Mixed martial arts contests and exhibitions may be held in a ring or in a fenced area.
An unarmed combatant may not be declared the winner of a contest or exhibition of mixed martial arts on the basis of his claim that his opponent fouled him by hitting him in the groin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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