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Encyclopedia > Mithridates VI of Pontus
A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus.
A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus.

Mithridates VI (Greek: Μιθριδάτης), 13263 BC, also known as Mithridates the Great and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus in northern Anatolia from 120 to 63 BC. He is remembered as one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies who engaged three of the most prominent generals of the late Roman Republic: Sulla, Lucullus, and Pompey the Great. Image File history File links Mithridates_VI_of_Pontus. ... Image File history File links Mithridates_VI_of_Pontus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 137 BC 136 BC 135 BC 134 BC 133 BC - 132 BC - 131 BC 130 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC 121 BC - 120 BC - 119 BC 118 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... This article refers to the Roman General. ...

Contents

Early reign

Mithridates VI was the son of Mithridates V (150 BC–120 BC), who died when he was a boy. During Eupator's minority, supreme power was exercised by his mother queen Gespaepyris, whom he eventually deposed and committed to prison (ca. 115 BC). To clear his path to the throne of the kingdom of Pontus, he killed off many of his brothers but not his sister, Laodice, whom he married. Mithridates V Euergetes (in Greek Mιθριδατης Eυεργετης; reigned c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 155 BC 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC - 150 BC - 149 BC 148 BC... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Mithridates entertained ambitions of making his state the dominant power in the Black Sea and Anatolia. After he subjugated Colchis, the king of Pontus clashed for supremacy in the Pontic steppe with the Scythian king Palacus. The most important centres of Crimea, Tauric Chersonesus and the Bosporan Kingdom, readily surrendered their independence in return for Mithridates' promises to protect them against the Scythians, their ancient enemies. After several abortive attempts to invade the Crimea, the Scythians and the allied Rhoxolanoi suffered heavy losses at the hands of the Pontic general Diophantus and accepted, albeit at the point of the sword, Mithridates as their overlord. NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... The Pontic steppe refers to the steppelands to the north of the Black Sea and on its eastern side as far as the Caspian Sea. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Palacus or Palakus was the king of Lesser Scythia who succeeded his father, Skilurus. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... The Bosporan Kingdom, which was located on the Crimea peninsula, existed in the time of the Roman Empire. ... Rhoxolani were Sarmatian tribes that migrated in the 3rd and 4th century BC from the territories north of Azov Sea toward the Danube, in what is now the Baragan steppes in Romania. ... For the mathematician, see Diophantus. ...


The young king then turned his attention to Anatolia, where the Roman power was on the rise. He contrived to partition Paphlagonia and Galatia with Nicomedes III of Bithynia. It soon became clear to Mithridates that Nicomedes steered his country into an anti-Pontic alliance with the expanding Roman Republic. When Mithridates fell out with Nicomedes over control of Cappadocia and defeated him in a series of battles, the latter was constrained to openly enlist the assistance of Rome. The Romans twice interfered into the conflict on behalf of Nicomedes (92 and 95 BC), making the Roman-Pontic war inevitable. Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nicomedes III, known as Philopator, was the king of Bithynia, from 91 to 74 BC. He was the son and successor of Nicomedes II. His brother Socrates, assisted by Mithradates, drove him out, but he was reinstated by the Romans. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Look up Cappadocia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Mithridatic Wars

Mithridatic Wars
FirstSecondThird

The next ruler of Bithynia, Nicomedes IV, was a figurehead manipulated by the Romans. Mithridates plotted to overthrow him, but his attempts failed and Nicomedes, instigated by his Roman advisors, declared war on Pontus. Mithridates invaded Bithynia and promptly overran the country, leading his troops all the way to the Propontis. There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and Pontus in the first century BC. They are named for Mithridates VI who was King of Pontus at the time, and a famous enemy of Rome. ... The First Mithridatic War was fought between the Roman Republic and Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius, the king of Pontus. ... The Second Mithridatic War (83-82 BCE) was fought between King Mithridates VI of Pontus and the Roman general Lucius Murena At the end of the First Mithridatic War, Sulla had left Mithridates in control of his kingdom of Pontus. ... Third Mithridatic War (75 - 65 BC) Mithridates VI had long been a thorn in Romes side, having launched two wars against the Roman Republic, in the early 1st century B.C. In response to the chaos in Rome, following the terror of Marius and Sullas dictatorship, the Empire... Nicomedes IV, known as Philopator, was the king of Bithynia, from c. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea...


The kingdom Pontus comprised a mixed population in its Ionian Greek and Anatolian cities. The royal family became fully hellenised after the capital was moved to the Greek city of Sinope. Its rulers tried to fully assimilate the potential of their subjects by showing a Greek face to the Greek world and an Iranian/Anatolian face to the Eastern world. Whenever the gap between the rulers and their Anatolian subject became greater, they would put emphasis on their Persian origins. In this manner, the royal propaganda claimed heritage both from Persian and Greek rulers, including Cyrus, Darius I, Seleucus I and Alexander the Great[1]. Mithridates too posed as the champion of Hellenism, but this was mainly to further his political ambitions; it is no proof that he felt a mission to promote its extension within his domains[2]. Whatever his true intentions, the Greek cities (including Athens) defected to the side of Mithridates and welcomed his armies in mainland Greece, while his fleet besieged the Romans at Rhodes. The Ionians were one of the three main ancient Greek ethno-linguistic groups, linked by their use of the Ionic dialect of the Greek language. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ...


Tigranes II, king of neighboring Armenia, established an alliance with Mithridates and married the Pontic leader's daughter, Cleopatra. They would support each other in the coming conflict with Rome.[3] Tigranes II (140 BC - 55 BC; also spelt Tigran and Dikran) was a king of Armenia. ... Cleopatra of Pontus (born 110 BC) was the Pontian wife of Tigranes the Great and daughter of Mithridates VI of Pontus. ...


After conquering western Anatolia in 88 BC, Mithridates VI reportedly ordered the killing of all Romans living there. The alleged massacre of 80,000 Roman men, women and children in an incident known as the Asiatic Vespers brought matters to a head. During the First Mithridatic War fought between 88 BC and 84 BC, Lucius Cornelius Sulla forced Mithridates VI out of Greece proper but then had to return to Italy to answer the threat posed by Marius; subsequently, Mithridates VI was defeated but not beaten. A peace was made between Rome and Pontus, but this proved a mere temporary setback. Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC - 88 BC - 87 BC 86 BC 85... Asiatic Vespers - (Night of the Vespers) Date: Exact Date Unknown; circa 88-83 B.C.E. Mithridates Eupator VI of Pontus (Mithridates the Great) ordered the excecution of roughly 100,000 Italians that were Roman citizens or any person who spoke with an Latin accent. ... The First Mithridatic War was fought between the Roman Republic and Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius, the king of Pontus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC - 88 BC - 87 BC 86 BC 85... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC - 84 BC - 83 BC 82 BC 81... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC), usually known simply as Sulla,[2] was a Roman general and dictator. ... Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)¹ (157 BC - January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ...


Mithridates recouped his forces, and when Rome attempted to annex Bithynia, Mithridates VI attacked with an even larger army, leading to the Second Mithridatic War from 83 BC to 82 BC. First Lucullus and then Pompey the Great were sent against Mithridates VI, who was at last defeated by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War of 75 BC to 65 BC. Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... The Second Mithridatic War (83-82 BCE) was fought between King Mithridates VI of Pontus and the Roman general Lucius Murena At the end of the First Mithridatic War, Sulla had left Mithridates in control of his kingdom of Pontus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC - 82 BC - 81 BC 80 BC 79... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... This article refers to the Roman General. ... Third Mithridatic War (75 - 65 BC) Mithridates VI had long been a thorn in Romes side, having launched two wars against the Roman Republic, in the early 1st century B.C. In response to the chaos in Rome, following the terror of Marius and Sullas dictatorship, the Empire... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC - 75 BC - 74 BC 73 BC 72... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62...


After his final defeat in 65 BC, Mithridates VI fled to Crimea and attempted to raise yet another army to take on the Romans but failed to do so. In 63, he withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum. Later he marched north with a small number of men. At Colchis he commandeered a fleet and went to his eldest son, Manchares, the king of Cimmerian Bosporus. However, when he arrived he found his son had betrayed him. Manchares committed suicide and Mithridates took the throne of the Bosporan Kingdom. Mithridates ordered the conscription of many Scythians in order to regain his kingdom. Pharnaces II, his younger son, led a new Scythian rebellion against his father. This rebellion was stirred by Roman exiles that Mithridates kept as the core of his Pontic army. Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... Panticapaeum and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea. ... The Cimmerian Bosphorus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 The Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus Cimmerius) was the ancient name for the Strait of Kerch that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. ... The Bosporan Kingdom, which was located on the Crimea peninsula, existed in the time of the Roman Empire. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Pharnaces II was the son of the great Mithridates, a famed enemy of the Roman empire. ...


Propaganda

Where his ancestors pursued philhellenism as a means of attaining respectability and prestige among the Hellenistic world, Mithridates VI made use of Hellenism as a political tool. As protector of Greek cities on the Black Sea and in Asia against barbarism, Mithridates VI logically became protector of Greece and Greek culture, and would use this stance in his clashes with Rome.[4] Strabo mentions that Chersonesus buckled under the pressure of the barbarians and asked Mithridates VI to become its prostates (7.4.3. c.308). The most impressive symbol of Mithridates VI's approbation with Greece (Athens in particular) appears at Delos: a heroon dedicated to the Pontic king in 102/1 by the Athenian Helianax, a priest of Poseidon Aisios.[4]Greek styles mixed with Persian elements abound on official Pontic coins - Perseus was favored as an intermediary between both worlds, East and West.[4] A dedication at Delos, by Dicaeus, a priest of Sarapis, was made in 94/93 on behalf of the Athenians, Romans, and "King Mithridates Eupator Dionysus."[4] Greek styles mixed with Persian elements also abound on official Pontic coins - Perseus was favored as an intermediary between both worlds, East and West.[4] Philhellenism (the love of Greek culture) was the intellectual fashion at the turn of the 19th century that led Europeans like Lord Byron to lend their support for the Greek movement towards independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... The northwest heroon at Sagalassos, Turkey A heroon (plural heroa, also called a heroum) was a shrine dedicated to an ancient Greek or Roman hero and was used for the commemoration or worship of the hero. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... This page refers to the god Serapis. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ...


Certainly influenced by Alexander the Great, Mithridates VI extended his propaganda from "defender" of Greece to the "great liberator" of the Greek world as war with Rome became inevitable. The Romans were easily translated into "barbarians," in the same sense as the Persian Empire during the war with Persia in the first half of the 5th century and during Alexander's campaign. How many Greeks genuinely bought into this claim will never be known. It served its purpose, however. At least partially because of it, Mithridates VI was able to fight the First War with Rome on Greek soil, and maintain the allegiance of Greece.[4] Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The First Mithridatic War was fought between the Roman Republic and Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius, the king of Pontus. ...


Death

When Mithridates VI was at last defeated by Pompey and in danger of capture by Rome, he is alleged to have attempted suicide by poison; this attempt failed, however, because of his immunity to the poison.[5][6] According to Appian's Roman History, he then made a servant, Bituitus, kill him by the sword: Suicide (Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of intentionally taking ones own life. ...

Mithridates then took out some poison that he always carried next to his sword, and mixed it. There two of his daughters, who were still girls growing up together, named Mithridates and Nyssa, who had been betrothed to the kings of [Ptolemaic] Egypt and of Cyprus, asked him to let them have some of the poison first, and insisted strenuously and prevented him from drinking it until they had taken some and swallowed it. The drug took effect on them at once; but upon Mithridates, although he walked around rapidly to hasten its action, it had no effect, because he had accustomed himself to other drugs by continually trying them as a means of protection against poisoners. These are still called the Mithridatic drugs.
Seeing a certain Bituitus there, an officer of the Gauls, he said to him, "I have profited much from your right arm against my enemies. I shall profit from it most of all if you will kill me, and save from the danger of being led in a Roman triumph one who has been an autocrat so many years, and the ruler of so great a kingdom, but who is now unable to die by poison because, like a fool, he has fortified himself against the poison of others. Although I have kept watch and ward against all the poisons that one takes with his food, I have not provided against that domestic poison, always the most dangerous to kings, the treachery of army, children, and friends." Bituitus, thus appealed to, rendered the king the service that he desired.[1] (XVI, §111)

Dio Cassius' Roman History, on the other hand, records his death as murder:

Mithridates had tried to make away with himself, and after first removing his wives and remaining children by poison, he had swallowed all that was left; yet neither by that means nor by the sword was he able to perish by his own hands. For the poison, although deadly, did not prevail over him, since he had inured his constitution to it, taking precautionary antidotes in large doses every day; and the force of the sword blow was lessened on account of the weakness of his hand, caused by his age and present misfortunes, and as a result of taking the poison, whatever it was. When, therefore, he failed to take his life through his own efforts and seemed to linger beyond the proper time, those whom he had sent against his son fell upon him and hastened his end with their swords and spears. Thus Mithridates, who had experienced the most varied and remarkable fortune, had not even an ordinary end to his life. For he desired to die, albeit unwillingly, and though eager to kill himself was unable to do so; but partly by poison and partly by the sword he was at once self-slain and murdered by his foes.[2] (Book 37, chapter 13)

At the behest of Pompey, Mithridates' body was later buried alongside his ancestors at Sinope. (Book 37, chapter 14). Although he died at Panticapaeum, it is the town of Eupatoria in Crimea that commemorates his name. Sinope was an ancient city on the Black Sea, in the region of Galatia, modern-day Sinop, Turkey. ... Panticapaeum and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Also Eupatoria or Evpatoria; town in the Crimea. ...


Legends

Various legends are told of Mithridates VI of Pontus. First, he was supposed to have had a prodigious memory: Pliny the Elder and other historians report that Mithridates could speak the languages of all the twenty-two nations he governed. [3] ("Mithridates, who was king of twenty-two nations, administered their laws in as many languages, and could harangue each of them, without employing an interpreter.") Pliny's account is referred to in the story Funes the Memorious by Jorge Luis Borges. In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Polyglot has several meanings: Look up Polyglot on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The property of speaking multiple languages A polyglot is a person that can speak many languages A polyglot is a book that contains the same text in more than one language, usually a bible such as the first... Funes the Memorious (original Spanish title, Funes el memorioso) is a fantasy short story by Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges. ... Jorge Luis Borges (August 24, 1899 – June 14, 1986) was an Argentine writer who is considered one of the foremost literary figures of the 20th century. ...


Furthermore, Mithridates is said to have lived for seven years in the wilderness as a child, following the assassination of his father, Mithridates V, in 120 BCE. Here he grew strong and accustomed to hardship, before taking on the throne and initiating his conquest of the Black Sea and Asia.[4] Mithridates V Euergetes (in Greek Mιθριδάτης Eυεργέτης; reigned ca. ...


Mithridates is most famously said to have sought to harden himself against poison, both by taking increasing sub-lethal doses of the poisons to build tolerance, and by fashioning a 'universal antidote' to protect him from all earthly poisons. Aulus Cornelius Celsus describes this complex antidote, named Antidotum Mithridaticum, in his De Medicina: The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC—50) was a Roman encyclopedist and possibly, although not likely, a physician. ...

But the most famous antidote is that of Mithridates, which that king is said to have taken daily and by it to have rendered his body safe against danger from poison. It contains costmary 1.66 grams, sweet flag 20 grams, hypericum, gum, sagapenum, acacia juice, Illyrian iris, cardamon, 8 grams each, anise 12 grams, Gallic nard, gentian root and dried rose-leaves, 16 grams each, poppy-tears and parsley, 17 grams each, casia, saxifrage, darnel, long pepper, 20.66 grams each, storax 21 grams, castoreum, frankincense, hypocistis juice, myrrh and opopanax, 24 grams each, malabathrum leaves 24 grams, flower of round rush, turpentine-resin, galbanum, Cretan carrot seeds, 24.66 grams each, nard and opobalsam, 25 grams each, shepherd's purse 25 grams, rhubarb root 28 grams, saffron, ginger, cinnamon, 29 grams each. These are pounded and taken up in honey. Against poisoning, a piece the size of an almond is given in wine. In other affections an amount corresponding in size to an Egyptian bean is sufficient.[4] (Book V, 23:3)

Another large antidote, comprising 54 ingredients, was described by Pliny the Elder in Natural History. The antidote was put in a closed flask in which it was to stay for at least two months. Every day Mithridates VI took this medicine to counteract possible attempts to poison him. Binomial name Tanacetum balsamita [[ ]] Tanacetum balsamita is a perennial temperate herb known as Costmary, Alcost or Balsam herb. ... Binomial name Acorus calamus L. Calamus or Common Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus) is a plant from the Acoraceae family. ... Species See text Hypericum is a genus of about 400 species of flowering plants in the family Clusiaceae, formerly often treated separately in their own family the Hypericaceae. ... Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large viscosity increase in solution, even at small concentrations. ... Species About 1,300; see List of Acacia species Acacia tree in the Serengeti, Tanzania Acacia is a genus of shrubs and trees of Gondwanian origin belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first described from Africa by Linnaeus in 1773. ... Binomial name Elettaria caramomum Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is a pungent aromatic spice belonging to the Zingiberaceae family. ... Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Species See text. ... Species Between 100 and 150, see list Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosa A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. ... A wild field of poppies, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran A poppy is any of a number of showy flowers, born one per stem, belonging to the poppy family. ... Species Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Kassia (also Kassiane, Kassiani, Casia; 810 - bef. ... Species many, see text Saxifraga is a plant genus with about 440 known species of perennials, making it the largest genus of the family Saxifragaceae. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Piper longum L. Long pepper (Piper longum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Storax is the resinous exudate of the Sweetgum, occasionally used in incense or as an aromatic fixative in perfumery. ... Castoreum is the glandular secretion of the beaver. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... Opopanax chironium also known as sweet myrrh or bisabol myrrh, this herb grows one to three feet high and produces a large, yellow flower. ... Malabathrum, also known as Malabar leaf is the name used in classical and medieval texts for the leaf of the plant Cinnamomum tamala. ... For the band, see Turpentine (band). ... Galbanum is an aromatic gum resin, the product of certain Persian plant species, chiefly Ferula galbaniflua (Ferula) and Ferula rubricaulis. ... Nard can be used to mean the following things: Nard, the ancient Persian board game Nard, the flower and its fragrant oil. ... Binomial name Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. ... Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe Ginger is commonly used as a spice in cuisines throughout the world. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Cassia (Indonesian cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones/biscuits. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Egyptian bean can mean: Lablab purpureus Nelumbo nucifera Category: ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ...

There was a king reigned in the East:
There, when kings will sit to feast,
They get their fill before they think
With poisoned meat and poisoned drink.
He gathered all the springs to birth
From the many-venomed earth;
First a little, thence to more,
He sampled all her killing store;
And easy, smiling, seasoned sound,
Sate the king when healths went round.
They put arsenic in his meat
And stared aghast to watch him eat;
They poured strychnine in his cup
And shook to see him drink it up:
They shook, they stared as white’s their shirt:
Them it was their poison hurt.
–I tell the tale that I heard told.
Mithridates, he died old.
A. E. Housman, A Shropshire Lad

Alfred Edward Housman (March 26, 1859 – April 30, 1936), usually known as A.E. Housman, was an English poet and classical scholar, now best known for his cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad. ... A Shropshire Lad is a cycle of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman. ...

Memory

Mithridate was a complicated mixture of ingredients used to cure poisoning during the Renaissance Period. Antidotum Mithridaticum, or Theriac, was used for about 1900 years after Mithridates' death. The most famous sort is called Theriacum Andromachi after Nero's physician. A. E. Housman alludes to Mithridates' antidote, also known as mithridatism, in the poem Terence, This Is Stupid Stuff in A Shropshire Lad. The legend also appears in Dumas's novel The Count of Monte Cristo. Elaborately-gilded drug jar for storing mithridate. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... When King Mithridates was defeated by the Romans they got the recipe for Antidotum Mithridates, a universal antidote created by Mithridates himself. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Alfred Edward Housman (March 26, 1859 – April 30, 1936), usually known as A.E. Housman, was an English poet and classical scholar, now best known for his cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad. ... Mithridates VI of Pontus, (132 BC- 63 BC), called Eupator Dionysius, was the king of Pontus in Asia Minor and one of Romes most formidable and successful enemies. ... A Shropshire Lad is a cycle of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman. ... Alexandre Dumas, père, born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (July 24, 1802 – December 5, 1870) was a French writer, best known for his numerous historical novels of high adventure which have made him one of the most widely read French authors in the world. ... The Count of Monte Cristo (French: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ...


The demise of Mithridates VI is detailed in the 1673 play Mithridates written by Jean Racine. This play is the basis for several 18th century operas including one of Mozart's earliest, known most commonly by its Italian name, Mitridate, re di Ponto (1770). The Last King is a historical novel by Michael Curtis Ford about the King and his exploits against the Roman Republic. 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jean Racine. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Mitridate, re di Ponto (Mithridates, King of Pontus), K. 87 (74a), is an early opera seria in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Michael Curtis Ford is an American historical novelist, writing novels about Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece. ...


In The Grass Crown the second in the Masters of Rome series, Colleen McCullough, the Australian writer, describes in detail the various aspects of his life - the murder of his sister/wife Laodice, his experiments with poison, and his fear and hatred of Rome. The aging Gaius Marius meets Mithridates in the palace of Ariarathus in Eusebeia Mazaca, a city in Cappadocia, and the former Roman Consul, quite alone and surrounded by the Pontic army, orders Mithridates to leave Cappadocia immediately and go back to Pontus - which he does. Masters of Rome is a series of historical fiction novels by author Colleen McCullough (b. ... Colleen McCullough (born 1 June 1937) is an internationally acclaimed Australian author. ... In Greek mythology, the name Laodice referred to different people but most importantly the wife of Telephus and the Queen of Mysia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Cappadocia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Preceded by
Mithridates V
King of Pontus
120 BC63 BC
Succeeded by
Pharnaces II

Mithridates V Euergetes (in Greek Mιθριδατης Eυεργετης; reigned c. ... This page lists Kings of Pontus, an ancient kingdom in Anatolia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC 121 BC - 120 BC - 119 BC 118 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Pharnaces II of Pontus (63 BC - 47 BC), was the king of Pontus and son of the great Mithridates VI. Pompey had defeated Mithridates VI in 64 BC and gained control of much of Asia Minor, but Pharnaces II attempted to take advantage of the Roman civil war to retake...

See also

Mithridatization is the practice of protecting oneself against a poison by gradually self-administering non-lethal amounts. ... There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and Pontus in the first century BC. They are named for Mithridates VI who was King of Pontus at the time, and a famous enemy of Rome. ...

References

"Poem LVII: Terence, this is stupid stuff." A Shropshire Lad. A.E. Housman (1896) Alfred Edward Housman (March 26, 1859 - April 30, 1936), usually known as A.E. Housman, was an English poet and classical scholar, now best known for his cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad. ...

  1. ^ The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus - p. 11, Brian Charles McGing
  2. ^ 2006 Encyclopaedia Britannica
  3. ^ (Armenian) Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1994). Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume I. Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti, p. 67-76. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g McGing, B. C. (1986). The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, p. 64. 
  5. ^ A History of Rome, LeGlay, et al 100
  6. ^ The Last King, Michael Curtis-Ford (2005) ISBN 0-312-93615-X

...

Further reading

  • McGing, B.C. The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus (Mnemosyne, Supplements; 89). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 1986 (paperback, ISBN 90-04-07591-7).

External links

  • Second and Third Mithridatic War

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mithridates VI of Pontus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (721 words)
Mithridates VI, (in Greek Μιθριδάτης, 132 BC–63 BC), called Eupator Dionysius, also known as Mithridates the Great, was the King of Pontus from 120 BC to 63 BC in Asia Minor and one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies, meeting and engaging three of the most successful generals of the late Republic.
Mithridates VI was the son of Mithridates V of Pontus (150 BC–120 BC), called Euergetes.
When Mithridates VI was at last defeated by Pompey and in danger of capture by Rome, he is alleged to have attempted suicide by poison but was immune because of his antidote.
Mithridates VI of Pontus - definition of Mithridates VI of Pontus in Encyclopedia (530 words)
Mithridates VI of Pontus, (132 BC- 63 BC), called Eupator Dionysius, was the king of Pontus in Asia Minor and one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies.
Mithridates was the son of Mithridates V of Pontus, called Euergetes.
The second legend is that Mithridates sought to harden himself against poisoning by taking increasing sub-lethal doses of the poisons he knew of until he was able to tolerate lethal doses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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