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Zoroastrianism

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Zoroastrianism (Avestan Daēnā Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ...

Primary Topics

Zoroastrianism / Mazdaism
Ahura Mazda
Zarathustra (Zoroaster)
aša (asha) / arta Zoroastrianism (Avestan DaÄ“nā Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Vedic Sanskrit, Rta literally means the course of things. ...

Angels and Demons

Overview of the Angels
Amesha Spentas · Yazatas
Ahuras · Daevas
Angra Mainyu Zoroastrian angelology is branch of Zoroastrian doctrine that deals with the hierarchical system of divinities introduced by the reforms of Zarathustra (Zoroaster). ... In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ... The Daeva are a fictional clan of vampires in the role-playing game Vampire: The Requiem, published by White Wolf Game Studio . ... Angra Mainyu (Avestan) or Ahriman (Middle Persian اهريمن) is the evil counterpart of the deity Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. ...

Scripture and Worship

Avesta · Gathas
Vendidad
The Ahuna Vairya Invocation
Fire Temples
See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Farvashi, as mentioned in the Yasna, Yashts and Vendidad The Avesta is a collection of the sacred texts of the Mazdaist (Zoroastrian) religion. ... Ahuna Vairya is the Avestan language name of the most sacred of the Gathic hymns of the Avesta, the revered texts of Zoroastrianism. ... A Zoroastrian Fire Temple is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. ...

Accounts and Legends

Dēnkard · Bundahišn
Book of Arda Viraf
Book of Jamasp
Story of Sanjan
The Denkard is the largest encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism written in 9th century. ... Category: ... The Book of Arda Viraf is a Zoroastrian religious text which describes the dream-journey of a devout Zoroastrian through the next world. ... The Jamasp Nameh (var: Jāmāsp Nāmag, Jāmāsp Nāmeh, Story of Jamasp) is a Middle Persian book of revelations. ... The Qissa-i Sanjan (or Kisse-i Sanjan, the Story of Sanjan) is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. ...

History and Culture

Zurvanism
Calendar · Festivals
Marriage
Eschatology
Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... Zoroastrianism has numerous festivals and holy days, all of which are bound to the Zoroastrian calendar. ... In the Zoroastrian faith marriage is encouraged, an institution greatly favoured by the religious texts[1]. As of such, a Zoroastrian Wedding is a cause for celebration. ... Zoroastrianism eschatology is the oldest eschatology in recorded history. ...

Adherents

Parsis · Iranis
Zoroastrians in Iran
• • •
Persecution of Zoroastrians A Parsi (Gujarati: Pārsī, IPA: ), sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of the close-knit Zoroastrian community based in the Indian subcontinent. ... Irani is a term used to denote Indian Zoroastrians whose ancestors emigrated from Iran within the last two centuries, as opposed to the longer residing Parsis. ... Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. ...

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Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... Zoroastrianism (Avestan DaÄ“nā Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ...


Mithra is descended, together with the Vedic deity Mitra, from a common proto-Indo-Iranian entity *mitra (pronounced the same way as Mithra). This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... This article is about the Vedic deity Mitra. ... *mitra (Proto-Indo-Iranian, nominative *mitras) was an important Indo-Iranian divinity. ...

Contents

Etymology

The proto-Indo-Iranian word *mitra- could mean either "covenant, contract, oath, or treaty", or "friend". A general meaning of "alliance" adequately explains both alternatives. The second sense tends to be emphasized in Indic sources, the first sense in Iranian. The word is from a root mi- "to bind", with the "tool suffix" -tra-. A contract is thus described as a "means of binding" . The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ...


The first extant record of Mitra/Mithra is in the inscribed peace treaty between Hittites and the Hurrian kingdom of the Mitanni in the area southeast of Lake Van, c. 1400 BCE. There Mitra/Mithra appears in the company of Varuna, Indra and the twin horsemen (Ashwini Twins), the Nasatyas, as the five beings invoked as witnesses and keepers of the pact, and all of whom the rulers of the Mitanni apparently worshipped. (Campbell, 1964 p 256). Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: Վանա լիճ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... (Redirected from 1400 BCE) (15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC - other centuries) (1400s BC - 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC - 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC - 1300s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1344... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... Ashwini Kumaras, in Hindu mythology, are the twins who were physicians of the Gods. ... The Ashvins ( possessor of horses, horse tamer, cavalier, dual ) are divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda, sons of Saranya, a goddess of the dawn and wife of either Surya or Vivasvat. ...


In Zoroastrianism

The reforms of Zoroaster retained the multitudes of pre-Zoroastrian divinities, reducing them in a complex hierarchy to "immortals" who, under the supremacy of the Creator Ahura Mazda, were now either ahuras or daevas. In this scheme, Mithra is a member of the ahuric triad, protectors of asha, the order of the universe. Mithra is additionally the protector of truth and justice and the source of cosmic light. In Middle Persian Mithra came to be known as Meher. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ... The Daeva are a fictional clan of vampires in the role-playing game Vampire: The Requiem, published by White Wolf Game Studio . ... In Vedic Sanskrit, Rta literally means the course of things. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Mehr or Meher can mean several things: Mehr or Meher (in Persian: مهر) means sun and love. ...

Relief from Taq-i Bostan in Kermanshah, Iran, showing Ardashir I of Sassanid Empire at the center receiving his crown from Ahura Mazda. The two stand on a prostrate enemy. Here at the left is Mithra as a priest, wearing a crown of sun-rays, holding a priest's barsam, and standing on a sacred lotus.
Relief from Taq-i Bostan in Kermanshah, Iran, showing Ardashir I of Sassanid Empire at the center receiving his crown from Ahura Mazda. The two stand on a prostrate enemy. Here at the left is Mithra as a priest, wearing a crown of sun-rays, holding a priest's barsam, and standing on a sacred lotus.

Mithra is not present in the Gathas of Zarathustra (Zoroaster) but appears in the younger Yashts of the Avesta (Campbell p 257). There, Mithra comes to the fore among the created beings. "I created him" Ahura Mazda declares to Zoroaster, "to be as worthy of sacrifice and as worthy of prayer as myself" (Campbell, loc. cit.). In the Yashts, Mithra gains the title of "Judge of Souls" and is assigned the domain of human welfare (which he shares with the Creator). Mithra occupies an intermediate position in the Zoroastrian hierarchy as the greatest of the yazata, created by Ahura Mazda (Ormuzd in later Persian) to aid in the destruction of evil and the administration of the world. He is then the divine representative of the Creator on earth, and is directed to protect the righteous from the demonic forces of Angra Mainyu (Ahriman in later Persian). Image File history File links ArdashirII_. ... Image File history File links ArdashirII_. ... Frontal view of the two arches. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Ṣāṣānīyān) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Zarathustra can refer to one of two people: Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, was an ancient Iranian prophet, founder of the Zoroastrian religion. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... Angra Mainyu (Avestan) or Ahriman (Middle Persian اهريمن) is the evil counterpart of the deity Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. ... Angra Mainyu or Ahriman was the evil spirit in the dualistic strain of Zoroastrianism. ...


As the protector of truth and the enemy of error, Mithra occupied an intermediate position in the Zoroastrian pantheon as the greatest of the yazatas, the beings created by Ahuramazda to aid in the destruction of evil and the administration of the world. He was thus a divinity of the realms of air and light, and, by transfer to the moral realm, the manifestation of truth and loyalty. As the enemy of darkness and evil spirits, he protected souls, accompanying them to paradise, and was thus a redeemer. Because light is accompanied by heat, he was the promoter of vegetation and increase; he rewarded the good with prosperity and annihilated the bad. Paradise, by Jan Bruegel The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. ...


In Persian culture

Antiochus and Mithra, with radiate phrygian cap, bas-relief of the temple built by Antiochus I of Commagene, 69-31 BCE, on the Nemrood Dagh, in the Taurus Mountains.
Antiochus and Mithra, with radiate phrygian cap, bas-relief of the temple built by Antiochus I of Commagene, 69-31 BCE, on the Nemrood Dagh, in the Taurus Mountains.

While in older Zoroastrianism Mithra is seen as a creation of Ahura Mazda, in later Persian culture, Mithra evolved to be an incarnation of Ahura Mazda [1], and in his role as 'Judge of Souls' as the rewarder of good and annihilator of the bad. Mithra was seen as omniscient, undeceivable, infallible, eternally watchful, and never-resting. Image File history File links Mithra&Antiochus. ... Image File history File links Mithra&Antiochus. ... Phrygian can refer to: A person from Phrygia The Phrygian language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Antiochus I Theos was king of the small Middle East kingdom of Kommagene (69 - 40 BC). ... Landscape view of the mountain Nemrud Dağı(also known as Nemrut DaÄŸ, Mount Nemrud, and/or Mount Nemrut) is a 2,150 meter high mountain near the Ankar mountains in Anatolia, southeastern Turkey. ... Demirkazık Summit [IN CHINA] The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros DaÄŸları, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in the southeastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish: Fırat) descends into Syria. ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ...


Similarly, while in the Sirozeh, Mithra is also referred to as Dae-pa-Meher, or Creator of Meher, this separation between 'Meher' and the 'Creator of Meher' dissolves in later texts and the distinguishing characteristics of Mithra and Meher blend. Mithra, reincorporated as "Meher", thus also becomes the representative of truth and justice, and, by transfer to the physical realm, the divinity of air and light. As the enemy of darkness and evil spirits, he protected souls, a psychopomp accompanying them to paradise. As heat accompanying light, Mithra became associated with growth and resultant prosperity. Many sets of religious beliefs have a particular spirit, deity, demon or angel whose responsibility is to escort newly-deceased souls to the afterlife, such as Heaven or Hell. ... Paradise, by Jan Bruegel The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. ...


Mithra worship spread first with the empire of the Persians throughout Asia Minor, then throughout the empire of Alexander and his successors. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ...


By at least the 3rd century BCE, Mithra was identified as the progeny of Anahita, a mother-entity who is not mentioned in the Gathas of the very early Avesta texts, but is described in the fifth Yasht of the newer texts as "the wide-expanding and health-giving". The largest temple with a Mithraic connection is the Seleucid temple at Kangavar in western Iran (c. 200 BC), which is dedicated to "Anahita, the Immaculate Virgin Mother of the Lord Mithras". (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... Temple of Anahita: goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ...


The Parthian princes of Armenia were hereditary priests of Mithra, and an entire district of this land was dedicated to Anahita. Many temples were erected to Mithra in Armenia, which remained one of the last strongholds of the Mazdaist cult of Mithra until it became the first officially Christian kingdom. Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Temple of Anahita: goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ...


Royal names incorporating Mithra's (e.g. "Mithradates") appear in the dynasties of Parthia, Armenia, and in Anatolia, in Pontus and Cappadocia.


In the Vedas

Vedic Mitra is the patron divinity of honesty, friendship, contracts and meetings. He is a prominent deity of the Rigveda distinguished by a relationship to Varuna, the protector of ṛtá. Together with Varuna, he counted among the Adityas, a group of solar deities. They are the supreme keepers of order and gods of the law. This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... (Sanskrit: ऋत) as used in Vedic Sanskrit, or in English Rta, literally means the order or course of things, cognate to Avestan . ... In Hinduism, the s are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kashyapa. ... It has been suggested that Sun cults be merged into this article or section. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ...


Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the oath, often twinned or identified as Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound). In the Vedic hymns, Mitra is often invoked together with Varuna, so that the two are combined in a dvandva as Mitra-Varuna. Varuna is lord of the cosmic rhythm of the celestial spheres, while Mitra brings forth the light at dawn, which was covered by Varuna. Mitra together with Varuna is the most prominent Asura, and the chief of the Adityas, in the Rigveda. It should be noted, however, that Mitra and Varuna are also addressed as Devas in Rigveda (e.g., RV 7.60.12), and in the only hymn dedicated to Mitra, he is referred to as a Deva (mitrasya...devasya) in RV 3.59.6. *mitra (Proto-Indo-Iranian, nominative *mitras) was an important Indo-Iranian divinity. ... An oath (from Old Saxon eoth) is either a promise or a statement of fact calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually a god, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact. ... A dvandva or copulative or coordinative compound refers to two or more objects that could be connected in sense by the conjunction and. Dvandvas are common in some languages such as Sanskrit, where the term originates, and Japanese, but less common in English (The term is not often found in... Veda redirects here. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... A dvandva or copulative or coordinative compound refers to two or more objects that could be connected in sense by the conjunction and. Dvandvas are common in some languages such as Sanskrit, where the term originates, and Japanese, but less common in English (The term is not often found in... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... In Hinduism, the Adityas are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kasyapa. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... Deva can refer to: Deva (Hinduism), a Hindu deity. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... The seventh Mandala of the Rigveda has 104 hymns. ... Deva can refer to: Deva (Hinduism), a Hindu deity. ... The third Mandala of the Rigveda has 62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ...


The pairing with Varuna, a god unknown in Iranian religion, is very strong already in the Rigveda, which has few hymns where Mitra is mentioned without Varuna. RV 3.59 is the only hymn dedicated to Mitra exclusively, where he is lauded as a god of order and stability and as a giver of laws (2b, vrata), the sustainer of mankind (6a, carani-dhrt, literally "of cultivators", said also of Indra in 3.37.4c) and of all gods (8c, devān vishvān). The third Mandala of the Rigveda has 62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... The word Visvadevas means Lords of the Universe or All Gods. The term is used to address the various gods as a whole. ...

3.59.1 Mitra, when speaking, stirreth men to labour: Mitra sustaineth both the earth and heaven.
Mitra beholdeth men with eyes that close not. To Mitra bring, with holy oil, oblation. (trans. Griffith)

Rigvedic hymns to Mitra-Varuna are RV 1.136, 137, 151-153, RV 5.62-72, RV 6.67, RV 7.60-66, RV 8.25 and RV 10.132. The first Mandala (book) of the Rigveda has 191 hymns. ... The fifth Mandala of the Rigveda has 87 hymns. ... The sixth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 75 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... The seventh Mandala of the Rigveda has 104 hymns. ... The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns. ... The tenth Mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns, to Agni and other gods. ...


Where Mitra appears not paired with Varuna, it is often for the purpose of comparison, where other gods are lauded as being "like Mitra", without the hymn being addressed to Mitra himself (Indra 1.129.10, 10.22.1-2 etc.; Agni 1.38.13 etc.; Soma 1.91.3; Vishnu 1.156.1). Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ...


In the Shatapatha Brahmana, Mitravaruna is analyzed as "the Counsel and the Power" — Mitra being the priesthood, Varuna the royal power. As Joseph Campbell remarked, "Both are said to have a thousand eyes. Both are active foreground aspects of the light or solar force at play in time. Both renew the world by their deed." Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 31, 1987) was an American professor, writer, and orator best known for his work in the fields of comparative mythology and comparative religion. ...


In Manichaeism

Persian and Parthian-speaking Manichaeans used the name of Mithra current in their time (Mihryazd, i.e. Mithra-yazata) for two different Manichaean angels. Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...

  1. The first, called Mihryazd by the Persians, was the "The Living Spirit" (Aramaic rūḥā ḥayyā), a savior-figure who rescues the "First Man" from the demonic Darkness into which he had plunged.
  2. The second, known as Mihr or Mihr yazd among the Parthians, is "The Messenger" (Aramaic īzgaddā), likewise a savior figure, but one concerned with setting up the structures to liberate the Light lost when the First Man had been defeated.

Remains

Coin of Hermaeus, with Mithra, wearing a radiated phrygian cap.
Coin of Hermaeus, with seated Zeus-Mithra.

The calendar instituted by the Achaemenid dynasty (c. 648330 BCE), the first Persian empire, was based on the Egyptian solar calendar, which had months of the year and days of the month dedicated to their divinities. The Achaemenids replaced these with divinities from the Zoroastrian faith, and the fifteenth day of each month was consecrated to Mithra ("Dae-pa-Meher"). The sixteenth day of each month and one month of the year were consecrated to Meher, whose identity blends with that of Mithra in later Persian culture. These calendarial dedications are still present in the religious calendar of the Zoroastrians. The month that was consecrated to Meher in pre-Islamic times was revived as the name of the seventh month of the year in the official national calendar of Iran of 1925. ImageMetadata File history File links HermaiosMithra. ... ImageMetadata File history File links HermaiosMithra. ... Silver drachm of king Hermaeus (90-70 BCE). ... ImageMetadata File history File links HermaiosZeusMithra. ... ImageMetadata File history File links HermaiosZeusMithra. ... Silver drachm of king Hermaeus (90-70 BCE). ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Mehr or Meher can mean several things: Mehr or Meher (in Persian: مهر) means sun and love. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ‎) also known as Persian calendar or the Jalāli Calendar is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan. ...


The festivities in the week following the winter solstice (after which the days grow longer), today called Shab-e Yalda in Iran, are a remnant of the culture which celebrated the birth of the divinity of light on that day. Yalda literally means "The birth of sun". A solstice is either of the two events of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the equatorial plane. ... A variety of foodstuff that are consumed on Yalda Yaldā also known as Shab-e Cheleh is celebrated on the eve of the first day of the winter (December 21) in the Iranian calendar, which falls on the Winter Solstice. ...


Prior to the fall of the Sassanid empire in 651 CE, after which Zoroastrianism and Mazdaism were supplanted by Islam, Mithraic temples could be found throughout the empire. The extant remains mentioned by David Fingrut, 1993 include: The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Ṣāṣānīyān) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ...

Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Khorheh ruins near Mahallat. ... Nisa may refer to these following topics: Nisa (village) - an ancient village in Turkmenistan Nisa - a rare female name, e. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ...

Popular culture

  • 'Mithra' are a race of cat-people found in the MMORPG Final Fantasy XI.
  • There was a dungeon called Tomb of Mithra in the realm of Albion for low level characters in the MMORPG called Dark Age of Camelot (DAoC). The setting is probably a tomb of the Roman Mithra (as opposed to the Persian Mithra) as Albion represented England just after the Romans drew back to mainland Europe and left the British Isles to fend for itself. One or more Roman religions could've left a mark on the British Isles to be practiced by Celts, Britons, or Romans who stayed behind.
See also: Roman_Britain#Religion
  • The Apollo asteroid 4486 Mithra was named after Mithra.
  • Represented as twin boys with the voices of old men in the videogame Killer7. Mithra in this context is described as the god of contrast, possibly Roman.
  • The Playstation RPG Persona 2 features Mithra as both an enemy and a Persona.
  • The PS2 RPG Shin Megami Tensei: Nocturne features Mithra as a playable character.
  • The PS2 RPG Valkyrie Profile: Silmeria has a character named Mithra, presumably after the God.
  • In the computer game Rebel Moon Rising, the cheat code "fwmithra" gives temporary invulnerability
  • The alternative rock band 30 Seconds To Mars named the logo of their self-titled debut album "Mithra," which featured a symbol of a phoenix.
  • A member of the Korean hip-hop group Epik High goes by the name "Mithra"

Final Fantasy XI ), also known as Final Fantasy XI: Online or simply Final Fantasy Online, is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed and published by Square Enix Co. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... The Apollo asteroid 25143 Itokawa. ... 4486 Mithra is an Apollo and Mars-crosser asteroid. ... Killer7 is a video game jointly developed and published by Grasshopper Manufacture and Capcom for the GameCube and PlayStation 2. ... Rebel Moon Rising is a video game made by Fenris Wolf and GT Interactive. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kjeilen, Tore. Mithra. Encyclopaedia of the Orient. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ...

References

  • Malandra, William (1983). An Introduction to Ancient Iranian Religion. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1115-7. 

External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mithraism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4948 words)
Mithra was worshiped as a god by proto aryan Indo-Iranians and Mithraism is generally considered to be of Persian origins, specifically an outgrowth of Zoroastrian culture, though not of Zoroaster's teachings.
Mithra’s triumph and ascension to heaven were celebrated during the spring equinox, as during Easter, when the sun rises toward its apogee.
Mithraism: Zorostrian Gnosticism According to David Livingstone, an early variation of Mithraism was practiced by Zoroastrian heretics, falsely called "Magi", and influenced the Greek Mysteries of Dionysus.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Mithraism (3058 words)
Mithraism was emphatically a soldier religion: Mithra, its hero, was especially a divinity of fidelity, manliness, and bravery; the stress it laid on good fellowship and brotherliness, its exclusion of women, and the secret bond amongst its members have suggested the idea that Mithraism was Masonry amongst the Roman soldiery.
Mithra was born of a mother-rock by a river under a tree.
Mithraism had a Eucharist, but the idea of a sacred banquet is as old as the human race and existed at all ages and amongst all peoples.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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