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Encyclopedia > Mitanni
Kingdom of Mitanni
Kingdom of Mitanni
Ancient Mesopotamia
Euphrates · Tigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: Uruk · Ur · Eridu
Kish · Lagash · Nippur
Akkadian Empire: Akkad
Babylon · Isin · Susa
Assyria: Assur · Nineveh
Dur-Sharrukin · Nimrud
Babylonia · Chaldea
Elam · Amorites
Hurrians · Mitanni
Kassites · Urartu
Chronology
Kings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Language
Aramaic
Sumerian · Akkadian
Elamite · Hurrian
Mythology
Enûma Elish
Gilgamesh · Marduk

Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat 𒄩𒉌𒃲𒁁) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. 1500 BC, at the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, encompassing what is today southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq (roughly corresponding to Kurdistan), centered around the capital Washshukanni in today's Al Hasakah Governorate of northern Syria. In Neo-Assyrian times, the name was used as a geographical term for the area between the Khabur river and Euphrates rivers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Image File history File links Babylonlion. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian AÅ¡Å¡ur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or AmurrÅ«m (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This page lists the Kings of Lamestia from the late sixties. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enûma EliÅ¡ is the Babylonian creation epic. ... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. He is also the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which says that his mother was Ninsun, (whom some call Rimat... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Sumerian mythology, KUR (Primeval Snake and Dragon) was a monstrous dragon with scaly body and massive wings. ... Especie semi extinta en argentina que paso a la fama por maracar su territorio en cada arbol del barrio de urquiza. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistan/كوردستان, literally meaning the land of Kurds[2]; Ancient: Corduene, old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also Kurdish: ) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited predominantly by the Kurds. ... Washshukanni (also spelled Wassuganni, Vasukhani, or a combination of these variants) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni (c. ... The Al Hasakah Governorate (Arabic: مُحافظة الحسكة, Kurdish: Hesîçe) is a governorate in the far north-east corner of Syria that has the Euphrates river running through it. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other...


The Mitanni kingdom is thought to have been a feudal state led by a warrior nobility of Indo-Aryan descent, invading the region at some point during the 17th century BC in the course of the Indo-Aryan migration that separated the Middle Bronze Age. The spread to Syria of a distinct pottery type associated with the Kura-Araxes culture has been connected with this movement, although its date is somewhat too early.[1] Mitanni is often associated with the modern Armenians and Kurds [2]. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The Kura-Araxes culture was a important Chalcolithic (copper-stone age) and bronze age culture that flourished in the Caucasus, eastern Anatolia and northwestern Iran from about 4000 B.C. to 2200 B.C. after which they were presumably overrun and absorbed by the Hurrians, who swept down from the... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...

Contents

Geography

Mitanni in northern Mesopotamia extended from Nuzi (modern Kirkuk) and the river Tigris in the east, to Aleppo and middle Syria (Nuhashshe) in the west. Its centre was in the Khabur river valley, with two capitals: Taite and Washshukanni, called Taidu and Ushshukana respectively in Assyrian sources. (Vasu-khani would mean "mine of wealth" in Sanskrit, but cf. Luwian vasu- "good", Bashkani in modern Kurdish: good water source) The whole area allows agriculture without artificial irrigation; cattle, sheep and goats were raised. It is very similar to Assyria in climate, and was settled by both indigenous Hurrian and Amoritic-speaking (Amurru) populations. Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... Taite (called Taidu in Assyrian sources) was one of the capitals of the Mitanni Empire. ... Washshukanni (also spelled Wassuganni, Vasukhani, or a combination of these variants) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni (c. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luwiyan) is an Anatolian language known in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ...


Hurri, Mitanni/Maitani, and Hanigalbat

"Mitanni" seems to have been the native term; this entity may also have been the Biblical Harran, though this is contested. We may assume a Hurrian population with an Indo-Aryan aristocracy. Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Şanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Şanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ...


Hittite annals mention a people called "Khurri", located in north-eastern Syria. A Hittite fragment, probably from the time of Mursili I, mentions a "King of the Khurri," or "Hurrians." Probably, the original form of the name was "Hurla".[citation needed] The Assyro-Akkadian version of the text renders "Hurri" as Hanigalbat. The Assyrians used the term "Mitanni" as a synonym only after the end of the political entity. Mursili I (also spelled Murshili) was a king of the Hittites (c. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ...


Egyptian sources call Mitanni "nhrn," which is usually pronounced as "Nahrin"[3] from the Akkadian word for 'river', cf. Aram-Naharaim. The name Mitanni or Maitani is first found in the "memoirs" of the Syrian wars (ca. 1480) of the officier Amememhet, who lived at the time of Amenhotep I (1525 - 1504 BC) and maybe his two successors. See Aramaea and Arameans. ... Djeserkare Holy is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari...


People

The ethnicity of the people of Mitanni is difficult to ascertain. The names of the Mitanni aristocracy may reveal an Indo-Aryan origin, but it is specifically their deities which betray Indic roots, though they are probably more immediately related to the Kassites.[4] The common peoples' language, the agglutinative Hurrian language is neither Indo-European nor Semitic.[5] Hurrian, and thus the Hurrians, are relatives of Urartu, but nothing more can be deduced from current evidence.[6] A Hurrian passage in the Amarna letters - usually composed in Akkadian, the lingua franca of the day - indicates that the royal family of Mitanni was by then speaking Hurrian as well. // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ...


Bearers of names in the Hurrian language are attested in wide areas of Syria and the northern Levant that are clearly outside the area of the political entity known to Assyria as Hanilgalbat. There is no indication that these persons owed allegiance to the political entity of Mitanni; although the German term Auslandshurriter ("Hurrian expatriates") has been used by some authors. In the 14th century BC numerous city-states in northern Syria and Canaan were ruled by persons with Hurrian names. If this can be taken to mean that the population of these states was Hurrian as well, then it is possible that these entities were a part of a larger polity with a shared Hurrian identity. This is often assumed, but without a critical examination of the sources. Differences in dialect and regionally different pantheons (Hepat/Shawushka, Sharruma/Tilla etc.) point to the existence of several groups of Hurrian speakers. Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in...


History

No native sources for the history of Mitanni (i.e. Hanilgalbat) have been found so far. The account is mainly based on Assyrian, Hittite and Egyptian sources, as well as inscriptions from nearby places in Syria. Often it is not even possible to establish synchronicity between the rulers of different countries and cities, let alone give uncontested absolute dates. The definition and history of Mitanni is further beset by a lack of differentiation between linguistic, ethnic and political groups.


Summary

It is believed that the warring Hurrian tribes and city states became united under one dynasty after the collapse of Babylon due to the Hittite sack by Mursili I and the Kassite invasion. The Hittite conquest of Aleppo (Yamhad), the weak middle Assyrian kings, and the internal strifes of the Hittites had created a power vacuum in upper Mesopotamia. This led to the formation of the kingdom of Mitanni. Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... Mursili I (also spelled Murshili) was a king of the Hittites (c. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Yamhad (also written Jamhad or Yamkhad) was an ancient Amorite kingdom centered at Halab, Aleppo, in northern Syria. ...


King Barattarna of Mitanni expanded the kingdom west to Halab (Aleppo) and made Idrimi of Alalakh his vassal. The state of Kizzuwatna in the west also shifted its allegiance to Mitanni and Arrapha and Assyria in the east had become Mitannian vassal states by the mid-fifteenth century BC. The nation grew stronger during the reign of Shaushtatar but the Hurrians were keen to keep the Hittites inside the Anatolian highland. Kizzuwatna in the west and Ishuwa in the north were important allies against the hostile Hittites. Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ... Arrapha (ܐܪܦܐ in Assyrian) (Arabic: ‎) was an ancient Assyrian city, that laed in what is today the city of Kirkuk. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ... Ishuwa was an ancient kingdom in Anatolia, Turkey. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was...


After a few clashes with the Pharaohs over the control of Syria Mitanni sought peace with Egypt and an alliance was formed. During the reign of Shuttarna in the early fourteenth century BC the relationship was very amicable, and he sent his daughter Gilukheppa to Egypt for a marriage with Pharaoh Amenhotep III. Mitanni was now at its peak of power. Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s...


At the death of Shuttarna Mitanni was ravaged by fights among different claimants of the throne. Eventually Tushratta, a son of Shuttarna, ascended the throne. Mitanni had however weakened considerably and the Hittites moved closer to its borders. At the same time the diplomatic relationship with Egypt went cold, and the Assyrians threw off the Mitannian yoke. The Hittite king Suppiluliuma I invaded the Mitannian vassal states in northern Syria and replaced them with loyal subjects. Suppiluliuma I (Shuppiluliuma) was king of the Hittites (ca. ...


In the capital Washukanni a new power struggle broke out. The Hittites and the Assyrians supported different pretenders to the throne. Finally a Hittite army conquered the capital Washukkanni and installed Shattiwaza, the son of Tushratta, as their vassal king of Mitanni in the late fourteenth century BC. The kingdom had by now been reduced to the Khabur river valley. The Assyrians had however not given up their claim on Mitanni. In the thirteenth century BC Assyria defeated and annexed the kingdom of Mitanni, or Hanigalbat as it was known by them. Washshukanni (also spelled Wassuganni, Vasukhani, or a combination of these variants) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni (c. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ...


Early kingdom

As early as Akkadian times, Hurrians are known to have lived east of the river Tigris on the northern rim of Mesopotamia, and in the Khabur valley. The group which became Mitanni gradually moved south into Mesopotami sometime before the 17th century BC. Eusebius, writing in the early 4th century, quoted fragments of Eupolemus, a now-lost Jewish historian of the 2nd century BC, as saying that "around the time of Abraham, the Armenians invaded the Syrians". This may correspond approximately to the arrival of the Mitanni, since Abraham is traditionally assumed at around the 17th century BC. The Hurri-Mitanni[7] presumably entered northern Mesopotamia from Armenia. Hurrians are mentioned in the private Nuzi texts, in Ugarit, and the Hittite archives in Hattushsha (Boğazköy). Cuneiform texts from Mari mention rulers of city-states in upper Mesopotamia with both Amurru (Amorite) and Hurrian names. Rulers with Hurrian names are also attested for Urshum and Hashshum, and tablets from Alalakh (layer VII, from the later part of the old-Babylonian period) mention people with Hurrian names at the mouth of the Orontes. There is no evidence for any invasion from the North-east. Generally, these onomastic sources have been taken as evidence for a Hurrian expansion to the South and the West. The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Eupolemus was a Jewish historian whose work survives only in five fragments (or possibly six fragments) in the Eusebius of Caesareas Praeparatio Evangelia (hereafter abbreviated as ) embedded in quotations from the historian Alexander Polyhistor and in the Stromata (hereafter abbreviated as ) of Clement of Alexandria. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... The Lion Gate in the south-west Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Khattushash) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... BoÄŸazkale (formerly known as BoÄŸazköy,Boghazkoy or Hattusas) is a district of Çorum Province, in central Anatolia, Turkey. ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and ÇirmeÅŸ in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ... Alalakh is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ... Onomastics (Onomatology) is the study of proper names of all kinds and the origins of names. ...


A Hittite fragment, probably from the time of Mursili I, mentions a "King of the Hurrians" (LUGAL ERÍN.MEŠ Hurri). This terminology was last used for King Tushratta of Mitanni, in a letter in the Amarna archives. The normal title of the king was 'King of the Hurri-men' (without the determinative KUR indicating a country). Mursili I (also spelled Murshili) was a king of the Hittites (c. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of...


It is believed that the warring Hurrian tribes and city states became united under one dynasty after the collapse of Babylon due to the Hittite sack by Mursili I and the Kassite invasion. The Hittite conquest of Aleppo (Yamkhad), the weak middle Assyrian kings, and the internal strifes of the Hittites had created a power vacuum in upper Mesopotamia. This led to the formation of the kingdom of Mitanni. The legendary founder of the Mitannian dynasty was a king called Kirta, who was followed by a king Shuttarna. Nothing is known about these early kings. Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... Mursili I (also spelled Murshili) was a king of the Hittites (c. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Yamkhad (also written Jamhad) was an ancient Syrian kingdom centered around Aleppo. ... Kirta is a legendary Hurrian king. ... Shuttarna is the name of several Mitanni rulers: Shuttarna I reigned ca. ...


Barattarna / Parsha(ta)tar

King Barattarna is known from a cuneiform tablet in Nuzi and an inscription by Idrimi of Alalakh.[1] Egyptian sources do not mention his name; that he was the king of Naharin whom Thutmose III fought against in the fifteenth century BC can only be deduced from assumptions. Whether Parsha(ta)tar, known from another Nuzi inscription, is the same as Barattarna, or a different king, is debated. Idrimi was the king of Alalakh in the first half of the 15th century BC. Idrimi was a son of the king of Aleppo who had been deposed by the new regional master, Barattarna, king of the Mitanni. ... Alalakh is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu...


Under the rule of Thutmose III, Egyptian troops crossed the Euphrates and entered the core lands of Mitanni. At Megiddo, he fought an alliance of 330 Syrian princes and tribal leaders under the ruler of Kadesh. See Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC). Mitanni had sent troops as well. Whether this was done because of existing treaties, or only in reaction to a common threat, remains open to debate. The Egyptian victory opened the way north. Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Megiddo (Hebrew: ) is a hill in Israel near the modern settlement of Megiddo, known for theological, historical and geographical reasons. ... Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend, about 24 km southwest of Hims (ca. ... The Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC) was fought between Egyptian forces under the command of the pharaoh Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Kadesh. ...


Thutmose III again waged war in Syria in the 33rd year of his rule. The Egyptian army crossed the Euphrates at Carchemish and reached a town called Iryn (maybe present day Erin, 20 km northwest of Aleppo.) They sailed down the Euphrates to Emar (Meskene) and then returned home via Syria. A hunt for elephants at Lake Nija was important enough to be included in the annals. This was impressive PR, but did not lead to any permanent rule. Only the area at the middle Orontes and Phoenicia became part of Egyptian territory. Carchemish (pr. ... It has been suggested that Barbalissos be merged into this article or section. ... The Orontes and the norias of Hama The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ...


Victories over Mitanni are recorded from the Egyptian campaigns in Nuhashshe (middle part of Syria). Again, this did not lead to permanent territorial gains. Barattarna or his son Shaushtatar controlled the North Syrian interior up to Nuhashshe, and the coastal territories from Kizzuwatna to Alalakh in the kingdom of Muksih at the mouth of the Orontes. Idrimi of Alalakh, returning from Egyptian exile, could only ascend his throne with Barattarna's consent. While he got to rule Mukish and Ama'u, Aleppo remained with Mitanni. Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ... Alalakh is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ...


Shaushtatar

Royal seal of Shaushtatar (late 15th century)
Royal seal of Shaushtatar (late 15th century)

Shaushtatar, king of Mitanni, sacked Assur some time in the 15th century, and took the silver and golden doors of the royal palace to Washshukanni. This is known from a later Hittite document, the Suppililiuma-Shattiwaza treaty. After the sack of Assur, Assyria may have paid tribute to Mitanni up to the time of Ashur-uballit I (1365-1330 BC). There is no trace of that in the Assyrian king lists; therefore it is probable that Assur was ruled by a native Assyrian dynasty owing allegiance to the house of Shaushtatar. While a vassal of Mitanni, the temple of Sin and Shamash was built in Assur. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Shaushtatar, also spelled Šauštatar, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the fifteenth century BC. Shaushtatar was the son of Barattarna /Parsatatar and his seal was found in a letter from the archive of Nuzi. ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... Washshukanni (also spelled Wassuganni, Vasukhani, or a combination of these variants) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni (c. ... Ashur-uballit I (Aššur-uballiṭ I), was king of the Assyrian empire (1365 BC-1330 BC or 1353 BC – 1318 BC). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ...


Aleppo, Nuzi, and Arrapha seem to have been incorporated into Mitanni under Shaushtatar as well. The palace of the crown prince, the governor of Arrapha has been excavated. A letter from Shaushtatar was discovered in the house of Shilwe-Teshup. His seal shows heroes and winged geniuses fighting lions and other animals, as well as a winged sun. This style, with a multitude of figures distributed over the whole of the available space, is taken as typically Hurrian. A second seal, belonging to Shuttarna I, but used by Shaushtatar, found in Alalakh, shows a more traditional Akkadian style. Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... Arrapha (ܐܪܦܐ in Assyrian) (Arabic: ‎) was an ancient Assyrian city, that laed in what is today the city of Kirkuk. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... Arrapha (ܐܪܦܐ in Assyrian) (Arabic: ‎) was an ancient Assyrian city, that laed in what is today the city of Kirkuk. ... Seal on envelope A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. ... Stele to Assurnasiripal II at Nimrud (9th century BC), detail showing the winged sun. ... Alalakh is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ...


The military superiority of Mitanni was probably based on the use of two-wheeled war-chariots, driven by the 'Marjannu' people. A text on the training of war-horses, written by a certain "Kikkuli the Mitannian" has been found in the archives recovered at Hattusa. More speculative is the attribution of the introduction of the chariot in Mesopotamia to early Mitanni. Kikkuli, master horse trainer (assussanni) of the land Mitanni (LÚA-AŠ-ŠU-UŠ-ŠA-AN-NI ŠA KUR URUMI-IT-TA-AN-NI, virtually Sanskrit ) is known as the author of Middle Hittite horse training texts, dating to the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BC). ... The Lion Gate in the south-west Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Khattushash) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ...


Under the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II, Mitanni seems to have regained influence in the middle Orontes valley that had been conquered by Thutmose III. Amenhotep fought in Syria in 1425, presumably against Mitanni as well, but did not reach the Euphrates. Aakheperure Great are the forms of Re Nomen Amenhotep Heka Iunu Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Heliopolis Horus name Ka Nakht Wer Pekhty Strong Bull, Great of Power Nebty name User Fau Sekha Em Wast Powerful of Splendour, Appearing in Thebes Golden Horus Ity Sekhemef em Tau Neb Who seizes...


Artatama I and Shuttarna II

Later on, Egypt and Mitanni became allies, and King Shuttarna II himself was received at the Egyptian court. Amicable letters, sumptuous gifts, and letters asking for sumptuous gifts were exchanged. Mitanni was especially interested in Egyptian gold. This culminated in a number of royal marriages: the daughter of King Artatama I was married to Thutmose IV. Kilu-Hepa, or Gilukhipa, the daughter of Shuttarna II, was married to Pharaoh Amenhotep III, who ruled in the early fourteenth century BC. In a later royal marriage Tadu-Hepa, or Tadukhipa, the daughter of Tushratta, was sent to Egypt. Shuttarna II was king of the Mitanni during most of the reign of Amenhotep III. He was the son of King Artatama of Mitanni. ... Artatama I was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the late fifteenth century BC. Little is known of this king who has not left any inscriptions. ... nomen or birth name Menkheperura Thutmose IV (died 1390 BC; sometimes spelled Thutmosis) was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. ... Gilukhipa was daughter of Shuttarna II, king of Mitanni. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Tadukhipa, in Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni (reigned ca. ...


When Amenhotep III fell ill, the king of Mitanni sent him a statue of the goddess Shaushka (Ishtar) of Niniveh that was reputed to cure diseases. A more or less permanent border between Egypt and Mitanni seems to have existed near Qatna on the Orontes River; Ugarit was part of Egyptian territory. Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... This article is about the ancient Middle Eastern city of Nineveh. ... Qatna is an ancient city in Syria, present day Tell-el-Mishrife in the Wadi il-Aswad, a tributary of the Orontes, 18 km northeast of Homs. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ...


The reason Mitanni sought peace with Egypt may have been trouble with the Hittites. A Hittite ruler called Tudhaliya conducted campaigns against Kizzuwatna, Arzawa, Ishuwa, Aleppo, and maybe against Mitanni itself. Kizzuwatna may have fallen to the Hittites at that time. See Tudhaliya I and Tudhaliya II for the kings of the Empire of the same name. ... Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ... Arzawa is a region or kingdom in what was later to be known as Lydia in Western Anatolia. ... Ishuwa was an ancient kingdom in Anatolia, Turkey. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ...


Artashumara and Tushratta

Artashumara followed his father Shuttarna II on the throne, but was murdered by a certain UD-hi, or Uthi. It is uncertain what intrigues that followed, but UD-hi then placed Tushratta, another son of Shuttarna, on the throne. Probably, he was quite young at the time and was intended to serve as a figurehead only. However, he managed to dispose of the murderer, possibly with the help of his Egyptian father-in-law, but this is sheer speculation. Tushratta was a king of the Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten -- approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the son of Shuttarna II, and his daughter Tadukhipa was married to Akhenaten. ...


The Egyptians may have suspected the mighty days of Mitanni were about to end. In order to protect their Syrian border zone the new Pharaoh Akhenaten instead received envoys from the Hittites and Assyria; the former Mitannian vassal state. From the Amarna letters we know how Tushratta's desperate claim for a gold statue from Akhenaten developed into a major diplomatic crisis. Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ...


The unrest weakened the Mitannian control of their vassal states, and Aziru of Amurru seized the opportunity and made a secret deal with the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I. Kizzuwatna, which had seceded from the Hittites, was reconquered by Suppiluliuma. In what has been called his first Syrian campaign, Suppiluliuma then invaded the western Euphrates valley, and conquered the Amurru and Nuhashshe in Mitanni. Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern Lebanon, in the fourteenth century BC. He was the son of Abdi-Ashirta, the previous Egyptian vassal of Amurru. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Suppiluliuma I (Shuppiluliuma) was king of the Hittites (ca. ... Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ...


According to the later Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza treaty, Suppiluliuma had made a treaty with Artatama II, a rival of Tushratta. Nothing is known of this Artatama's previous life or connection, if any, to the royal family. He is called "king of the Hurri", while Tushratta went by the title "King of Mitanni". This must have disagreed with Tushratta. Suppiluliuma began to plunder the lands on the west bank of the Euphrates, and annexed Mount Lebanon. Tushratta threatened to raid beyond the Euphrates if even a single lamb or kid was stolen. Artatama II was an usurper to the throne of king Tushratta of Mitanni in the fourteenth century BC. He may have been a brother of Tushratta or belonged to a rival line of the royal house. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ...


Suppiluliuma then recounts how the land of Ishuwa on the upper Euphrates had seceded in the time of his grandfather. Attempts to conquer it had failed. In the time of his father, other cities had rebelled. Suppiluliuma claims to have defeated them, but the survivors had fled to the territory of Ishuwa, that must have been part of Mitanni. A clause to return fugitives is part of many treaties between sovereign states and between rulers and vassal states, so perhaps the harbouring of fugitives by Ishuwa formed the pretext for the Hittite invasion. Ishuwa was an ancient kingdom in Anatolia, Turkey. ...


A Hittite army crossed the border, entered Ishuwa and returned the fugitives (or deserters or exile governments) to Hittite rule. "I freed the lands that I captured; they dwelt in their places. All the people whom I released rejoined their peoples, and Hatti incorporated their territories."


The Hittite army then marched through various districts towards Washukanni. Suppiluliuma claims to have plundered the area, and to have brought loot, captives, cattle, sheep and horses back to Hatti. He also claims that Tushratta fled, though obviously he failed to capture the capital. While the campaign weakened Mitanni, it did not endanger its existence. Washshukanni (also spelled Wassuganni, Vasukhani, or a combination of these variants) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni (c. ...


In a second campaign, the Hittites again crossed the Euphrates and subdued Halab, Mukish, Niya, Arahati, Apina, and Qatna, as well as some cities whose names have not been preserved. The booty from Arahati included charioteers, who were brought to Hatti together with all their possessions. While it was common practice to incorporate enemy soldiers in the army, this might point to a Hittite attempt to counter the most potent weapon of Mitanni, the war-chariots, by building up or strengthening their own chariot forces. Aleppo is also the name of two townships in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Niya, Niye, and also Niy of Thutmose Is Ancient Egypt, also Nii of the Amarna letters, and Nihe, etc. ...


All in all, Suppiluliuma claims to have conquered the lands "from Mount Lebanon and from the far bank of the Euphrates". But Hittite governors or vassal rulers are mentioned only for some cities and kingdoms. While the Hittites made some territorial gains in western Syria, it seems unlikely that they established a permanent rule east of the Euphrates.


Shattiwaza

A son of Tushratta conspired with his subjects, and killed his father in order to become king. His brother Shattiwaza was forced to flee. In the unrest that followed, the Assyrians asserted their independence under Ashur-uballit, and with the Alsheans invaded the country; and the pretender Artatama/Atratama II gained ascendancy, followed by his son Shuttarna. Suppiluliuma claims that "the entire land of Mittanni went to ruin, and the land of Assyria and the land of Alshi divided it between them", but this sounds more like wishful thinking. This Shuttarna maintained good relations with Assyria, and returned to it the palace doors of Asshur, that had been taken by Shaushtatar. Such booty formed a powerful political symbol in ancient Mesopotamia. Shattiwaza, also spelled Å attiwaza, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the fourteenth century BC. Shattiwaza was the son of king Tushratta. ...


The fugitive Shattiwaza may have gone to Babylon first, but eventually ended up at the court of the Hittite king, who married him to one of his daughters. The treaty between Suppiluliuma of Hatti and Shattiwaza of Mitanni has been preserved and is one of the main sources on this period. After the conclusion of the Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza treaty, Piyashshili, a son of Suppiluliuma, led a Hittite army into Mitanni. According to Hittite sources, Piyashshili and Shattiwaza crossed the Euphrates at Carchemish, then marched against Irridu in Hurrite territory. They sent messengers from the west bank of the Euphrates and seemed to have expected a friendly welcome, but the people were loyal to their new ruler, influenced, as Suppiluliuma claims, by the riches of Tushratta. “Why are you coming? If you are coming for battle, come, but you shall not return to the land of the Great King!” they taunted. Shuttarna had sent men to strengthen the troops and chariots of the district of Irridu, but the Hittite army won the battle, and the people of Irridu sued for peace. Piyashshili was a Hittite prince, and a son of King Suppiluliuma I. After Suppiluliuma I concluded a treaty with Shattiwazza, son of King Tushratta of Hanilgalbat, and married one of his daughters to him, Piyashshili led a Hittite army that put Shattiwazza on the throne of Hanilgalbat. ...


Meanwhile, an Assyrian army "led by a single charioteer" marched on Washshukanni. It seems that Shuttarna had sought Assyrian aid in the face of the Hittite threat. Possibly the force sent did not meet his expectations, or he changed his mind. In any case, the Assyrian army was refused entrance, and set instead to besiege the capital. This seems to have turned the mood against Shuttarna; perhaps the majority of the inhabitants of Washshukanni decided they were better off with the Hittite Empire than with their former subjects. Anyway, a messenger was sent to Piyashshili and Shattiwaza at Irridu, who delivered his message in public, at the city gate. Piyashshili and Shattiwaza marched on Washukanni, and the cities of Harran and Pakarripa seem to have surrendered to them.


While at Pakarripa, a desolate country where the troops suffered hunger, they received word of an Assyrian advance, but the enemy never materialised. The allies pursued the retreating Assyrian troops to Nilap_ini but could not force a confrontation. The Assyrians seem to have retreated home in the face of the superior force of the Hittites.


Shattiwaza became king of Mitanni, but after Suppililiuma had taken Carchemish and the land west of the Euphrates, that were governed by his son Piyashshili, Mitanni was restricted to the Khabur river and Balikh River valleys, and became more and more dependent on their allies in Hatti. Some scholars speak of a Hittite puppet kingdom, a buffer-state against Assyria. The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... The Balikh River has its origins in Turkey, and ends up in Syria, on the very western part of Euphrates. ...


Assyria under Ashur-uballit I began to infringe on Mitanni as well. Its vassal state of Nuzi east of the Tigris was conquered and destroyed.


Shattuara I

The royal inscriptions of Adad-nirari I (c. 1307-1275) relate how King Shattuara of Mitanni rebelled and committed hostile acts against Assyria. How this Shattuara was related to the dynasty of Partatama is unclear. Some scholars think that he was the second son of Artatama II, and the brother of Shattiwazza's one-time rival Shuttarna. Adad-nirari claims to have captured King Shattuara and brought him to Asshur, where he took an oath as a vassal. Afterwards, he was allowed to return to Mitanni, where he paid Adad-nirari regular tribute. This must have happened during the reign of the Hittite King Mursili II, but there is no exact date. Three kings of Assyria were named Adad-Nirari. ... Shattuara, also spelled Å attuara, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Hanigalbat in the thirteenth century BC. Shattuara was a vassal of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari I (1295-1233 BC). ... Mursili II was a king of the Hittite Empire (New kingdom) from ca. ...


Wasashatta

Despite Assyrian strength, Shattuara's son Wasashatta rebelled. He sought Hittite help, but that kingdom was preoccupied with internal struggles, possibly connected with the usurpation of Hattusili III, who had driven his nephew Urhi-Teshup into exile. The Hittites took Wasashatta's money but did not help, as Adad-nirari's inscriptions gleefully note. Wasashatta, also spelled Wasašatta, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Hanigalbat in the thirteenth century BC. Like his father Shattuara, Wasashatta was an Assyrian vassal. ... Hattusili III was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) 1265 BC–1235 BC. He was the commander of Hittite forces in 1274 BC that defeated an Egyptian campign into Syria in the famous Battle of Kadesh. ... Mursili III or Urhi-Yeshub was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) for 7 Years between 1272 BC–1265 BC. He was ousted from power by his uncle, Hattusili III. During his reign, the Assyrians captured Hanigalbat and this event severely weakened his legitimacy to rule the Empire. ...


The Assyrians conquered the royal city of Taidu, and took Washshukannu, Amasakku, Kahat, Shuru, Nabula, Hurra and Shuduhu as well. They conquered Irridu, destroyed it utterly and sowed salt over it. The wife, sons and daughters of Wasashatta were taken to Asshur, together with lots of loot and other prisoners. As Wasashatta himself is not mentioned, he must have escaped capture. There are letters of Wasashatta in the Hittite archives. Some scholars think he became ruler of a reduced Mitanni state called Shubria.


While Adad-nirari I conquered the Mitanni heartland between the Balikh and the Khabur, he does not seem to have crossed the Euphrates, and Carchemish remained part of the Hittite kingdom. With his victory over Mitanni, Adad-nirari claimed the title of Great King (sharru rabû) in letters to the Hittite rulers, who still did not consider him as an equal.


Shattuara II

In the reign of Shalmaneser I (1270s-1240s) King Shattuara of Mitanni, a son or nephew of Wasahatta, rebelled against the Assyrian yoke with the help of the Hittites and the nomadic Ahlamu around 1250 BC. His army was well prepared; they had occupied all the mountain passes and waterholes, so that the Assyrian army suffered from thirst during their advance. King Shalmaneser I, pouring out Dust of a Conquered City in front of an Assyrian Temple after returning victorious. ... Shattuara, also spelled Å attuara, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Hanigalbat in the thirteenth century BC. Shattuara was a vassal of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari I (1295-1233 BC). ...


Nevertheless, Shalmaneser won a crushing victory. He claims to have slain 14,400 men; the rest were blinded and carried away. His inscriptions mention the conquest of nine fortified temples; 180 Hurrian cities were "turned into rubble mounds", and Shalmaneser "…slaughtered like sheep the armies of the Hittites and the Ahlamu his allies…". The cities from Taidu to Irridu were captured, as well as all of mount Kashiar to Eluhat and the fortresses of Sudu and Harranu to Carchemish on the Euphrates. Another inscription mentions the construction of a temple to Adad in Kahat, a city of Mitanni that must have been occupied as well. This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. ...


Hanigalbat as an Assyrian Province

A part of the population was deported and served as cheap labour. Administrative documents mention barley allotted to "uprooted men", deportees from Mitanni. For example, the governor of the city Nahur, Meli-Sah received barley to be distributed to deported persons from Shuduhu "as seed, food for their oxen and for themselves". The Assyrians built a line of frontier fortifications against the Hittites on the Balikh River. Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... The Balikh River has its origins in Turkey, and ends up in Syria, on the very western part of Euphrates. ...


Mitanni was now ruled by the Assyrian grand-vizier Ili-ippada, a member of the Royal family, who took the title of king (sharru) of Hanilgalbat. He resided in the newly built Assyrian administrative centre at Tell Sabi Abyad, governed by the Assyrian steward Tammitte. Assyrians maintained not only military and political control, but seem to have dominated trade as well, as no Hurrian names appear in private records of Shalmaneser's time.


Under Tukulti-Ninurta I (c. 1243-1207) there were again numerous deportations from Hanilgalbat (Mitanni) to Assur, probably in connection with the construction of a new palace. As the royal inscriptions mention an invasion of Hanilgalbat by a Hittite king, there may have been a new rebellion, or at least native support of a Hittite invasion. The Assyrian towns may have been sacked at this time, as destruction levels have been found in some excavations that cannot be dated with precision, however. Tell Sabi Abyad, seat of the Assyrian government in the times of Shalmaneser, was deserted sometime between 1200 and 1150 B.C. Tukulti-Ninurta I was a king of Assyria from 1244 BC to 1208 BC. Categories: Royalty stubs | Assyrian kings ...


In the time of Assur-nirari III, the Mushku and other tribes invaded Hanilgalbat and it was lost to Assyrian rule. The Hurrians still held Katmuhu and Paphu. Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Mushku in Akkadian, Moschoi in Greek) were an ancient, non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, indigenous tribe of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennias BC. They were among the first people to introduce iron smelting there at the end of the 2nd millennium BC. They are...


Neo-Assyrian times

Within a few centuries of the fall of Washshukanni to Assyria, Mitanni became fully Aramaized, and use of the Hurrian language began to be discouraged throughout the Assyrian Empire. However, a dialect closely related to Hurrian seems to have survived in the "new" state of Urartu, in the mountainous areas to the north. In the inscriptions of Adad-nirari II, Assurbanipal II and Shalmaneser III, Hanigalbat is still used as a geographical term, probably as a conscious archaism. The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, nomadic people who originated or had lived in the Syrian Desert and the Fertile Crescent. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Adad-nirari II is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period. ... Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašarēdu, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria...


Indo-Aryan superstrate

Main article: Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, round). Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well. Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... *mitra (Proto-Indo-Iranian, nominative *mitras) was an important Indo-Iranian divinity. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... The Ashvins ( possessor of horses, horse tamer, cavalier, dual ) are divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda, sons of Saranya, a goddess of the dawn and wife of either Surya or Vivasvat. ... In Hinduism, the Asvins are the twin sons of Saranya with either Surya or Vivasvat. ... Kikkuli, master horse trainer (assussanni) of the land Mitanni (LÚA-AŠ-ŠU-UŠ-ŠA-AN-NI ŠA KUR URUMI-IT-TA-AN-NI, virtually Sanskrit ) is known as the author of Middle Hittite horse training texts, dating to the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BC). ... Two images showing the amount of reflected sunlight at southern and northern summer solstices respectively (watts / m²). A solstice occurs twice a year, whenever Earths axis tilts the most toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to be farthest north or south at noon. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Shuttarna as Sutarna ("good sun"), Baratarna as Paratarna ("great sun"), Parsatatar as Parashukshatra ("ruler with axe"), Saustatar as Saukshatra ("son of Sukshatra, the good ruler"), Artatama[8] as "most righteous", Tushratta as Dasharatha ("having ten chariots"?), and, finally, Mattivaza as Mativaja ("whose wealth is prayer"). Some scholars believe that not only the kings had Indo-Aryan names; a large number of other names resembling Sanskrit have been unearthed in records from the area.


It has been widely conjectured that this original Mitanni aristocracy who bore Indo-Aryan names, had emigrated from the north and imposed themselves upon the indigenous Hurrians of Syria who were not Indo-Aryan, although historical clues are scarce. Some scholars think that Mitanni is likely to have been the originators of the Kurdish language [9]. Some Kurdish scholars believe that one of their clans, the Mattini which live in the same geographical region, preserves the name of Mitanni [2]. The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ...


The best records of the Mitanni is found at a city named Nagar (In sanskrit, "nagar" means city) in Syria. For more information, see Nagar, Syria. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ...


Mitanni rulers

All dates must be taken with caution since they are worked out only by comparison with the chronology of other ancient Near Eastern nations. Kirta is a legendary Hurrian king. ... Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC The element Mercury has been discovered in Egyptian tombs dating from this decade. ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC - 1490s BC - 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC Events and Trends Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant (1504 BC - 1492 BC). ... Shuttarna I was an early king of the Mitanni. ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC - 1490s BC - 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC Events and Trends Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant (1504 BC - 1492 BC). ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s BC ... Barattarna, also spelled Parattarna, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the fifteenth century BC. He may also be identical to a king called Parsatatar. ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s BC ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC - 1450s BC - 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC Events and Trends According to some, 1456 BC was the year that Moses lead the Exodus of... Parshatatar, or Paršatar, the name of a Hurrian king of Mitanni in the fifteenth century BC. He may be the very same individual as king Barattarna. ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC - 1450s BC - 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC Events and Trends According to some, 1456 BC was the year that Moses lead the Exodus of... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC - 1440s BC - 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC Events and trends 1445 BC — Moses leads the Hebrews from Eygpt, to the land of Israel. ... Shaushtatar, also spelled Šauštatar, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the fifteenth century BC. Shaushtatar was the son of Barattarna /Parsatatar and his seal was found in a letter from the archive of Nuzi. ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC - 1440s BC - 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC Events and trends 1445 BC — Moses leads the Hebrews from Eygpt, to the land of Israel. ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC - 1410s BC - 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1417 BC: Start of the rule of Amenophis III Categories: 1410s BC... Artatama I was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the late fifteenth century BC. Little is known of this king who has not left any inscriptions. ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC - 1410s BC - 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1417 BC: Start of the rule of Amenophis III Categories: 1410s BC... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC - 1400s BC - 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC Events and Trends Palace of Minos destroyed by fire (1400 BC) Several board games, including Alquerque, carved... Shuttarna II was king of the Mitanni during most of the reign of Amenhotep III. He was the son of King Artatama of Mitanni. ... Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC - 1400s BC - 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC Events and Trends Palace of Minos destroyed by fire (1400 BC) Several board games, including Alquerque, carved... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC Events and Trends Pharaoh Amenhotep II connects the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal (1380... Artashumara was a Hurrian pretender to the throne of Mitanni in the fourteenth century BC. His reign was very short or non-existent before he was murdered. ... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC Events and Trends Pharaoh Amenhotep II connects the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal (1380... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC Events and Trends Pharaoh Amenhotep II connects the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal (1380... Tushratta was a king of the Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten -- approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the son of Shuttarna II, and his daughter Tadukhipa was married to Akhenaten. ... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC Events and Trends Pharaoh Amenhotep II connects the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal (1380... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to the throne of Egypt. ... Shuttarna III was a Mitanni king who reigned for a short period in the 14th century BC. He was the son of Artatama II, an usurper to the throne of Tushratta. ... (Redirected from 1350 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to... Artatama II was an usurper to the throne of king Tushratta of Mitanni in the fourteenth century BC. He may have been a brother of Tushratta or belonged to a rival line of the royal house. ... Shattiwaza, also spelled Šattiwaza, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the fourteenth century BC. Shattiwaza was the son of king Tushratta. ... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to the throne of Egypt. ... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320 BC) Significant People 1323... Shattuara, also spelled Šattuara, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Hanigalbat in the thirteenth century BC. Shattuara was a vassal of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari I (1295-1263 BC). ... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320 BC) Significant People 1323... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign of 40 years and... Wasashatta, also spelled Wasašatta, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Hanigalbat in the thirteenth century BC. Like his father Shattuara, Wasashatta was an Assyrian vassal. ... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign of 40 years and... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC - 1280s BC - 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC Events and Trends 1285 BC - Battle of Kadesh: Rameses II, Pharaoh of Egypt is almost defeated by... Shattuara, also spelled Šattuara, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Hanigalbat in the thirteenth century BC. Shattuara was a vassal of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari I (1295-1233 BC). ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC - 1280s BC - 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC Events and Trends 1285 BC - Battle of Kadesh: Rameses II, Pharaoh of Egypt is almost defeated by... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1270s BC ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ...


Sources

  • E. Gaal, "The economic role of Hanilgalbat at the beginning of the Neo-Assyrian expansion." In: Hans-Jörg Nissen/Johannes Renger (eds.), Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn. Politische und kulturelle Wechselbeziehungen im Alten Orient vom 4. bis 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient 1 (Berlin, Reimer 1982), 349-354.
  • Amir Harrak, "Assyria and Hanilgalbat. A historical reconstruction of the bilateral relations from the middle of the 14th to the end of the 12 centuries BC." Studien zur Orientalistik (Hildesheim, Olms 1987).
  • C. Kühne, "Politische Szenerie und internationale Beziehungen Vorderasiens um die Mitte des 2. Jahrtausends vor Chr. (zugleich ein Konzept der Kurzchronologie). Mit einer Zeittafel." In: Hans-Jörg Nissen/Johannes Renger (eds.), Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn. Politische und kulturelle Wechselbeziehungen im Alten Orient vom 4. bis 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient 1 (Berlin, Reimer 1982), 203-264.
  • R. F. S. Starr, Nuzi (London 1938).
  • Weidner, "Assyrien und Hanilgalbat". Ugaritica 6 (1969)
  • Thieme, P. , The 'Aryan Gods' of the Mitanni Treaties, Journal of the American Oriental Society 80, 301-317 (1960)
  • Wilhelm, Gernot: The Hurrians, Aris & Philips Warminster 1989.

See also

Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Empire was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia...

References

  1. ^ T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European (aka Aryan) Languages, Scientific American, March 1990; James P. Mallory, "Kuro-Araxes Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
  2. ^ Royal Scottish Geographical Society - 1999, Published 1999, p:12
  3. ^ Faulkner, Raymond O. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. p. 135. Griffith Institute, Oxford, 1962
  4. ^ Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, p. 229. Penguin Books, 1966.
  5. ^ Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, p. 234. Penguin Books, 1966.
  6. ^ Speiser, E.A., Introduction to Hurrian, p. 10. American Schools of Oriental Research, New Haven. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Vol. 20. 1941.
  7. ^ Vahan Kurkjian, "History of Armenia," Michigan, 1968, [1] "The Hurri-Mitanni kingdom of Armenia kept close contact with its western neighbor, Hittite or Hatti land. Masses of population were often transplanted from one country to the other.; The great Indo-European and ancient Near East scholar Vyacheslav Ivanov. [2]; "Jacquetta Hawkes, "The First Great Civilizations" "Yet the Hurrians did not disappear from history. Away to the North in their Armenian homeland, they entrenched themselves and build up the kingdom of Urartu."; M. Chahin, "The Kingdom of Armenia," "The new kingdom of Urartu, which proved to be the stronghold of the Hurrian race."
  8. ^ Artak Movsisyan, "Sacred Highland: Armenia in the spiritual conception of the Near East," Yerevan, 2000; Artak reveals the Mitanni kings IE names are in Armenian
  9. ^ Arnold Joseph Toynbee, The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916, page: 601, Published 2000, Gomidas Institute, ISBN 0953519155

Tamaz (Thomas) V. Gamkrelidze (born October 23, 1929) is a distinguished Georgian linguist, orientalist and public benefactor, Academician (since 1974) and President (since February, 2005) of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS), Director of the Tsereteli Institute of Oriental Studies of GAS (since 1973), Dr.Sci. ... Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov is a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Lake Urmia. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mitanni at AllExperts (4718 words)
Mitanni is thought to have been a feudal state led by a warrior nobility of partly Indo-Aryan descent, reaching Syria at some point during the 18th or 17th century BC in the course of the Indo-Aryan migration that separated Middle Bronze Age Proto-Indo-Iranians into the Indo-Aryan and Iranian branches.
Mitanni in northern Mesopotamia extended from Nuzi (modern Kirkuk) and the river Tigris in the east, to Aleppo and middle Syria (Nuhashshe) in the west.
In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked.
Wikinfo | Mitanni (437 words)
The Mitanni were a people of Indic origin who ruled a vast kingdom (with a common Hurrian population) in West Asia in the second millennium BC.
Assyria, previously under Mitanni control, was able to assert its independence during the reign of Ashuruballit I in approximately 1330 BC.
In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, Indic deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked.
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