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Encyclopedia > Mitigation of global warming
Global carbon dioxide emissions 18002000

Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. This is in contrast to adaptation to global warming which involves taking action to minimize the effects of global warming. Scientific consensus on global warming, together with the precautionary principle and the fear of non-linear climate transitions[1] is leading to increased[citation needed] effort to develop new technologies and sciences and carefully manage others in an attempt to mitigate global warming. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The average surface temperature of the earth is defined as the combined temperature of near-surface air temperature over land and sea surface temperature. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Adaptation to global warming covers all actions aimed at reducing the negative effects of global warming. ... The net impact of global warming so far has been modest, but near-future effects are likely to become significantly negative, with large-scale extreme impacts possible by the end of the century. ... National and international science academies and professional societies have assessed the current scientific opinion on climate change, in particular recent global warming. ... The precautionary principle is a moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the... A climate surprise is defined by the IPCC as a rapid, non-linear response of the climatic system to anthropogenic climate forcing (global warming). ...


The energy policy of the European Union has set a target of limiting the global temperature rise to 2 °C [3.6 °F] compared to preindustrial levels, of which 0.8 °C has already taken place and another 0.5 °C is already committed. The 2 °C rise is typically associated in climate models with a carbon dioxide concentration of 400-500 ppm by volume; the current level as of January 2007 is 383 ppm by volume, and rising at 2 ppm annually. Hence, to avoid a very likely breach of the 2 °C target, CO2 levels would have to be stabilised very soon; this is generally regarded as unlikely, based on current programs in place to date.[2] The importance of change is illustrated by the fact that world economic energy efficiency is presently improving at only half the rate of world economic growth.[3] Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, and evolved out of the European Coal and Steel Community, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the European Council on October 27, 2005... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Climate commitment describes the fact that climate reacts with a delay to influencing factors (climate forcings) such as the presence of green house gases. ... Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ...


At the core of most proposals is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through reducing energy use and switching to cleaner energy sources. Frequently discussed energy conservation methods include increasing the fuel efficiency of vehicles (often through hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric cars and improving conventional auomobiles), individual-lifestyle changes and changing business practices. Newly developed technologies and currently available technologies including cleaner fuels such as hydrogen fuel cells, solar power, nuclear power, tidal and ocean energy, geothermal power, and wind power and the use of carbon sinks, carbon credits, and taxation are aimed more precisely at countering continued greenhouse gas emissions. More radical proposals include planetary engineering techniques ranging from relatively simple carbon sequestration to orbital solar shades and population control, to lessen demand for resources such as energy and land. For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense, is the same as thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts energy contained in a carrier fuel into energy or work. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ... Fuel economy in automobiles is the amount of fuel required to move the automobile over a given distance. ... The issue of human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change (global warming) is becoming a central focus of the Green movement. ... Business action on climate change includes a range of activities relating to combatting global warming, and to influencing political decisions on global-warming-related regulation, such as the Kyoto Protocol. ... Future energy development, providing for the worlds future energy needs, currently faces great challenges. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Tidal energy, sometimes called tidal power, is a form of hydropower that exploits the movement of water caused by tidal currents or the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides. ... The oceans have a tremendous amount of power and are close to many if not most concentrated populations. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is the opposite of a carbon source. ... This article deals with carbon credits for international trading. ... Planetary engineering is the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global properties of a planet. ... Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ... Solar shades are a somewhat more radical approach to the mitigation of global warming through planetary engineering. ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ...


Benefits of early action on climate change outweighs the costs of delayed actions.

Contents

Pacala and Socolow

Nobel Prize winning Pacala and Socolow of Princeton [4] have proposed a program to reduce CO2 emissions by 1 billion metric tons per year − or 25 billion tons over the 50-year period. The proposed 15 different programs, any seven of which could achieve the goal, are:

  1. efficient vehicles − increase fuel economy from 30 to 60 mpg for 2 billion vehicles,
  2. reduce use of vehicles − improve urban design to reduce miles driven from 10,000 to 5,000 miles per year for 2 billion vehicles,
  3. efficient buildings − reduce energy consumption by 25%,
  4. improve efficiency of coal plants from today's 40% to 60%,
  5. replace 1,400 gigawatts of coal power plants with natural gas,
  6. capture and store carbon emitted from 800 gigawatts of new coal plants,
  7. capture and reuse hydrogen created by #6 above,
  8. capture and store carbon from coal to synfuelsconversion at 30 million barrels per day,
  9. displace 700 gigawatts of coal power with nuclear,
  10. add 2 million 1 megawatt windmills (50 times current capacity),
  11. displace 2,000 gigawatts of coal with solar power (700 times current capacity),
  12. produce hydrogen fuel from 4 million 1 megawatt windmills,
  13. use biomass to make fuel to displace oil (100 times current capacity),
  14. stop de-forestation and re-establish 300 million hectares of new tree plantations,
  15. conservation tillage − apply to all crop land (10 times current usage).

But these can be compared to the proposal to use nuclear power that produces nuclear residues and the use of coal and natural gas that also produce greenhouse gases, instead of renewable energies (solar, wind).[clarify] Hydrogen fuel is potentially an alternative to gasoline, creating a hydrogen economy. ...


Energy efficiency and conservation

Developing countries use their energy less efficiently than developed countries, getting less GDP for the same amount of energy.
Developing countries use their energy less efficiently than developed countries, getting less GDP for the same amount of energy.
The Energy Information Administration predicts world energy usage will rise in the next few decades.

Energy which is saved by improvements in efficiency has, in practice, often provided good environmental benefit and provided a net cost saving to the energy user. Building insulation, fluorescent lighting, and public transportation are some of the most effective means of conserving energy, and by extension, the environment. However, Jevons paradox poses a challenge to the goal of reducing overall energy use (and thus environmental impact) by energy conservation methods. In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or, when multiplied by 100, is given as a percentage. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Download high resolution version (960x720, 42 KB) Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... Download high resolution version (960x720, 42 KB) Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 617 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (694 × 674 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) author: EIA, source URL: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 617 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (694 × 674 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) author: EIA, source URL: http://www. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ... In economics, the Jevons Paradox is an observation made by William Stanley Jevons who stated that as technological improvements increase the efficiency with which a resource is used, total consumption of that resource may increase, rather than decrease. ...


Energy conservation is the practice of increasing the efficiency of use of energy in order to achieve higher useful output for the same energy consumption. This may result in increase of national security, personal security, financial capital, human comfort and environmental value. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy may want to conserve energy in order to reduce energy costs and promote environmental values. Industrial and commercial users may want to increase efficiency and maximize profit.


On a larger scale, energy conservation is an element of energy policy. The need to increase the available supply of energy (for example, through the creation of new power plants, or by the importation of more energy) is lessened if societal demand for energy can be reduced, or if growth in demand can be slowed. This makes energy conservation an important part of the debate over climate change and the replacement of non-renewable resources with renewable energy. Encouraging energy conservation among consumers is often advocated as a cheaper or more environmentally sensitive alternative to increased energy production.


The energy landscape

Residential buildings, commercial buildings, and the transportation of people and freight use the majority of the energy consumed by the United States each year. Specifically, the industrial sector uses 38 percent of total energy, closely followed by the transportation sector at 28 percent, the residential sector at 19 percent, and the commercial sector at 16 percent. On a community level, transportation can account for 40 to 50 percent of total energy use, and residential buildings use another 20 to 30 percent.[5]


In developed nations, the way of life today is completely dependent on abundant supplies of energy. Energy is needed to heat, cool, and light homes, fuel cars, and power offices. Energy is also critical for manufacturing the products used every day, including the cement, concrete and bricks that shape our communities.[6]


While the U.S represents only five percent of the world's population, it consumes 25 percent of its energy and generates about 25 percent of its total greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. citizens, for example, use more energy per capita for transportation than do citizens of any other industrialized nation--which in part, reflects the greater distances traveled by Americans compared with citizens of other nations.[7]


One alarming problem with the close connection between energy and land use is the relative inflexibility of the built environment in relation to energy shifts. Energy availability and pricing are volatile and dependent on changing political and economic factors. While energy shifts can be quick and capricious, land development patterns can be difficult and expensive to alter.


Urban Planning

Main article: urban planning

Urban planning also has an effect on energy use. Between 1982 and 1997, the amount of land consumed for urban development in the United States increased by 47 percent while the nation's population grew by only 17 percent.[8] Inefficient land use development practices have increased infrastructure costs as well as the amount of energy needed for transportation, community services, and buildings. Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... Land use is the pattern of construction and activity land is used for. ...


At the same time, a growing number of citizens and government officials have begun advocating a smarter approach to land use planning. These smart growth practices include compact community development, multiple transportation choices, mixed land uses, and practices to conserve green space. These programs offer environmental, economic, and quality-of-life benefits; and they also serve to reduce energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions.


Approaches such as New Urbanism and Transit-oriented development seek to reduce distances travelled, especially by private vehicles, encourage public transit and make walking and cycling more attractive options. This is achieved through medium-density, mixed-use planning and the concentration of housing within walking distance of town centers and transport nodes. The New urbanism is an American urban design movement that arose in the early 1980s. ... Aerial view of growth patterns in Arlington County, Virginia. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation, and a sport. ... Mixed-use development refers to the practice of containing more than one type of use in a building or set of buildings. ... The town centre (center) is usually the commercial or geographical centre of a town. ... This is a list of transport related topics. ...


Smarter growth land use policies have both a direct and indirect effect on energy consuming behavior. For example, transportation energy usage, the number one user of petroleum fuels, could be significantly reduced through more compact and mixed use land development patterns, which in turn could be served by a greater variety of non-automotive based transportation choices.

See also: Smart Growth

Smart growth is a concept and term used by those who seek to identify a set of policies governing transportation and land use planning policy for urban areas that benefits communities and preserves the natural environment. ...

Building Design

BedZED zero-energy housing in the UK
BedZED zero-energy housing in the UK

Emissions from housing are substantial,[9] and government-supported energy efficiency programmes can make a difference.[10] Sustainable architecture applies techniques of sustainable design to architecture. ... This article is about green building construction. ... Photograph of the BedZED eco-village in Beddington, England taken by Paul Miller. ... Photograph of the BedZED eco-village in Beddington, England taken by Paul Miller. ... BedZED BedZED or the Beddington Zero Energy Development, is an environmentally-friendly housing development near Beddington, England. ... BedZED zero energy housing in the UK A zero energy building (ZEB) is a term applied to a building with a net energy consumption of zero over a typical year. ... Houses in Fishpool Street, St Albans, England For other meanings of the word house, see House (disambiguation). ...


New buildings can be constructed using passive solar building design, low-energy building, or zero-energy building techniques. Existing buildings can be made more efficient through the use of insulation, high-efficiency appliances (particularly hot water heaters and furnaces), double- or triple-glazed gas-filled windows, external window shades, and building orientation and siting. Alternative energy sources such as geothermal power and passive solar energy reduce the amount of greenhouse gasses emitted. In addition to designing buildings which are more energy efficient, there is the possibility of using lighter-coloured, more reflective materials in the development of urban areas (e.g. by painting roofs white) and planting trees.[11][12] This saves energy because it cools buildings and reduces the urban heat island effect thus reducing the use of air conditioning. Passive solar building design involves the modeling, selection and use of appropriate passive solar technologies to maintain the building environment at a desired temperature range (usually based around human thermal comfort) throughout the suns daily and annual cycles. ... Generically, a low-energy house is any type of house that uses less energy than a regular house. ... BedZED zero energy housing in the UK A zero energy building (ZEB) or net zero energy building is a general term applied to a building with a net energy consumption of zero over a typical year. ... A trio of propane hot water heaters. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... Insulated Glazing Unit or Insulating Glass Unit (commonly referred to as IGU) is described as two or more lites of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit with an air space between each lite. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... Solar panels are used in passive and active solar hot water systems Passive solar technologies convert sunlight into usable heat, cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use, without the assistance of other energy sources. ... An urban heat island (UHI) is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surroundings. ...


Transport

Main article: Sustainable transport

Nowadays energy efficient technologies, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and development of new technologies, such as hydrogen cars, may reduce the consumption of petroleum and emissions of carbon dioxide. Girl on a bicycle in a car free area in Frankfurt Sustainable transport is a phrase which was coined in the late 20th century to describe all forms of transport which minimise emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants. ... In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or, when multiplied by 100, is given as a percentage. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... Future energy development, providing for the worlds future energy needs, currently faces great challenges. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrogen vehicle. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


A shift from air transport and truck transport to electric rail transport would reduce emissions significantly.[13][14] Aviation or Air transport refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... railroads redirects here. ...


Increased use of biofuels (such as biodiesel and biobutanol, that can be used in 100% concentration in nowadays diesel and gasoline engines) also reduce emissions, especially in conjunction with regular hybrids and plug-in hybrids. For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ...


For electric vehicles, the reduction of carbon emissions will improve further if the way the required electricity is generated is low-carbon (from renewable energy sources). Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ...


Effective urban planning to reduce sprawl would decrease Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT), lowering emissions from transportation. Increased use of public transport can also reduce greenhouse gas emissions per passenger kilometer. Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ...


Alternative energy sources

Main article: Energy development

Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ...

Nuclear energy

In some countries there are discussions about the future role of nuclear power as a possible alternative to fossil fuels. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1700x1110, 258 KB) Summary View of Dungeness power Station in kent, UK. Taken by contributor. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1700x1110, 258 KB) Summary View of Dungeness power Station in kent, UK. Taken by contributor. ... There are two nuclear power stations located near Dungeness in the south east of Kent, England. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


A number of comparisons of life cycle analysis (LCA) of carbon dioxide emissions show nuclear power as equal or better than renewable energy sources[15][16] However, in one study[17], carbon dioxide emissions from nuclear power per kilowatt hour are around 20-40% of those for natural gas-fired power stations and about 4 or 5 times greater than that produced by some renewable energy sources. This study has been criticized by the World Nuclear Association.[18] This article is about the fossil fuel. ... The World Nuclear Association (formerly the Uranium Institute) is a pro-nuclear power organisation which monitors and promotes the use of nuclear power. ...


An important fact to keep in mind is that the bulk of CO2 emission from nuclear power plants is generated by burning coal, which is by far the most polluting form of electricity generation from the global warming point of view[19], for the generation of electricity during the uranium enrichment process. This problem can be eliminated if nuclear power plants generate the electricity required during the uranium enrichment process (already being done in France.) If the same principle is applied to renewable energy sources, then the fossil fuels used for the mining and refining of raw materials and power plant construction in order to utilize them then these sources could no longer regarded as carbon-neutral. In addition, Gas centrifuge technology has greatly reduced the energy required for enrichment, thus reducing the LCA carbon emissions per kilowatt-hour. A cascade of gas centrifuges at a United States enrichment plant. ...


Certain gas cogeneration plants are 3-4 times more cost effective than nuclear power for abating CO2 emissions, if all the heat produced were used on site or in a local heating system. (However, nuclear power also produces heat which could be used in similar ways.) Similar costs for windpower and nuclear power if not including external costs (such as back-up power).[20] Gas can also refer to gasoline and natural gas and also hydrogen. ... Not to be confused with California Highway Patrol. ...


If all fossil-fuel power stations were replaced by nuclear power stations, using current nuclear technologies, there would only be enough uranium to supply them only for a few years. All known low-cost ore bodies would run out very quickly. But the definition of an ore body is "an occurrence of mineralization from which the metal is economically recoverable". If the cost of uranium were to double, the amount of available uranium would increase many times.[21] Such a cost increase would have only a small effect on the consumer, as the cost of fuel is a fraction of the other operating costs, but the lower-quality ores involved would contribute to higher CO2 emissions.[22] The earth has enough uranium to provide all of our energy needs until the sun blows up in 5 billion years.[23]


There are a number of alternative nuclear fission technologies, such as breeder reactors, which could vastly extend fuel supplies if required, but they are not without their own issues. Lower-risk thorium cycles are being investigated, but this technology is still years away.[24][25][26] A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ...


The use of nuclear energy to combat global warming conflicts with some countries' decisions to phase out nuclear power for environmental, social, cost and political reasons.


In the past, nuclear energy was a source of other potent greenhouse gases such as chloro-hydrocarbons and fluoro-hydrocarbons[27]. Most of these emissions were traditionally produced because of leaks in freon cooling systems. Those systems have since switched over to more environmentally friendly cooling gases.[28] Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ...


Because the burning of coal to produce electricity is a primary cause of global warming, countries are trying to find alternatives to coal. According to the BBC in 2004, France shut down its last coal mine because it now gets almost all of its electricity from nuclear power.[29] According to a 2007 story broadcast on 60 Minutes, nuclear power gives France the cleanest air of any industrialized country, and the cheapest electricity in all of Europe,[30] but nuclear waste, nuclear danger and energy centralization in nuclear powerplants remain. Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... This article is about the CBS news magazine. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Renewable energy

One means of reducing carbon emissions is the development of new technologies such as renewable energy such as wind power. Most forms of renewable energy generate no appreciable amounts of greenhouse gases except for biofuels derived from biomass. Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... Future energy development, providing for the worlds future energy needs, currently faces great challenges. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ...


Generally, emissions are a fraction of fossil fuel-based electricity generation. In some cases, notably with hydro power--once thought to be one of the cleanest forms of energy--there are unexpected results. One study shows that a hydropower plant in the Amazon has 3.6 times larger green house effect per kW·h than electricity production from oil, due to large scale emission of methane from decaying organic material.[31] This effect applies in particular to dams created by simply flooding a large area, without first clearing it of vegetation. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Hydropower (or waterpower) harnesses the energy of moving or falling water. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ...


Currently governments subsidise fossil fuels by an estimated $235 billion a year.[32] However, in some countries, government action has boosted the development of renewable energy technologies—for example, a programme to put solar panels on the roofs of a million homes has made Japan a world leader in that technology, and Denmark's support for wind power ensured its former leadership of that sector. In 2005, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger promised an initiative to install a million solar roofs in California. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... A photovoltaic module is composed of individual PV cells. ... Offshore wind turbines near Copenhagen Some 20 per cent of Danish domestic electricity comes from wind [1]and Denmark is a leading wind power nation in the world. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation IPA: ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-born American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the clean air agency of the state of California in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


In June 2005, the chief executive of BT allegedly became the first head of a British company to admit that climate change is already affecting his company, and affecting its business, and announced plans[33] to source much of its substantial energy use from renewable sources. He noted that, "Since the beginning of the year, the media has been showing us images of Greenland glaciers crashing into the sea, Mount Kilimanjaro devoid of its ice cap and Scotland reeling from floods and gales. All down to natural weather cycles? I think not"[34]. Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... BT Group plc (also known as British Telecommunications plc) which trades as BT (and previously as British Telecom) is the privatised UK state telecommunications operator. ...


Burning Waste Methane

Methane is a significantly more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Burning one molecule of methane generates one molecule of carbon dioxide. Accordingly, burning methane which would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (such as at oil wells, landfills, coal mines, waste treatment plants, etc.) provides a net greenhouse gas emissions benefit.[35] However, reducing the amount of waste methane produced in the first place has an even greater beneficial impact, as might other approaches to productive use of otherwise-wasted methane. Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Use the fossil fuels that produce the least greenhouse gases

Natural gas (predominantly methane) produces less greenhouses gases per energy unit gained than oil which in turn produces less than coal. The combustion of natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. In addition, there are also other environmental benefits. This article is about the fossil fuel. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


A study performed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in 1997 sought to discover whether the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from increased natural gas (predominantly methane) use would be offset by a possible increased level of methane emissions from sources such as leaks and emissions. The study concluded that the reduction in emissions from increased natural gas use strongly outweighs the detrimental effects of increased methane emissions. Thus the increased use of natural gas in the place of other, dirtier fossil fuels can serve to lessen the emission of greenhouse gases in the United States.[36]


Criticism to the use of these fossil fuels appoints the use of post-carbon renewable energies (solar,wind). Post Carbon refers to a view of the world after the decline of oil production (see peak oil). ...


Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a plan to mitigate climate change by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources such as power plants and subsequently storing it away safely instead of releasing it into the atmosphere. Technology for capturing of CO2 is already commercially available for large CO2 emitters, such as power plants. Storage of CO2, on the other hand is a relatively untried concept and as yet (2006) no powerplant operates with a full carbon capture and storage system. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an approach to mitigating global warming by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources such as power plants and subsequently storing it instead of releasing it into the atmosphere. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


CCS applied to a modern conventional power plant could reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by approximately 80-90% compared to a plant without CCS. Capturing and compressing CO2 requires much energy and would increase the energy needs of a plant with CCS by about 10-40%. This and other system costs is estimated to increase the costs of energy from a power plant with CCS by 30-60% depending on the specific circumstances.


Storage of the CO2 is envisaged either in deep geological formations, deep oceans, or in the form of mineral carbonates. Geological formations are currently considered the most promising, and these are estimated to have a storage capacity of at least 2000 Gt CO2. IPCC estimates that the economic potential of CCS could be between 10% and 55% of the total carbon mitigation effort until year 2100. A gigaton (or gigatonne) is a metric unit of mass, equal to 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) metric tons, 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) kilograms, or 1 quadrillion grams. ... IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all...


Geoengineering

Main article: Planetary engineering

Chapter 28 of the National Academy of Sciences report Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base (1992) defined geoengineering as "options that would involve large-scale engineering of our environment in order to combat or counteract the effects of changes in atmospheric chemistry." They evaluated a range of options to try and give preliminary answers to two questions: can these options work and could they be carried out a reasonable cost. They also sought to encourage discussion of a third question - what adverse side effects might there be. The following types of option were examined: reforestation, increasing ocean absorption of carbon dioxide (carbon sequestration) and screening out some sunlight. NAS also argued "Engineered countermeasures need to be evaluated but should not be implemented without broad understanding of the direct effects and the potential side effects, the ethical issues, and the risks.". Planetary engineering is the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global properties of a planet. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


Some conspiracy theorists use this report as an argument when discussing so-called chemical contrails, or chemtrails, as the chapter on mitigation specifically regards large scale spraying of the skies as a possible solution to solving global warming, among others. For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... Photo taken in Portland of trails with an appearance said to be characteristic of chemtrails Chemtrail is a name used by some to describe certain kinds of trails visible in the sky behind high_altitude aircraft. ...


Carbon sequestration

Main article: Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration has been proposed as a method of reducing the amount of radiative forcing. Carbon sequestration is a term that describes processes that remove carbon from the atmosphere. A variety of means of artificially capturing and storing carbon, as well as of enhancing natural sequestration processes, are being explored. The main natural process is photosynthesis by plants and single-celled organisms. Artificial processes vary, and concerns have been expressed about their long-term effects. Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Carbon capture and storage. ... The generalised concept of radiative forcing in climate science is any change in the radiation (heat) entering the climate system or changes in radiatively active gases. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


Although they require land, natural sinks can be enhanced by reforestation and afforestation carbon offsets, which fix carbon dioxide for as little as $0.11 per metric ton[citation needed]. Until recently, most carbon offsets were commonly done by planting trees. ...


In practice, artificial capture is likely to be uneconomic unless applied to major sources - in particular, fossil fuel powered power stations. In such cases, costs of energy could well grow by 50%. However, captured CO2 can be used to force more crude oil out of oil fields, as Statoil and Shell have made plans to do.[37] Some proposals have been made to use algae to capture smokestack emissions, but this has not reached commercial level yet. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... A Statoil petrol station sign in Estonia Statoil (OSE: STL, NYSE: STO) is a Norwegian petroleum company established in 1972. ... Royal Dutch Shell plc is a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Chimney stacks on a Newcastle upon Tyne building A chimney is a system for venting hot gases and smoke from a stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. ...


Criticism to sequestration are based on the principle that prevention is better than a cure. This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Cure can be: successful treatment of disease preserve (meat, for example), as by salting, smoking, or aging (see curing) prepare, preserve, or finish (a substance) by a chemical or physical process (one example is the curing, or seasoning, of a cast iron pan; another is the curing of an adhesive...


Seeding oceans with iron

See also: Iron fertilization

The so-called Geritol solution to global warming, first proposed by oceanographer John Martin, is a carbon sequestration strategy whimsically named for a tonic advertised to treat the effects of iron-poor blood. It is motivated by evidence that seeding the oceans with iron will increase phytoplankton populations, and thereby draw more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. A report in Nature, 10 October 1996, by K. H. Coale et al, measured the effects of seeding equatorial Pacific waters with iron, finding that 700 grams of CO2 were fixed by the resulting phytoplankton bloom per 1 gram of iron seeded.[38]. Given the US EPA's current estimate of 1.2×1013 kg of annual atmospheric CO2 surplus, and the current 2006 market asking price of US$ 35/tonne for 65% iron ore fines, less than US$ 800 million worth of iron ore distributed in the equatorial Pacific annually would suffice to entirely offset surplus carbon emissions. It has been suggested that Ocean Nourishment be merged into this article or section. ... Geritol is the name of an American vitamin and mineral supplement. ... John Martin (February 27, 1935 – June 18, 1993), was an oceanographer Born in Old Lyme, Connecticut, he is best known for his research on the role of iron as a phytoplankton micronutrient, and its significance for so-called High-Nutrient, Low Chlorophyll regions of the oceans[1]. He is also... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Opponents of this approach argue that fertilizing the ocean is dangerous and lacks any guarantee of efficacy. The original researchers themselves assert that, far from being a panacea for global warming, iron seeding may be entirely ineffective. Among their concerns are that nobody knows where the carbon goes after it is absorbed by phytoplankton. Instead of being drawn down to the ocean floor and acting as a carbon sink, the carbon could be reabsorbed by the water, effectively negating any initial gain. They also express concern that any attempt at geoengineering could result in massive, unpredictable changes to the environment. They point out that, considering the immense damage caused by adding nutrients to lakes and ponds, it would be a logical conclusion that adding nutrients to the ocean would also cause environmental damage. Large-scale growth in phytoplankton could reduce oxygen levels, creating dead zones where the ocean cannot support marine-life. They suggest that there is even the possibility that blooms would release more carbon dioxide equivalent greenhouse gas in the form of methane than it would sequester.[39] [40] Planetary engineering is the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global properties of a planet. ... Sediment from the Mississippi River carries fertilizer to the Gulf of Mexico Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the worlds oceans, the observed incidences of which have been increasing since oceanographers began noting them in the 1970s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Solar shades

Main article: Solar shade

Some scientists have suggested using aerosols and/or sulfate dust to alter the Earth's albedo, or reflectivity, as an emergency measure to increase global dimming and thus stave off the effects of global warming. A 0.5% albedo increase would roughly halve the effect of CO2 doubling. [41] To create a similar effect, others have proposed building a literal solar shade in space, perhaps at L1. In 1974, Russian expert Mikhail Budyko suggested that if global warming became a problem, we could cool down the planet by burning sulfur in the stratosphere, which would create a haze. Paul Crutzen suggests that this would cost 25 to 50 billion dollars/year. It would, however, increase the environmental problem of acid rain[42][43][44] and drought.[45] Solar shades are a somewhat more radical approach to the mitigation of global warming through planetary engineering. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... L1 or L-1 may be: The first Lagrange Point in an astronomical Solar System The first lumbar vertebra in Human anatomy L1 (protein), a cell adhesion molecule. ... Paul J. Crutzen (December 3rd, 1933 - ) is a Dutch nobel prize winning atmospheric chemist. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ...


Societal Controls

Another method being examined is to make carbon a new currency by introducing tradeable "Personal Carbon Credits". The idea being it will encourage and motivate individuals to reduce their 'carbon footprint' by the way they live. Each citizen will receive a free annual quota of carbon that they can use to travel, buy food, and go about their business. It has been suggested that by using this concept it could actually solve two problems; pollution and poverty, old age pensioners will actually be better off because they fly less often, so they can cash in their quota at the end of the year to pay heating bills, etc. [46]


Governmental and Intergovernmental Action

The politics of global warming looks at the current political issues relating to global warming, as well as the historical rise of global warming as a political issue. ...

Kyoto Protocol

Main article: Kyoto Protocol

The primary international agreement on combating climate change is the Kyoto Protocol, which came into force on 16 February 2005. The Kyoto Protocol is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Countries that have ratified this protocol have committed to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases. Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UNFCCC logo. ... // Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, where dark green indicates countries that have signed and ratified the treaty. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ...


Encouraging use changes

Carbon emissions trading

The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) [47] is the largest multi-national, greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the world. It commenced operation on 1 January 2005, and all 25 member states of the European Union participate in the scheme which has created a new market in carbon dioxide allowances estimated at 35 billion Euros (US$43 billion) per year.[48] The Chicago Climate Exchange was the first (voluntary) emissions market, and is soon to be followed by Asia's first market (Asia Carbon Exchange). A total of 107 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent have been exchanged through projects in 2004, a 38% increase relative to 2003 (78 Mt CO2e).[49] Carbon emissions trading involves the trading of permits to emit carbon dioxide (and other greenhouse gases, calculated in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, tCO2e). ... The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the largest multi-national, greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the world and is a main pillar of EU climate policy. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) is the world’s first and North America’s only voluntary, legally binding greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and trading system for emission sources and offset projects in North America and Brazil. ...


With the creation of a market for trading carbon dioxide emissions within the Kyoto Protocol, it is likely that London financial markets will be the centre for this potentially highly lucrative business; the New York and Chicago stock markets may have a lower trade volume than expected as long as the US maintains its rejection of the Kyoto).[50] Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbon emissions trading involves the trading of permits to emit carbon dioxide (and other greenhouse gases, calculated in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, tCO2e). ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ...


Twenty three multinational corporations have come together in the G8 Climate Change Roundtable, a business group formed at the January 2005 World Economic Forum. The group includes Ford, Toyota, British Airways and BP. On 9 June 2005 the Group published a statement[51] stating that there was a need to act on climate change and claiming that market-based solutions can help. It called on governments to establish "clear, transparent, and consistent price signals" through "creation of a long-term policy framework" that would include all major producers of greenhouse gases. A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... This article is about the automaker. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... This article is about the energy corporation. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a proposed carbon trading scheme being created by nine by North-eastern and Mid-Atlantic American states; Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island and Vermont. The scheme was due to be developed by April 2005 but has not yet been completed. Eight states, shown in green, are participating in RGGI. Observers are not colorized. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Carbon tax

Main article: Carbon tax

In 1991, Sweden introduced the world's first carbon tax. The UK has had a Climate Change Levy on fossil-fuel-based electricity generation since 2001. Plans for a carbon tax in New Zealand were abandoned after the 2005 elections. A carbon tax is a tax on energy sources which emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ... The Climate Change Levy (CCL) is a tax on energy delivered to non-domestic users in the United Kingdom. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ...


Non-governmental approaches

Legal action

In some countries, those affected by climate change may be able to sue major producers, in a parallel to the lawsuits against tobacco companies.[52] Although proving that particular weather events are due specifically to global warming may never be possible[53], methodologies have been developed to show the increased risk of such events caused by global warming.[54] Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


For a legal action for negligence (or similar) to succeed, "Plaintiffs … must show that, more probably than not, their individual injuries were caused by the risk factor in question, as opposed to any other cause. This has sometimes been translated to a requirement of a relative risk of at least two."[55] Another route (though with little legal bite) is the World Heritage Convention, if it can be shown that climate change is affecting World Heritage Sites like Mount Everest.[56][57] Negligence is a legal concept usually used to achieve compensation for accidents and injuries. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... “Everest” redirects here. ...


Legal action has also been taken to try to force the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act,[58] and against the Export-Import Bank and OPIC for failing to assess environmental impacts (including global warming impacts) under NEPA.[citation needed] EPA redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank, Exim Bank or Eximbank) is the official export credit agency of the United States Government. ... The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) is an agency of the U.S. government established in 1971 that helps U.S. businesses invest overseas and promotes economic development in new and emerging markets. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ...


According to a 2004 study commissioned by Friends of the Earth, ExxonMobil and its predecessors caused 4.7 to 5.3 percent of the world's man-made carbon dioxide emissions between 1882 and 2002. The group suggested that such studies could form the basis for eventual legal action.[59] Friends of the Earth is an international network of environmental organizations in 70 countries. ... For other uses, see Exon (disambiguation). ...


Personal choices

While many of the proposed methods of mitigating global warming require governmental funding, legislation and regulatory action, individuals and businesses can also play a part in the mitigation effort. Environmental groups encourage individual action against global warming, often aimed at the consumer. Common recommendations include lowering home heating and cooling usage, burning less gasoline, supporting renewable energy sources, buying local products to reduce transportation, turning off unused devices, and various others. A geophysicist at Utrecht University has urged similar institutions to hold the vanguard in voluntary mitigation, suggesting the use of communications technologies such as videoconferencing to reduce their dependence on long-haul flights.[60] Business action on climate change includes a range of activities relating to combatting global warming, and to influencing political decisions on global-warming-related regulation, such as the Kyoto Protocol. ... The issue of human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change (global warming) is becoming a central focus of the Green movement. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ... Fuel imports in 2005 Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is altered. ... Geophysics, the study of the earth by quantitative physical methods, especially by seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, and radioactivity methods. ... Utrecht University (Universiteit Utrecht in Dutch) is a university in Utrecht, The Netherlands. ... It has been suggested that H.331 be merged into this article or section. ...


Business Opportunities and Risks

In addition to government action and the personal choices individuals can make, the threat posed by global warming provides business opportunities to be exploited and risks to be mitigated.


There has also been business action on climate change. Business action on climate change includes a range of activities relating to combatting global warming, and to influencing political decisions on global-warming-related regulation, such as the Kyoto Protocol. ...


On 9 May 2005 Jeff Immelt, the chief executive of General Electric (GE), announced plans to reduce GE's global warming related emissions by one percent by 2012. "GE said that given its projected growth, those emissions would have risen by 40 percent without such action." [61] is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jeffrey R. Immelt (born February 19, 1956) is the current chairman of the board and chief executive officer of General Electric. ... Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... “GE” redirects here. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 21 June 2005 a group of leading airlines, airports and aerospace manufacturers pledged to work together to reduce the negative environmental impact of the aviation industry, including limiting the impact of air travel on climate change by improving fuel efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide emissions of new aircraft by fifty percent per seat kilometre by 2020 from 2000 levels. The group aims to develop a common reporting system for carbon dioxide emissions per aircraft by the end of 2005, and pressed for the early inclusion of aviation in the European Union's carbon emission trading scheme.[62] is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... Environmental impact analysis is conducted to determine the likely human environmental health impact, risk to ecological health, and changes to natures services that a proposed or ongoing project may bring, or is bringing. ... Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense, is the same as thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts energy contained in a carrier fuel into energy or work. ... 2020 (MMXX) will be a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


National policies

See also: List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

This is a list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions. ...

United States

Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the United States include their energy policies which encourage efficiency through programs like Energy Star, Commercial Building Integration, and the Industrial Technologies Program.[63] On November 12, 1998, Vice President Al Gore symbolically signed the Kyoto Protocol, but he indicated participation by the developing nations was necessary prior its being submitted for ratification by the United States Senate.[64] Similar, albeit more vociferous, concerns from the Bush Administration have blocked the treaty from consideration to this date. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide versus Time The United States is historically the worlds largest greenhouse gas emitter. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... The ENERGY STAR logo is placed on energy-efficient products ENERGY STAR is a United States government program to promote energy efficient consumer products. ... Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide versus Time The United States is historically the worlds largest greenhouse gas emitter. ... Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide versus Time The United States is historically the worlds largest greenhouse gas emitter. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ...


US efforts to undermine global warming mitigation

The US government has worked to undermine state efforts to mitigate global warming. Transportation Secretary Mary Peters, with White House approval, personally directed US efforts to urge governors and dozens of members of the House of Representatives to block California’s first-in-the-nation limits on greenhouse gases from cars and trucks, according to e-mails obtained by Congress.[65].


The U.S. has also attempted to mislead the public about global warming. The United States government has implemented an industry-formulated disinformation campaign designed to actively mislead the American public on global warming and to forestall limits on climate polluters.[66]."'They've got a political clientele that does not want to be regulated,' says Rick Piltz, a former Bush climate official who blew the whistle on White House censorship of global-warming documents in 2005. 'Any honest discussion of the science would stimulate public pressure for a stronger policy. They're not stupid.'


"Bush's do-nothing policy on global warming began almost as soon as he took office. By pursuing a carefully orchestrated policy of delay, the White House has blocked even the most modest reforms and replaced them with token investments in futuristic solutions like hydrogen cars. 'It's a charade,' says Jeremy Symons, who represented the EPA on Cheney's energy task force, the industry-studded group that met in secret to craft the administration's energy policy. 'They have a single-minded determination to do nothing -- while making it look like they are doing something.' . . . - - "The CEQ became Cheney's shadow EPA, with industry calling the shots. To head up the council, Cheney installed James Connaughton, a former lobbyist for industrial polluters, who once worked to help General Electric and ARCO skirt responsibility for their Superfund waste sites. - "two weeks after Bush took office - ExxonMobil's top lobbyist, Randy Randol, demanded a housecleaning of the scientists in charge of studying global warming. . . .Exxon's wish was the CEQ's command. [67]


US attempts to suppress science of global warming

The U.S. government has pressured American scientists to suppress discussion of global warming, according to the testimony of the Union of Concerned Scientists to the Oversight and Government Reform Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives.[68][69] "High-quality science" was "struggling to get out," as the Bush administration pressured scientists to tailor their writings on global warming to fit the Bush administration's skepticism, in some cases at the behest of an ex-oil industry lobbyist. "Nearly half of all respondents perceived or personally experienced pressure to eliminate the words 'climate change,' 'global warming' or other similar terms from a variety of communications." Similarly, according to the testimony of senior officers of the Government Accountability Project, the White House attempted to bury the report "National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variablity and Change," produced by U.S. scientists pursuant to U.S. law.[70] Some U.S. scientists resigned their jobs rather than give in to White House pressure to underreport global warming.[71] The Government Accountability Project (GAP) is a 29-year-old nonprofit public interest group that promotes government and corporate accountability by advancing occupational free speech, defending whistleblowers, and empowering citizen activists. ...


Vatican

In July 2007, Vatican announced its plans to become the first carbon neutral state of the world. [72]


Mitigation in developing countries

Traditionally, economic growth tends to increase pollution as well as greenhouse gas emissions. In order to reconcile economic development with mitigating carbon emissions, developing countries need particular support, both financial and technical. One of the means of achieving this is the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The World Bank's Prototype Carbon Fund[73] is a public private partnership that operates within the CDM. Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... CDM directs here. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Public-private partnership (PPP) is a variation of privatization in which elements of a service previously run solely by the public sector are provided through a partnership between the government and one or more private sector companies. ...


In July 2005 the U.S., China, India, Australia, as well as Japan and South Korea, agreed to the Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean Development and Climate. The pact aims to encourage technological development that may mitigate global warming, without coordinated emissions targets. The highest goal of the pact is to find and promote new technology that aid both growth and a cleaner environment simultaneously. An example is the Methane to Markets initiative which reduces methane emissions into the atmosphere by capturing the gas and using it for growth enhancing clean energy generation.[74] Critics have raised concerns that the pact undermines the Kyoto Protocol.[75] The Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean Development and Climate is an international non-treaty agreement between Australia, India, Japan, the Peoples Republic of China, South Korea, and the United States announced July 28, 2005 at an Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum meeting and launched on...


However, none of these initiative suggest quantitative cap on the emission from developing countries. This is considered as particularly difficult policy proposal as the economic growth of developing countries are proportionally reflected in the growth of greenhouse emission. Critics of mitigation often argue that, the developing countries' drive to attain comparable living standard to the developed countries would doom the attempt at mitigation of global warming. Critics also argue that holding down emissions would shift the human cost of global warming from a general one to one that was borne most heavily by the poorest populations on the planet.


Population Control

The population explosion is a fundamental factor that has led to global warming. Because of this, various organizations promote population control as a means for mitigating global warming.[76][77][78][79] Proposed measures include improving access to family planning and reproductive health care and information, eliminating incentives to have larger families, public education about the consequences of continued population growth, and improving access of women to education and economic opportunities. Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... Oral contraceptives. ... Within the framework of WHOs definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. ... Population decline is the reduction over time in a regions census. ...


Population control efforts are impeded by their being somewhat of a taboo in some countries against considering any such efforts.[80] Also, various religions discourage or prohibit some or all forms of birth control. Religious adherents vary widely in their views on birth control. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ...


Population size has a different per capita effect on global warming in different countries, since the per capita production of anthropogenic greenhouse gases varies greatly by country.[81]


Nanotechnology

Further information: Nanotechnology and list of nanotechnology applications

Ray Kurzweil, on the Army Science Advisory Board, has testified before Congress that he sees considerable potential in the science of nanotechnology to solve significant global problems such as climate change.[82][83] Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometres, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dr. Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic musical keyboards. ... Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometres, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. ...


See also

Energy Portal
Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Alternative propulsion is a term used frequently for power train concepts differing to the standard internal combustion engine concept used in gasoline- or diesel-fueled vehicles. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases was a 2005 international conference that redefined the link between atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, and the 2°C (3. ... The issue of human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change (global warming) is becoming a central focus of the Green movement. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... 1. ... The Economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. ... Crude oil prices, 1994-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) In 2005 the government of Sweden government announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on petroleum, natural gas and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Smart growth is a concept and term used by those who seek to identify a set of policies governing transportation and land use planning policy for urban areas that benefits communities and preserves the natural environment. ... A low-carbon economy is an economy in which carbon dioxide emissions from the use of carbon based fuels (coal, oil and gas) are significantly reduced. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ...

References

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  2. ^ EU climate change target "unfeasible" (HTML). EurActiv.com (2006-02-01). Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  3. ^ United States Department of Energy World Trends
  4. ^ August 13, 2004 issue of Science (http://carbonsequestration.us/Papers-presentations/htm/Pacala-Socolow-ScienceMag-Aug2004.pdf ) and http://www.princeton.edu/~cmi/resources/stabwedge.htm
  5. ^ Jim Schwab, "Who'd Got the Energy?" Planning, American Planning Association, October 2002
  6. ^ [|Scherer, Ron] (2003-01-23), "Oil supplies fall as nation shivers", The Christian Science Monitor, <http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0123/p01s02-usec.html?related>
  7. ^ Richard Gilbert, Energy and Smart Growth: An Issue Paper, Neptis, 2002, page 9
  8. ^ William Fulton, Rolf Pendall, Mai Nguyen, and Alicia Harrison, Who Sprawls Most? How Growth Patterns Differ Across the U.S., Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, The Brookings Institution, July 2001
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  11. ^ Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; Romm, Joseph J. & Akbari, Hashem et al. (February/March 1997), "Painting the Town White -- and Green", Technology Review, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, <http://eande.lbl.gov/HeatIsland/PUBS/PAINTING/>
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  14. ^ Schwartzman, Peter (unknown). "TRUCKS VS. TRAINS—WHO WINS?" (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
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  27. ^ A nuclear power primer Jan Willem Storm van Leeuwen for openDemocracy August 2005
  28. ^ The Nuclear Debate Nuclear Issues Briefing Paper 43 July 2007
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  30. ^ France: Vive Les Nukes Kroft, Steve CBS April 2007
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  34. ^ Climate change is costing us, says BT boss Wachman, Richard The Observer June 2005
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  40. ^ Iron versus the Greenhouse Oceanographers cautiously explore a global warming therapy Monastersky, Richard September 1995
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  49. ^ State and Trends of the Carbon Market International Emissions Trading Association 2005
  50. ^ How high-pressure politics threatens action on climate The Observer Juen 2005
  51. ^ Statement of G8 Climate Change Roundtable Convened by the World Economic Forum June 2005
  52. ^ The ghost of Gleneagles Allen, Myles for Opendemocracy January 2005
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  54. ^ Stott, et al. (2004), "Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003", Nature, Vol. 432, 2 December 2004
  55. ^ Grossman, Columbia J. of Env. Law, 2003
  56. ^ Climate change 'ruining' Everest
  57. ^ Climate change 'ruining' Belize BBC November 2004
  58. ^ Climate Justice Ongoing Cases
  59. ^ Exxon Mobile's Contribution to Global Warming Revealed from Friends of the Earth
  60. ^ Andrew Biggin (16 August 2007). "Scientific bodies must take own action on emissions". Nature 448 (7155): 749. doi:10.1038/448749a. 
  61. ^ Green Electric? GE unveils eco-strategy publisher=MSNBC.
  62. ^ Aviation groups set targets to limit their environmental impact publisher=FT.com.
  63. ^ http://www.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/index.html
  64. ^ "Clinton Hails Global Warming Pact", All Politics, CNN, 1997-12-11. Retrieved on 2006-11-05. 
  65. ^ "How the White House Worked to Scuttle California’s Climate Law", San Francisco Chronicle, September 25, 2007 http://www.commondreams.org/archive/2007/09/25/4099/
  66. ^ Rolling Stone, June 13, 2007, http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/15148655/the_secret_campaign_of_president_george_bushs_administration_to_deny_global
  67. ^ The Washington Post, June 21, 2007 "http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/blog/2007/06/21/BL2007062101075_2.html?nav=hcmodule , citing the Rolling Stone invetigative report published 2007/6/13
  68. ^ Reuters, January 30, 2007, free archived version at http://www.commondreams.org/headlines07/0130-10.htm, last visited Jan. 30, '07
  69. ^ Written testimony of Dr. Grifo before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the U.S. House of Representatives on January 30, 2007, archived at http://oversight.house.gov/Documents/20070130113153-55829.pdf
  70. ^ written testimony of Rick Piltz before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the U.S. House of Representatives on January 30, 2007, archived at http://oversight.house.gov/Documents/20070130113813-92288.pdf last visited Jan. 30, 07
  71. ^ Reuters, January 30, 2007, free archived version at http://www.commondreams.org/headlines07/0130-10.htm, last visited Jan. 30, '07
  72. ^ http://www.environmentalleader.com/2007/07/16/vatican-to-go-carbon-neutral-wants-to-measure-footprints-of-individual-churches/
  73. ^ Prototype Carbon Fund from the World Bank Carbon Finance Unit
  74. ^ Methane to Markets Partnership. USAID.gov.
  75. ^ US-led emissions pact seen as Kyoto rival. NewScientist.com.
  76. ^ Population and Global Warming Factsheet from Sierra Club
  77. ^ Population and Global Warming National Wild Life Federation
  78. ^ Population and the Environment Fact SHeet Population Connection
  79. ^ Population Connection Statement of Policy
  80. ^ To the point of farce: a martian view of the hardinian taboo—the silence that surrounds population control Maurice King, Charles Elliott BMJ
  81. ^ Who is Heating Up the Planet? A Closer Look at Population and Global Warming from Sierra Club
  82. ^ Nanotech Could Give Global Warming a Big Chill (July, 2006)
  83. ^ Nanotech and climate change in C-SPAN interview on CSPAN-2 Book TV, November 5, 2006 (about 1 hour into 3 hr interview)
  • IPCC/TEAP (2005), "Special Report: Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues related to Hydrofluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons - Summary for Policymakers"
  • Climate Change:Facts and Impacts An introduction to the issue of climate change along with current and future impacts

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The term climate change is used to refer to changes in the Earths global climate or regional climates. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 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External links

Official

Worldwide

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Includes the Working Group III Report "Mitigation of Climate Change" as part of the Fourth Assessment Report

European Union

  • European Union's European Climate Change Programme
  • EU New Energy Policy
  • European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS)
  • Transport:
    • Community strategy to reduce CO2 from light vehicles.
    • EU Transport and Environment.
  • United Kingdom's Climate Change Programme
  • The Stern Review on the economics of climate change - Parts III and IV of the Stern Review are on climate change mitigation

USA

  • U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement signed by 178 mayors representing nearly 40 million Americans
  • California Climate Change Portal.

NGO/academic

  • Climate Change Action Website
  • List of ways for taking personal action on the Mitigation of Global Warming.
  • Red Cross / Red Crescent Centre on Climate Change and Disaster Preparedness
  • How to be more energy efficient in the home
  • Working Group on Climate Change and Development (2004), "Up in Smoke? Threats from, and responses to, the impact of global warming on human development"
  • Carbon Mitigation Initiative of Princeton University, BP, and Ford
  • Climate Alliance of 1000 European cities
  • Friends of the Earth Putting costs into perspective - economic benefits from fighting climate change
  • "Meeting the climate challenge: Recommendations of the International Climate Change Taskforce", January 2005
  • The buildings and factories that are the greatest contributors of Global Warming in the USA are Mapped on the Green Building public build Google Map.
  • New Scientific American article
  • Global Warming Newswire - published scientific studies on global warming
  • A Clean Energy Future for Australia - a study on how Australia can halve it's energy related greenhouse gas emissions by 2040
  • LEAP - a popular software tool for climate change mitigation assessment.

Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... This article is about the energy corporation. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... Friends of the Earth is an international network of environmental organizations in 70 countries. ...

Academic

  • Christian Azar and Stephen H. Schneider (2002) "Are the economic costs of stabilising the atmosphere prohibitive?", Ecological Economics 42 (1-2)
  • Rivington M, Matthews KB, Buchan K and Miller D (2005) "An integrated assessment approach to investigate options for mitigation and adaptation to climate change at the farm-scale", NJF Seminar 380, Odense, Denmark, 7-8 November 2005.

Business

  • Institutional Investors Group on Climate Change (IIGCC)
  • Investor Guide to Climate Risk: Action Plan and Resource for Plan Sponsors, Fund Managers and Corporations
  • Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP)
  • Carbon Project Guidance

Commentary


  Results from FactBites:
 
global warming: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (8576 words)
Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans in recent decades.
Warming is expected to affect the number and magnitude of these events; however, it is difficult to connect particular events to global warming.
Global warming has been implicated in the recent spread to the north Mediterranean region of bluetongue disease in domesticated ruminants associated with mite bites (Purse, 2005).
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