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Encyclopedia > Mitochondrial Eve

Mitochondrial Eve (mt-mrca) is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for all living humans. Passed down from mothers to offspring for over a hundred thousand years, her mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is now found in all living humans: every mtDNA in every living person is derived from hers. Mitochondrial Eve is the female counterpart of the Y-chromosomal Adam, the patrilineal most recent common ancestor. Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ... Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ...


She is believed to have lived about 140,000 years ago in what is now Ethiopia, Kenya or Tanzania. The time she lived is calculated based on the molecular clock technique of correlating elapsed time with observed genetic drift. The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ...


Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common ancestor of all humans via the mitochondrial DNA pathway, not the unqualified MRCA of all humanity. All living humans can trace their ancestry back to the MRCA via at least one of their parents, but Mitochondrial Eve can only be reached via the maternal line. Therefore, she necessarily lived much longer ago than the MRCA of all humanity.


The existence of Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam does not imply the existence of population bottleneck or first couple. They co-existed with a large human population. Some of these contemporaries have no living descendants today, and others are ancestors of all people alive today. No contemporary of Mitochondrial Eve is an ancestor of only a subset of people alive today, because she lived much longer ago than the identical ancestors point. A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ...

Contents

Matrilineal descent

Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all humans via the mitochondrial DNA pathway. In other words, she is the MRCA found when ancestry of all living humans is traced back in time, following only the maternal lineage. Mitochondrial DNA pathway is equivalent to maternal lineage, because Mitochondrial DNA is only passed down from mother to child, never father to child.[1] The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ...


To find the Mitochondrial Eve of all humans living today, one can start by listing all individuals alive today. For every individual (males and females), trace a line from the individual to his/her mother. Then continue those lines from each of those mothers to their mothers, and so on, effectively tracing a family tree backward in time based purely on mitochondrial lineages. Going back through time these mitochondrial lineages will converge when two or more women have the same mother. The further back in time one goes, the fewer mitochondrial ancestors of living humans there will be, until only one is left. This is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor of all humans alive today, i.e. Mitochondrial Eve. A family tree is generally the totality of ones ancestors represented as a tree structure, or more specifically, a chart used in genealogy. ...


It is possible to draw the same matrilineal tree by starting with all contemporary human females of Mitochondrial Eve. Some of these women may have died childless. Others left only male children. For the rest who became mothers with at least one daughter, one can trace a line forward in time connecting them to their daughters. As the forward lineages progress in time, more and more lineage lines become extinct, because the last female in the line dies childless or left no female children. Eventually, only one single lineage remains which includes all mothers alive today and their male and female children.


Misconceptions

Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor, not the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all humans. The MRCA's offspring have led to all living humans via sons and daughters, but Mitochondrial Eve must be traced only through female lineages, so she is estimated to have lived much longer ago than the MRCA. While Mitochondrial Eve is thought to have been living around 140,000 years ago, according to probabilistic studies,[2] the MRCA could have been living as late as 3,000 years ago.[3] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ...


Allan Wilson's naming Mitochondrial Eve[4] after Eve of the Genesis creation story may be considered unfortunate in that it has led to some misunderstandings among the general public. A common misconception is that Mitochondrial Eve was the only living human female of her time — she was not. Had she been the only living female of her time, humanity would most likely have become extinct due to an extreme population bottleneck. Allan Wilson. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ...


Many women alive at the same time as Mitochondrial Eve have descendants alive today. They may have left descendants via either son or daughters (and grandsons or granddaughters, and so on). Nuclear genes from these contemporary women of Mitochondrial Eve may be present in today's population, but mitochondrial DNA from them are not.[1] Nuclear gene is a gene located in the cell nucleus of an eukaryote. ...


Only Mitochondrial Eve, and her matrilineal ancestors, have a purely matrilineal line of descent to all humans alive today. Because mitochondrial DNA is only passed through matrilineal descent, all humans alive today have mitochondrial DNA that is traceable back to Mitochondrial Eve. Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ...


Furthermore, it can be shown that every contemporary woman of Mitochondrial Eve either has no living descendant today or is an ancestor to all living people. Starting with 'the' MRCA at around 3,000 years ago, one can trace all ancestors of the MRCA backward in time. At every ancestral generation, more and more ancestors (via both paternal and maternal lines) of MRCA are found. These ancestors are by definition also common ancestors of all living people. Eventually, there will be a point in past where all humans can be divided into two groups: those who left no descendants today and those who are common ancestors of all living humans today. This point in time is termed the identical ancestors point and is estimated to be between 5,000 and 15,000 years ago. Since Mitochondrial Eve is estimated to have lived more than hundred thousand years before the identical ancestors point, every contemporary woman of hers is either not an ancestor of any living people, or a common ancestor of all living people.[2][5] The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ...


Mitochondrial DNA

Main article: Mitochondrial DNA

We know about Eve because of mitochondrial organelles that are passed only from mother to offspring. Each mitochondrion contains Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A comparison of DNA sequences from mtDNA in a population reveals a molecular phylogeny. Unlike mtDNA, which is outside the nucleus, genes in nuclear DNA become mixed because of genetic recombination, and therefore we can be statistically less certain about their origins. mtDNA also mutates at a higher rate compared to nuclear DNA, so it gives researchers a more useful, magnified view of the diversity present in a population.[6][7] Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Molecular phylogeny is the use of the structure of molecules to gain information on an organisms evolutionary relationships. ... Nuclear DNA is DNA contained within a nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. ... Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of DNA is broken and then joined to the end of a different DNA molecule. ... A statistic (singular) is the result of applying a statistical algorithm to a set of data. ...


Just as mitochondria are inherited matrilineally, Y-chromosomes are inherited patrilineally.[8] Thus it is possible to apply the same principles outlined above to men. The common patrilineal ancestor of all humans alive today has been dubbed Y-chromosomal Adam. Importantly, the genetic evidence suggests that the most recent patriarch of all humanity is much more recent than the most recent matriarch, suggesting that 'Adam' and 'Eve' were not alive at the same time. While 'Eve' is believed to be alive 140,000 years ago, 'Adam' lived only 60,000 years ago.[2] ... In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ...


Eve and the Out-of-Africa theory

Mitochondrial Eve is sometimes referred to as African Eve, an ancestor who has been hypothesized on the grounds of fossil as well as DNA evidence. According to the most common interpretation of the mitochondrial DNA data, the titles belong to the same hypothetical woman. Family trees (or "phylogenies") constructed on the basis of mitochondrial DNA comparisons show that the living humans whose mitochondrial lineages branched earliest from the tree are indigenous Africans, whereas the lineages of indigenous peoples on other continents all branch off from African lines. Researchers therefore reason that all living humans descend from Africans, some of whom migrated out of Africa and populated the rest of the world. If the mitochondrial analysis is correct, then because mitochondrial Eve represents the root of the mitochondrial family tree, she must have predated the exodus and lived in Africa. Therefore many researchers take the mitochondrial evidence as support for the "single-origin" or Out-of-Africa model.[2] FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ...


Some people use the mtDNA family tree as evidence of a population bottleneck (e.g. Toba catastrophe theory) giving rise to the human species. There are, however, many ways such family trees can be constructed. A tree can be constructed based on any gene, not just the mitochondrial DNA. When different such trees including the mtDNA tree are compared, no population bottleneck is found because different trees show different coalescent points. The inconsistencies between coalescent points indicate that there had been numerous gene interchanges between population groups around the world, even after the first exodus out of Africa. This idea forms the basis of Alan Templeton's 'Out of Africa Again and Again' theory.[9][2] A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... Eruption column rising, Mount Redoubt, Alaska According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent, large volcanic event. ... In genetics, coalescent theory states that all genes or alleles in a given population are ultimately inherited from a single ancestor shared by all members of the population, known as the most recent common ancestor. ... Alan Templeton is a geneticist and statistician from the Washington University, known for his theories regarding the lack of genetic differences between humans of different races. ...


The Mitochondrial DNA provides another support for the Out of Africa hypothesis in the form of gene diversity. One finding not subject to interpretation is that the greatest diversity of mitochondrial DNA sequences exists among Africans. This diversity would not have accumulated, researchers argue, if humans had not been living longer in Africa than anywhere else. Yet this too proves to be a mixed blessing of "support" for the African-origin theory since the same relative diversity is explained if more people lived in Africa than in other regions - an interpretation of the past that all evolutionary models accept, even those that contradict the African-origin theory, such as Multiregional evolution. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Academic investigation

The original paper by Cann, Stoneking and Wilson[4] troubled some people. Some criticism was indeed legitimate:

  • Of the 147 persons sampled, only two were from sub-Saharan Africa. The other 18 'Africans' in the study were African-Americans.
  • The method to generate the tree was not guaranteed to find the most parsimonious tree.
  • The method used to root the tree placed it at the midpoint of the longest branch (midpoint rooting). This could lead to a wrong position of the root if for example the rate of evolution is higher in Africa.
  • Restriction-fragment length polymorphism is ill suited to estimate mutation rates which is essential in timing evolutionary events.
  • Weak statistical analysis.

Ingman et al. (2000)[10] repeated the study while avoiding its major pitfalls:

  • They sampled 53 persons, 32 of whom were Africans from different regions of sub-Saharan Africa.
  • They sequenced the complete mtDNA but excluded the rapidly evolving D-Loop in the analysis.
  • An outgroup (chimpanzee) mtDNA sequence was used to root the tree (outgroup rooting). Outgroup rooting is much more reliable than midpoint rooting.

The study by Ingman et al. verifies the major conclusions of Cann et al. that is: a recent (172 ± 50 ka) African origin of human mtDNA. Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ...


In popular culture

Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ... This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... The Seven Daughters of Eve is a book by Bryan Sykes that presents the theory of mitochondrial genetics in a clear and non-specialistic manner. ... River out of Eden River out of Eden (subtitled A Darwinian View of Life) is a 1995 popular science book by Richard Dawkins. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel distributed by Discovery Communications that provides non-fiction variety programming focused primarily on the themes of popular science, history, and knowledge about the world, which is showcases uasually as documentaries. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... The Real Eve, known as Where We Came From in the United Kingdom is a 2002 documentary produced by the American cable TV network the Discovery Channel. ... Stephen Oppenheimer is a well-known expert in the field of synthesizing DNA studies with archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and other field studies. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... 1922s Nosferatu Films from the horror genre are designed to elicit fright, fear, terror, disgust or horror from viewers. ... Namcos Pac-Man was a hit, and became a universal phenomenon. ... Parasite Eve ) is a survival horror console role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix). ... In biology, regeneration is an organisms ability to replace body parts. ... Greg Egan (August 20, 1961, Perth, Western Australia) is an Australian computer programmer and science fiction author. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (born December 16, 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same name. ... The Light of Other Days is a 2000 science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke and Stephen Baxter. ...

See also

In genetics, coalescent theory states that all genes or alleles in a given population are ultimately inherited from a single ancestor shared by all members of the population, known as the most recent common ancestor. ... Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. ... // A genealogical DNA test involves examining the nucleotides at specific locations on a persons DNA. The tests results are meant to have no informative medical value and do not determine specific genetic diseases or disorders (see possible exceptions in Medical information below); they are intended only for use in... In human genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... // For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA. In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe. ... Dad does not seem too surprised; perhaps this has happened to him before! Last Common Ancestor (LCA) is the parent of a new species. ... Last universal ancestor (LUA), the hypothetical latest living organism from which all currently living organisms descend. ... The mitochondrial genome is the genetic material of the mitochondria. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ... The neutral theory of molecular evolution (also, simply the neutral theory of evolution) is an influential theory that was introduced with provocative effect by Motoo Kimura in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ... In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ... Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised most recent common ancestor of many of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim (singular Kohen, Cohen, or Kohane). ...

References

  1. ^ a b See the chapter All Africa and her progenies in Dawkins, Richard (1995). River Out of Eden. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-06990-8. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Dawkins, R (2004) The Ancestor's Tale, A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-7528-7321-0
  3. ^ Rohde DLT, Olson S, Chang JT (2004) "Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans". Nature 431: 562-566.
  4. ^ a b Cann, R.L., Stoneking, M., and Wilson, A.C., 1987, "Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution", Nature 325; pp 31–36. Online: Cann et al. (1987)
  5. ^ Rohde, DLT , On the common ancestors of all living humans. Submitted to American Journal of Physical Anthropology. (2005)
  6. ^ A. C. Wilson, R. L. Cann, S. M. Carr, M. George Jr., U. B. Gyllensten, K. Helm- Bychowski, R. G. Higuchi, S. R. Palumbi, E. M. Prager, R. D. Sage, and M. Stoneking (1985) "Mitochondrial DNA and two perspectives on evolutionary genetics". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 26:375-400
  7. ^ Bryan Sykes The Seven Daughters of Eve: The Science That Reveals Our Genetic Ancestry, W.W. Norton, 2001, hardcover, 306 pages, ISBN 0-393-02018-5
  8. ^ Bryan Sykes (2004). Adam's Curse. A Future without Men. New York: W. W. Norton.
  9. ^ Out of Africa Again and Again by Templeton in Nature
  10. ^ Nature 408, 708-713 (7 December 2000) | doi:10.1038/35047064. Online:Ingman et al. (2000)
  • Excoffier, L., and Yang, Z., "Substitution Rate Variation Among Sites in Mitochondrial Hypervariable Region I of Humans and Chimpanzees", 1999, Mol. Biol. Evol. 16; pp 1357–1368
  • Kaessmann, H., and Pääbo, S.: "The genetical history of humans and the great apes". Journal of Internal Medicine 251: 1–18 (2002). pubmed
  • Laurence Loewe and Siegfried Scherer, “Mitochondrial Eve: The Plot Thickens,” Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 12, 11 November 1997, p. 422.
  • Nicole Maca-Meyer , Ana M González , José M Larruga, Carlos Flores and Vicente M Cabrera (2001) "Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions". BMC Genetics Biomed central
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen. The Real Eve, Carroll & Graf; (September 9, 2004) ISBN 0-7867-1334-8
  • Vigilant, L., Pennington, R., Harpending, H., Kocher, T.D., Wilson, A.C., 1989, "Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in Single Hairs from a Southern African Population", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86; pp 9350-9354
  • Thomas J. Parsons et al., “A High Observed Substitution Rate in the Human Mitochondrial DNA Control Region,” Nature Genetics, Vol. 15 April 1997, p. 365.
  • Vigilant, L., Stoneking, M., Harpending, H., Hawkes, K., Wilson, A.C., 1991, "African Populations and the Evolution of the Human Mitochondrial DNA", Science 253; pp 1503–1507 Pubmed
  • Watson E., Forster P., Richards M., Bandelt H.-J. (1997). "Mitochondrial Footprints of Human Expansions in Africa." American Journal of Human Genetics. 61: 691-704 pubmed
  • Spencer Wells The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey, Princeton University Press, January 2003, hardcover, 246 pages, ISBN 0-691-11532-X

Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... River out of Eden River out of Eden (subtitled A Darwinian View of Life) is a 1995 popular science book by Richard Dawkins. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Allan Wilson. ... Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ... The Seven Daughters of Eve is a book by Bryan Sykes that presents the theory of mitochondrial genetics in a clear and non-specialistic manner. ... Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ... The cover to the hardback edition of Adams Curse Adams Curse: A Story of Sex, Genetics, and the Extinction of Men is a 2003 book by Oxford University human genetics professor Bryan Sykes expounding his hypothesis that with the declining sperm count in men and the continual atrophy... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups Mitochondrial Eve. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA. In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe. ...

  most recent common mt-ancestor    
L0   L1  
L2 L3   L4 L5 L6 L7
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A I O   R   S W X Y
C Z B F pre-HV   pre-JT P  UK
HV JT U K
H V J T

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Demise of Mitochondrial Eve -- TrueOrigin Archive (3819 words)
This is the idea that the descendants of mitochondrial Eve were the only ones to colonize Africa and the rest of the world, supplanting all other hominid populations in the process.
Mitochondrial Eve is alleged to have lived in Africa at the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene period (between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago).
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally assumed to be inherited exclusively from the mother….
BBC - h2g2 - Mitochondrial Eve - An Explanation - A703199 (1161 words)
Mitochondrial Eve represents one of the most poorly understood scientific ideas of the 20th century.
Because the rate of mitochondrial genetic mutation is slow, it can be used as a clock to turn back time to a period before the mutations had crept in.
Eve had many ancestors – it helps if you think about her as an hourglass – she was the pinch in the glass through which our genes ran.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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