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Encyclopedia > Mitra (Vedic)

This article is about the Vedic deity Mitra. For other divinities with related names, see the general article Mitra. The adjective Vedic may refer to The Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts. ... Relief from Taq-i Bostan in Kermanshah, Iran, showing Ardashir II of Sassanid empire at the center receiving his crown from Ahura Mazda. ...

This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...
Mitra
God of the oath, loyalty and friendship
Devanagari: मित्र
Sanskrit Transliteration: mitráḥ
Affiliation: Deva


Mitra (Sanskrit Mitráḥ) was an important divinity of Indic culture, descended, together with the Zoroastrian yazata Mithra, from a common Proto-Indo-Iranian deity *Mitras, a god of the oath. Image File history File links Created by me. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia. ... An oath (from Old Saxon eoth) is either a promise or a statement of fact calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually a god, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact. ... Loyalty is faithfulness or devotion to a person or cause. ... Deva (देव in Devanagari script, pronounced as dévÉ™) is the Sanskrit word for god, deity. It can be variously interpreted as a spirit, demi-god, celestial being, angel, deity or any supernatural being of high excellence. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatama Gandhi and a Rajasthani tribesman The Indo-Aryans are the ethno-linguistic descendents of the Indic branch of the Indo-Iranians. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... In Zoroastrianism, the yazatas are supernatural beings created by Ahura Mazda to help him fight the evil forces of Ahriman and keep the world in order. ... Metal Band from the UK that no one cares about. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... An oath (from Old Saxon eoth) is either a promise or a statement of fact calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually a god, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact. ...

Contents


Etymology

The Indo-Iranian word *mitra- could mean either "covenant, contract, oath, or treaty", or "friend". A general meaning of "alliance" might adequately explain both alternatives. The second sense tends to be emphasized in Indic sources, the first sense in Iranian. The word is from a root mi- "to bind", with the "tool suffix" -tra- (compare man-tra-), a contract is thus described as a "means of binding" (compare Ishara). In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Ishara is the Hittite word for treaty, binding promise, also personified as a goddess of the oath. ...


Early history

The first extant record of Mitra is in the inscribed peace treaty between Hittites and the Hurrian kingdom of the Mitanni in the area southeast of Lake Van, c. 1400 BC. There Mitra appears as one of five deities invoked as witnesses and keepers of the pact, with gods whose names are equivalent to the Vedic Varuna, Indra and the twin horsemen, the Nasatyas, all of whom the rulers of the Mitanni apparently worshipped. (Campbell, 1964 p 256). Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Syria during the later 2nd millennium BC. The name was later used as a geographical term for the area between the Khabur and Euphrates rivers in Neo-Assyrian times. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: Վանա լիճ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... (Redirected from 1400 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC - 1400s BC - 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC Events and Trends Palace of Minos destroyed by fire (1400 BC) Several board... This article is about the god. ... Indra is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... The Ashvins ( possessor of horses, horse tamer, cavalier, dual ) are divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda, sons of Saranya, a goddess of the dawn and wife of either Surya or Vivasvat. ...


In the Vedas

Vedic Mitra is the patron divinity of honesty, friendship, contracts and meetings. He is a prominent deity of the Rigveda distinguished by a relationship to Varuna, the protector of rta. Together with Varuna, he counted among the Adityas, a group of solar deities. They are the supreme keepers of order and gods of the law. The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns counted among the four Hindu religious texts known as the Vedas. ... This article is about the god. ... RTA is a TLA that could mean: Chicagos Regional Transportation Authority (AAR reporting mark RTA) Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority Road Traffic Accident, see car accident Roads and Traffic Authority, in New South Wales, Australia Renal Tubular Acidosis Riverside Transit Agency, in Riverside County, California Rewriting Techniques and Applications... Who dare interfer in my wrk# In Hinduism, the Adityas are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kasyapa. ... The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... Law (from the late Old English lagu of probable North Germanic origin) in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, forbid or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, intended to provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide...


Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the oath, often twinned or identified as Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound). In the Vedic hymns, Mitra is often invoked together with Varuna, so that the two are combined in a dvandva as Mitra-Varuna. Varuna is lord of the cosmic rhythm of the celestial spheres, while Mitra brings forth the light at dawn, which was covered by Varuna. Mitra together with Varuna is the most prominent Asura, and the chief of the Adityas, in the Rigveda. Relief from Taq-i Bostan in Kermanshah, Iran, showing Ardashir II of Sassanid empire at the center receiving his crown from Ahura Mazda. ... An oath (from Old Saxon eoth) is either a promise or a statement of fact calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually a god, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact. ... A dvandva or copulative or coordinative compound refers to two or more objects that could be connected in sense by the conjunction and. Dvandvas are common in some languages such as Sanskrit, where the term originates, and Japanese, but less common in English (The term is not often found in... The Vedas (Sanskrit वेद) are a corpus of ancient Indo-Aryan religious literature associated with the Vedic civilisation and are considered by adherents of Hinduism to be revealed knowledge. ... This article is about the god. ... A dvandva or copulative or coordinative compound refers to two or more objects that could be connected in sense by the conjunction and. Dvandvas are common in some languages such as Sanskrit, where the term originates, and Japanese, but less common in English (The term is not often found in... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... In Hinduism, the Adityas are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kasyapa. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns counted among the four Hindu religious texts known as the Vedas. ...


The pairing with Varuna, a god unknown in Iranian religion, is very strong already in the Rigveda, which has few hymns where Mitra is mentioned without Varuna. RV 3.59 is the only hymn dedicated to Mitra exclusively, where he is lauded as a god of order and stability and as a giver of laws (2b, vrata), the sustainer of mankind (6a, carani-dhrt, literally "of cultivators", said also of Indra in 3.37.4c) and of all gods (8c, devān vishvān). The third Mandala of the Rigveda has 62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... Indra is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... The word Visvadevas means Lords of the Universe or All Gods. The term is used to address the various gods as a whole. ...

3.59.1 Mitra, when speaking, stirreth men to labour: Mitra sustaineth both the earth and heaven.
Mitra beholdeth men with eyes that close not. To Mitra bring, with holy oil, oblation. (trans. Griffith)

Rigvedic hymns to Mitra-Varuna are RV 1.136, 137, 151-153, RV 5.62-72, RV 6.67, RV 7.60-66, RV 8.25 and RV 10.132. The first Mandala (book) of the Rigveda has 191 hymns. ... The fifth Mandala of the Rigveda has 87 hymns. ... The sixth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 75 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... The seventh Mandala of the Rigveda has 104 hymns. ... The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns. ... The tenth Mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns, to Agni and other gods. ...


Where Mitra appears not paired with Varuna, it is often for the purpose of comparison, where other gods are lauded as being "like Mitra", without the hymn being addressed to Mitra himself (Indra 1.129.10, 10.22.1-2 etc.; Agni 1.38.13 etc.; Soma 1.91.3; Vishnu 1.156.1). Indra is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... Agni is a Hindu deity. ... Soma (Sanskrit), or Haoma (Avestan) (from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-) was a ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the later Vedic and greater Persian cultures. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ...


In the Shatapatha Brahmana, Mitravaruna is analyzed as "the Counsel and the Power" — Mitra being the priesthood, Varuna the royal power. As Joseph Campbell remarked, "Both are said to have a thousand eyes. Both are active foreground aspects of the light or solar force at play in time. Both renew the world by their deed." Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Counterparts of Mitra in other religions

See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... In Zoroastrianism, the yazatas are supernatural beings created by Ahura Mazda to help him fight the evil forces of Ahriman and keep the world in order. ... Metal Band from the UK that no one cares about. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Mithras and the Bull: fresco from the mithraeum at Marino, Italy, (3rd century) Mithras was the central savior god of Mithraism, a syncretic Hellenistic mystery religion of male initiates that developed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and was practiced in the Roman Empire from... Mithra and the Bull: This fresco from the Mithraeum at Marino, Italy (3rd century) shows the tauroctony and the celestial lining of Mithras cape Mithraism (Persian:آيين مهر Āyīn-e Mehr) was an ancient mystery religion prominent from the 1st century BCE to the 5th century CE. It was based on...

References

  • Dumézil, Georges (1990). Mitra-Varuna: An Essay on Two Indo-European Representations of Sovereignty. Cambridge: Zone Books. ISBN 0942299132.
  • Campbell, Joseph (1964). Occidental Mythology: The Masks of God. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 0140043063.

Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

See also


The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... This article is about the god. ...

Hinduism | Hindu mythology | Itihasa
Male Deities: Brahma | Vishnu | Shiva | Rama | Krishna | Ganesha | Subrahmanya | Venkateshwara | Vitthala | Indra | Surya | more...
Female Deities: Gayatri | Saraswati | Lakshmi | Parvati | Dakshayani | Durga | Shakti | Kali | Sita | Vaishno Devi | Radha | more...
Texts: Vedas | Upanishads | Puranas | Ramayana | Mahabharata
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