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Encyclopedia > Missionary

A missionary is a member of a religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith; someone who proselytizes. The word "mission" is derived from the Latin missionem (nom. missio), meaning "act of sending" or mitto, mittere, literally meaning "to send" or "to dispatch," the equivalent of the Greek-derived word "apostle" from apostolos, meaning "messenger". In Christian cultures the term is most commonly used for missions to share and proclaim the Gospel Message, but it applies equally to any proselytizing creed or ideology. Buddhism launched 'the first large-scale missionary effort in the history of the world's religions'.[1] Look up missionary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Christian missions

Since the Lausanne Congress of 1974, a widely accepted definition of a Christian mission has been "to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement." Recognizing justice as being at the heart of the Gospels, most modern missionaries now promote economic development, literacy, education and health care. Missionaries have established orphanages and also promote education in political consciousness and analysis. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... // List of Christian missionaries This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The First International Congress on World Evangelization held from July 16. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... // An orphanage is an institution or asylum for the care of a child bereaved of both father and mother; sometimes, also, a child who has but one parent living. ...


Biblical mandate

Jesus instructed the apostles to make disciples (Matthew 28:19). This reference is understood by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission to engage in missionary work. In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ...


First Protestant missions

The Danish government included Lutheran missionaries among the colonists in many of its colonies, Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg in Tranquebar India in the late 17th century. But the first organized Protestant mission work was carried out beginning in 1732 by the Moravian Brethren of Herrnhut in Saxony Germany(die evangelische Brüdergemeine). While on a visit in 1732 to Copenhagen for the coronation of his cousin King Christian VI the Moravian Church's patron, Nicolas Ludwig, Count von Zinzendorf got to know a slave from the Danish colony in the West Indies. When he returned to Herrnhut with the slave, he inspired the inhabitants of the village--it was fewer than 30 houses then---to send out "messengers" to the slaves in the West Indies. The first missionaries landed in St. Thomas in December, 1732. Work soon was started in another Danish colony, Greenland. Within 30 years there were Moravian missionaries active on every continent, and this at a time when there were fewer than 300 people in Herrnhut. They are famous for their selfless work, living as slaves among the slaves and together with the native Americans, the Delaware and Cherokee Indian tribes. Today the work in the former mission provinces of the worldwide Moravian Church is carried on by native workers. The fastest growing area of the work in Tanzania in Eastern Africa. The Moravian work in South Africa inspired William Carey and the founders of the British Baptist missions. Today 7 of every 10 Moravians are in a former mission field and belong to a race other than Caucasian. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg monument in Tranquebar, Tamil Nadu, South India Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg (June 10, 1682 - February 23, 1719) was a member of the Lutheran clergy and the first Protestant missionary to India. ... The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong. ... Herrnhut (Sorbian: Ochranow) is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittau, in the state of Saxony, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Chistian VI (1699-1746) king of Denmark and Norway from 1730. ... The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong. ... Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, Count of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf, (May 26, 1700 – May 9, 1760), German religious and social reformer, was born at Dresden. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Map of U.S. Virgin Islands Saint Thomas is an island in the Caribbean Sea, a county and constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI), an unincorporated territory of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... William Carey (August 17, 1761 – June 9, 1834) was an English missionary and Baptist minister, known as the father of modern missions. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is...


Evangelical Church missions

With a dramatic increase in efforts since the 1900s, but a strong push since the Lausanne I: The International Congress on World Evangelization in Switzerland in 1974, [1] evangelical groups have focused efforts on sending missionaries to every ethnic group in the world. While this effort has not been completed, increased attention has brought larger numbers of people distributing Bibles, Jesus videos, and establishing evangelical churches in more remote, less Christianized areas.


Internationally, the focus for many years in the later 20th century was on reaching every "people group" with Christianity by the year 2000. Bill Bright's leadership with Campus Crusade, the Southern Baptist International Mission Board, The Joshua Project, and others brought about the need to know who these "unreached people groups are" and how those wanting to tell about a Christian God and share a Christian Bible could reach them. The focus for these organizations transitioned from a "country focus" to a "people group focus." (From "What is a People Group?" by Dr. Orville Boyd Jenkins: A "people group" is an ethnolinguistic group with a common self-identity that is shared by the various members. There are two parts to that word: ethno and linguistic. Language is a primary and dominant identifying factor of a people group. But there are other factors that determine or are associated with ethnicity.) The International Mission Board (or IMB) is a missionary sending agency affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention which opperates in virtually every nation except the United States and Canada (these nations are serviced by the SBCs North American Mission Board). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


What can be viewed as a success by those inside and outside the church from this focus is a higher level of cooperation and friendliness among churches and denominations.. It is very common for those working on international fields to not only cooperate in efforts to share their gospel message but view the work of their groups in a similar light. Also, with the increased study and awareness of different people groups, western mission efforts have become far more sensitive to the cultural nuances of those they are going to and those they are working with in the effort.


Over the years, as indigenous churches have matured, the church of the "Global South" (Africa, Asia and Latin America) has become the driving force in missions. Korean and African missionaries can now be found all over the world. These missionaries represent a major shift in Church history.


Brazil, Nigeria, and other countries have had large numbers of their Christian adherents go to other countries and start churches. These non-western missionaries often have unparalleled success because they need few western resources and comforts to sustain their livelihood while doing the work they have chosen among a new culture and people.


The British Missionary Societies

The London Missionary Society was an extensive Anglican and Nonconformist missionary society formed in England in 1795 with missions in the islands of the South Pacific and Africa. It now forms part of the Council for World Mission. The Anglican Church Missionary Society was also founded in England in 1799, and continues its work today. These organisations spread through the extensive 18th and 19th century colonial British Empire, establishing the network of churches that largely became the modern Anglican Communion. The London Missionary Society was a non-denominational missionary society formed in England in 1795 by evangelical Anglicans and Nonconformists, largely Congregationalist in outlook, with missions in the islands of the South Pacific and Africa. ... The Church Mission Society (formerly the Church Missionary Society) is a voluntary society working with the Anglican Church and other Protestant Christians around the world. ... The China Inland Mission was a missionary society, set up by English missionary Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865 in Brighton during a home leave. ... The London Missionary Society was a non-denominational missionary society formed in England in 1795 by evangelical Anglicans and Nonconformists, largely Congregationalist in outlook, with missions in the islands of the South Pacific and Africa. ... A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ... The Council for World Mission (CWM) is a worldwide community of Christian churches. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Church Mission Society (formerly the Church Missionary Society) is a voluntary society working with the Anglican Church and other Protestant Christians around the world. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ...


Catholic missions

The New Testament missionary outreach of the Christian church from the time of St Paul was extensive throughout the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages the Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, and Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In the 7th century Gregory the Great sent missionaries including Augustine of Canterbury into England. During the Age of Discovery, the Roman Catholic Church established a number of Missions in the Americas and other colonies through the Augustinians, Franciscans and Dominicans in order to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people. At the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians, Franciscans and Dominicans were moving into Asia and the far East. The Portuguese sent missions into Africa. These are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some of these missions were associated with imperialism and oppression, others (notably Matteo Ricci's Jesuit mission to China) were relatively peaceful and focused on integration rather than cultural imperialism. Sanctuary dedicated to the Difunta Correa, a semi-pagan saint, located in Uruguay, between the Tacuarembó and Paso de los Toros cities. ... The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China in the early modern era stands as one of the notable events in the early history of relations between China and the Western world, as well as a prominent example of relations between two cultures and belief systems in the... The Spanish Missions of California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans, to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier... Saint Amand Saint Ninian Francisco Álvares – Portuguese missionary to Ethiopia. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... For information about the holiday, see: Saint Patricks Day Saint Patrick (Latin: [2], Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Christian missionary and is the patron saint of Ireland along with Brigid of Kildare and Columba. ... Silver coffin of St. ... Saint Gregory I, or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (circa 540 - March 12, 604) was pope of the Catholic Church from September 3, 590 until his death. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... Detail of St. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Detail of St. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Matteo Ricci. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


Much contemporary Catholic missionary work has undergone profound change since the Second Vatican Council, and has become explicitly conscious of Social Justice issues and the dangers of cultural imperialism or economic exploitation disguised as religious conversion. Contemporary Christian missionaries argue that working for justice is a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel, and observe the principles of Inculturation in their missionary work. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Inculturation the incarnation of the Gospel in native cultures and also the introduction of these cultures into the life of the Church Source: John Paul II, encyclical Slavorum Apostoli, June 2, 1985, No. ...


As the church normally organizes itself along territorial lines, and because they had the human and material resources, religious orders--some even specializing in it--undertook most missionary work, especially in the early phases. Over time a normalised church structure was gradually established in the mission area, often starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures and apostolic vicariates. These developing churches eventually intended 'graduating' to regular diocesan status with a local episcopacy appointed, especially after declonization, as the church structures often reflect the political-administrative reality.


Orthodox missions

The Greek Orthodox Church and then the Orthodox Church of Constantinople was vigorous in its missionary outreach under the Roman Empire and continuing Byzantine Empire, and its missionary outreach had lasting effect, either founding, influencing or establishing formal relations with some 16 Orthodox national churches including the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (both said to have been founded by the missionary Apostle Andrew), the Bulgarian Orthodox Church (said to have been founded by the missionary Apostle Paul). The two ninth century saints Cyril and Methodius had extensive missionary success in Eastern Europe. The Byzantines expanded their missionary work in Ukraine after a mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans before the eleventh century. Orthodox missionaries also worked successfully among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries founding the Estonian Orthodox Church. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Orthodox Church of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (Saqartvelos Samotsiqulo Avtokepaluri Martlmadidebeli Eklesia in Georgian language) is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy in Ukraine, under the Patriarch of Moscow. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... A small selection of Christian saints are listed below in alphabetical order by Christian name, but if necessary by surname, the place or attribute part of name as well. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... The Church of Estonia or Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirik) is an autonomous Orthodox church whose primate is confirmed by the Orthodox Church of Constantinople. ...


Under the Russian empire of the 19th century, missionaries such as Nicholas Ilminsky moved into the subject lands and propagated Orthodoxy, including through Belarus, Latvia, Moldavia, Finland, Estonia, Ukraine, and China. The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century. The Russian Orthodox Church also sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia continued missionary work outside Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution. Nikolai Kasatkin Saint Nicholas, Equal-to-the-Apostles, Archbishop of Japan, Nikolai Kasatkin, born Ivan Dimitrovich Kasatkin (August 13 [O.S. August 1] 1836 - February 16, 1912) was a Russian Orthodox priest, monk, and saint. ... ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Herman of Alaska (born 1756 or 1760 in Serpukhov, Russia – December 13, 1837 on Kodiak Island, Alaska) was the first saint to be canonized by the Orthodox Church in America. ... The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Russian: , ), also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Other, non-mainstream movements

Jehovah's Witness missionaries

See also: Organizational structure of Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses are known for their missionary activities. Typically, all adult Witnesses are expected to spend time every week "witnessing" in their area. Depending on the civil law in the respective country, this may take the form of proselytizing door to door, distribution of magazines and other literature such as The Watchtower and Awake! or responding to the questions of passersby. They are involved in this activity as a direct obedience to Jesus' words found at mt 28:19-20. The Organizational Structure of Jehovahs Witnesses is a religious hierarchy. ... For other uses, see Watchtower (disambiguation). ... Cover of Awake! magazine Awake! is a general-interest magazine published by Jehovahs Witnesses. ...


Latter-day Saint missionaries

Main articles: Missionary (LDS Church) and Mission (LDS Church)

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is one of the most active modern practitioners of missionary work. Young men between the ages of 19 and 26 (ideally beginning at the age of 19) are encouraged to go on a two-year, self-funded, full-time proselytizing mission. During this time, they are expected to maintain the highest moral standards of living. By the church they are recognized as official representatives of the church and are expected to devote all their time and efforts to serving the Lord. The two-year mission is usually served in a foreign country or different area of the country from where the missionary lives. Young women and retired couples may serve missions as well. Young women who desire to serve as missionaries serve at an older age, usually 21-22. Missionaries typically spend one to two months in the Missionary Training Center (MTC) in Provo, Utah, or in one of the 16 other MTCs throughout the world, studying scripture, learning new languages, and otherwise preparing themselves for the culture in which they will be living. The LDS church has about 53,000 missionaries worldwide. [2] A pair of sister missionaries at the Oakland Temple Visitors Center The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is one of the most active modern practitioners of missionary work, with over 50,000 full-time missionaries worldwide. ... A mission of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a geographical administrative area to which church missionaries are assigned. ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ...


Islamic missions

Dawah means to "invite" (in Arabic, literally "calling") to Islam, estimated to be the second largest religion next to Christianity. From the 7th century it spread rapidly from the Arabian Peninsula to the rest of the world through the initial Arabic conquests, and subsequently with traders and explorers after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Initially, the spread of Islam was almost only through conquest, such as that of North Africa and later Spain (Al-Andalus), and the Islamic conquest of Persia putting an end to the Sassanid Empire and spreading the reach of Islam to as far East as Khorasan, which would later become the cradle of Islamic civilization during the Islamic Golden Age and a stepping-stone towards the introduction of Islam to the Turkic tribes living in and bordering the area.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


The missionary movements peaked during the Islamic Golden Age, with the expansion of foreign trade routes, primarily into the Indo-Pacific and as far South as the isle of Zanzibar and the South-Eastern shores of Africa. During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The Indo-Pacific is the aggregate of the Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and the minor seas between the two in the general area of Indonesia. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


With the coming about of the tradition of Sufism, Islamic missionary activities have increased considerably. The mystical nature of the tradition had an all-encompassing aspect, a property many societies in Asia could relate to. Later, with the conquest of Anatolia by the Seljuk Turks, missionaries would find easier passage to the lands then formerly belonging to the Byzantine Empire. Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Byzantine redirects here. ...


In the earlier stages of the Ottoman Empire, a Turkic form of Shamanism was still widely practiced in Anatolia, which soon started to give in to the mysticism offered by Sufism. Ottoman redirects here. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...


The teachings of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi, who migrated from Khorasan to Anatolia, are good examples to the mystical aspect of Sufism. Rumi redirects here. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...


During the Ottoman presence in the Balkans, missionary movements were also taken up by people from aristocratic families hailing from the region, who had been educated in Constantinople or any other major city within the Empire, in famed madrassahs and kulliyes. Most of the time, such individuals were sent back to the place of their origin, being appointed important positions in the local governing body. This approach often resulted in the building of mosques and local kulliyes for future generations to benefit from, as well as spreading the teachings of Islam. Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Balkan redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ... 1208-built (extended 1511) Külliye of Battal Gazi in Seyitgazi near Eskişehir is a blend of Seljuk and Ottoman styles Külliye, deriving from the Arabic word kûl (meaning the whole, all) is a term which designates a complex of buildings, centered around a mosque and managed... 1208-built (extended 1511) Külliye of Battal Gazi in Seyitgazi near Eskişehir is a blend of Seljuk and Ottoman styles Külliye, deriving from the Arabic word kûl (meaning the whole, all) is a term which designates a complex of buildings, centered around a mosque and managed...


The spread of Islam towards Central and West Africa has been prominent but slow, until the early 19th century. Previously, the only connection was through Transsaharan trade, of which the Mali Empire, consisting predominantly of African and Berber tribes, stands as a strong proof of the early Islamization of the Sub-Saharan region. The gateways prominently expanded to include the aforementioned trade routes through the Eastern shores of the African continent. With the European colonization of Africa, missionaries were almost in competition with the European Christian missionaries operating in the colonies.  Central Africa  Middle Africa (UN subregion)  Central African Federation (defunct) Central Africa is a core region of the African continent often considered to include: Burundi Central African Republic Chad Democratic Republic of the Congo Rwanda Middle Africa (as used by the United Nations when categorising geographic subregions) is an analogous...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ... Map showing European claimants to the African continent in 1913. ...


Jewish missions

Despite some uncharacteristic inter-Testamental Jewish missionary activity, contemporary Judaism states clearly that it is not missionary, and conversion occurs chiefly through marriage of non-Jews to Jews. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Modern Jewish teachers repudiate proselytization of Gentiles in order to convert them. The reason for this is that Gentiles already have a complete relationship with God via the Noahidic covenant (See Noahide Laws); there is therefore no need for them to become Jewish, which requires more work of them. In addition, Judaism espouses a concept of "quality" not "quantity". It is more important in the eyes of Jews to have converts who are completely committed to observing Jewish law, than to have converts who will violate the Abrahamic covenant into which they have been initiated. The English language word proselytism is derived ultimately from the Greek language prefix pros (towards) and the verb erchomai (to come). ... The Rainbow is the ancient symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the seven coloured rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ...


On the other hand, most Jewish religious groups encourage "Outreach" to Jews alienated from their own heritage owing to assimilation and intermarriage. The overall movement encourages Jews to become more observant of Jewish religious law (known as halakha). Those people who do become religious are known as Baal teshuvas. The large Hasidic group known as Chabad Lubavitch has internationally promoted such "outreach." Others, such as the National Jewish Outreach Program do the same in North America. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... It has been suggested that Hasidic philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... The National Jewish Outreach Program, known as NJOP, is a Jewish adult education and outreach organization that was founded in 1987, by Rabbi Ephraim Buchwald, a leading rabbi at the Lincoln Square Synagogue New York City. ...


In recent times, members of the American Reform movement began a program to convert to Judaism the non-Jewish spouses of its intermarried members and non-Jews who have an interest in Judaism. Their rationale is that so many Jews were lost during the Holocaust that newcomers must be sought out and welcomed. This approach has been repudiated by Orthodox and Conservative Jews as unrealistic and posing a danger. They say that these efforts make Judaism seem an easy religion to join and observe when in reality being Jewish involves many difficulties and sacrifices. Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ...


Eastern traditions

The first missions were sent by the Indian religions, in particular Buddhism. Statue of Jain God Bahubali in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka attracts thousands of devotees. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


Buddhist missions

Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka (260-218 BCE), according to his Edicts.
Main article: Buddhism in the West

The first Buddhist missionaries were called "Dharma Bhanaks". The Emperor Ashoka was a significant early Buddhist missioner. In the 3rd century BCE, Dharmaraksita - among others - was sent out by emperor Ashoka to proselytize[citation needed] the Buddhist tradition through the Indian Maurya Empire, but also into the Mediterranean as far as Greece. Buddhism was spread among the Turkic people during the 2nd and 3rd centuries B.C. into modern-day Pakistan, Kashmir, Afghanistan, eastern and coastal Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. It was also taken into China brought by An Shigao in the 2nd century BCE. Download high resolution version (959x577, 19 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (959x577, 19 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Dharmaraksita (Pali: Dhammarakkhita) was one of the missionaries sent by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka to proselytize the Buddhist faith. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... An Shih-kao (?-~170) (安世高; pinyin Ān Shígāo) was a prince of Parthia that renounced his throne in order to serve as a Buddhist missionary monk. ...


The use of missions, formation of councils and monastic institutions influenced the emergence of Christian missions and organizations which had similar structures formed in places which were formerly Buddhist missions.


Duiring the 19th and 20th centuries, Western intellectuals such as Schopenhauer, Henry David Thoreau, Max Müller and esoteric societies such as the Theosophical Society of H.P. Blavatsky and the Buddhist Society, London spread interest in Buddhism. Writers such as Hermann Hesse and Jack Kerouac, in the West, and the hippie generation of the late 1960s and early 1970s led to a re-discovery of Buddhism. During the 20th and 21st centuries Buddhism has again been propagated by missionaries[citation needed] into the West such as the Dalai Lama and monks including Lama Surya Das (Tibetan Buddhism). Tibetan Buddhism has been significantly active and successful in the West since the Chinese takeover of Tibet in 1959. Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ... Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau[1]) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London, England), better known as Helena Blavatsky or Madame Blavatsky was the founder of Theosophy. ... The Buddhist Society, London was created in London as an offshoot of a Theosophical Lodge by Christmas Humphreys, a British judge and convert to Buddhism, along with his wife. ... Hermann Hesse (pronounced ) (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... Singer of a modern Hippie movement in Russia The hippie subculture was a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread around the world. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Lama Surya Das is one of the foremost American-born lamas in the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism and a popular teacher of Buddhism in the United States. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...


Non-religious missionaries

The original meaning of the word "missionary" is not specifically religious, but refers instead to anyone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program.


References

  1. ^ Foltz, R.C.; Religions of the silk road; 1999; p.37

See also

// This timeline of Christian missions chronicles the global expansion of Christianity through its missionary work. ... Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Missiology, or mission science, is the area of practical theology which investigates the mandate, message and work of the Christian missionary. ... Henry Venn (1796 - 1873) and Rufus Anderson (1796 - 1880) were contemporaries and the modern pioneers of indigenous church mission theory. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... Short-Term Missions (STM) is a trend in Christian missions that is mobilizing thousands as missionaries for short periods of time ranging from days to a year. ... A missionary order is a religious order of the Roman Catholic church devoted to active missionary work. ... The Spanish Missions of California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans, to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier... Soldados de Cristo is a group of Christian missionaries supported by Igreja Pentecostal e Apostólica Missão Jesus. ... The Roman Catholic Church, in particular the Jesuit Order, has had an important role in European colonialism, in particular through the aim of evangelization of primitive people. Proselytism has continued through-out the 20th century, with Latin America accounting for the largest Catholic population in the world. ...

Sources and references

  • LFM. Social sciences & Missions
  • Henry Martyn Centre for the study of mission & world Christianity
  • Sociology of Missions Project
  • William Carey Library, Mission Resources
  • Hiney, Thomas: On the Missionary Trail, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press (2000), p5-22.
  • EtymologyOnLine (word history)
  • Robinson, David Muslim Societies in African History (The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge Cambridge, UK 2004) ISBN 0-521-53366-X

William Carey Library is a book publishing company based in Pasadena, California. ...

External links

  • AskAMissionary.com - over 300 answers online about becoming a missionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
ELCA Global Mission - Missionary Sponsorship Program (296 words)
Missionary Sponsorship is not intended to compete with or be a substitute for financial contributions to the general mission support program of the ELCA.
Missionary salaries are governed by ELCA policies and no individual missionary will receive more or less salary by virtue of sponsorship.
Although these amounts represent total annual missionary support, sponsorships can be arranged for any amount a sponsoring congregation, group or individual choose to set as their pledge.
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A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community.
The English word "missionary" is derived from Latin, the equivalent of the Greek-derived word, "apostle".
Missionaries typically spend one to two months in the Missionary Training Center (MTC) in Provo, UT or in other MTCs throughout the world, studying scripture, learning new languages, and otherwise preparing themselves for the culture in which they will be living.
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