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Encyclopedia > Misotheism

Misotheism is the "hatred of God" or "hatred of the gods" (from the Greek adjective μισόθεος "hating the gods", a compound of μίσος "hatred" and θεός "god"). In some varieties of polytheism, it was considered possible to inflict punishment on gods by ceasing to worship them. Thus, Hrafnkell, protagonist of the eponymous Icelandic saga set in the 10th century, as his temple to Freyr is burnt and he is enslaved states that I think it is folly to have faith in gods, never performing another sacrifice, a position described in the sagas as goðlauss "godless". Jacob Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology observes that This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Gods can refer to: Plurality of Gods (see polytheism); Postulated preternatural beings (see deity); The upper levels of a theatre (see the gods); A 1991 video game (see Gods (video game)); A sixties rock band (see The Gods (band)). An internet term, common among usenet veterans, for those who engage... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... The first page of Hrafnkels saga from the Árni Magnússon Institute ÁM. 156, fol. ... The Icelandic Sagas are prose histories describing mostly events that took place in Iceland during the Age of Settlement. ... This 19th century representation of Freyr shows him with his boar Gullinbursti and his sword. ... The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ... Although the term atheism originated in the 16th century, based on Ancient Greek ἄθεος godless, denying the gods, ungodly[1] and open admission to positive atheism in modern times was not made earlier than in the late 18th century, atheistic ideas and beliefs, as well as their political influence, have a... Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (Hanau, January 4, 1785 – September 20, 1863 in Berlin), German philologist, jurist and mythologist, was born at Hanau, in Hesse-Kassel. ...

It is remarkable that Old Norse legend occasionally mentions certain men who, turning away in utter disgust and doubt from the heathen faith, placed their reliance on their own strength and virtue. Thus in the Sôlar lioð 17 we read of Vêbogi and Râdey â sik þau trûðu, "in themselves they trusted".[1] The Sólarljóð is an Old Norse poem that is sometimes included in editions of the Poetic Edda due to its imagery from Norse mythology. ...

In monotheism, the sentiment arises in the context of theodicy (the problem of evil, the Euthyphro dilemma). A famous literary expression of misotheistic sentiment is Goethe's Prometheus, composed in the 1770s, not coincidentially contemporary to the first modern expressions of atheism. For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Theodicy (IPA: ) (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God, i. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Platos dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro: Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods? (10a) In monotheistic terms, this is usually transformed into: Is what is moral... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Prometheus (Goethe) Bedecke deinen Himmel, Zeus, Mit Wolkendunst Und übe, dem Knaben gleich, Der Diesteln köpft, An Eichen dich und Bergeshöhn! Mußt mir meine Erde Doch lassen stehn Und meine Hütte, Die du nicht gebaut, Und meinen Herd... Although the term atheism originated in the 16th century, based on Ancient Greek ἄθεος godless, denying the gods, ungodly[1] and open admission to positive atheism in modern times was not made earlier than in the late 18th century, atheistic ideas and beliefs, as well as their political influence, have a... Atheist redirects here. ...


A related concept is dystheism (Greek δύσθεος "ungodly"), the belief that a god is not wholly good, and is possibly evil. Trickster gods found in polytheistic belief systems often have a dystheistic nature. One example is Eshu, a trickster god from Yoruba mythology who deliberately fostered violence between groups of people for his own amusement, saying that "causing strife is my greatest joy." This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Trickster (disambiguation). ... Venezuelan fetish of Eshu Eshu (other names include Exú, Elegua and Elegba) is an Orisha, and one of the most important deities of the Yoruba mythology and related New World traditions. ... The mythology of the Yorùbá is sometimes claimed by its supporters to be one of the worlds oldest widely practised religions. ...


But polytheistic deities since prehistoric times have been assumed to be neither good nor evil (or to have both qualities). Thus dystheism is normally used in reference to God, the omnipotent deity associated with monotheistic belief. Indeed, the moral absolute of good and evil has historically arisen in parallel with monotheism. In conceptions of God as the summum bonum, the proposition of God not being wholly good would of course be a contradiction in terms. Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is the power to do absolutely anything. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Summum bonum (greatest or supreme good) was first introduced to humanity as Ahura-Mazda, `The Ultimate Good` who is God, by the Persian prophet Zoroaster, whose ideas would later heavily influence Judeo-Christian beliefs. ...


A historical proposition close to "dystheism" is the deus deceptor (dieu trompeur) of Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy, which has been interpreted by Protestant critics as the blasphemous proposition that God exhibits malevolent intent. But Kennington[2][3] states that Descartes never declared his "evil genius" to be omnipotent, but merely no less powerful than he is deceitful, and thus not explicitly an equivalent to God, the singular omnipotent deity. René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... The title page of the Meditations Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the real distinction of mind and body, are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise written by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641 . ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ...

Contents

Terminology

  • Misotheism first appears in a dictionary in 1907.[4] The Greek μισόθεος is found in Aeschylus (Agamemnon 1090). The English word appears as a nonce-coinage, used by Thomas de Quincey in 1846.[5] It is comparable to the original meaning of Greek atheos of "rejecting the gods, rejected by the gods, godforsaken". Strictly speaking, the term connotes an attitude towards the gods (one of hatred) rather than making a statement about their nature. Schweizer (2002) stated "that the English vocabulary seems to lack a suitable word for outright hatred of God... [even though] history records a number of outspoken misotheists", believing "misotheism" to be his original coinage. Applying the term to the work of Philip Pullman (His Dark Materials), Schweizer clarifies that he does not mean the term to carry the negative connotations of misanthropy: "To me, the word connotes a heroic stance of humanistic affirmation and the courage to defy the powers that rule the universe."[6]
  • Dystheism is the belief that God does exist but is not wholly good, or that he might even be evil. The opposite concept is eutheism, the belief that God exists and is wholly good. Eutheism and dystheism are straightforward Greek formations from eu- and dys- + theism, paralleling atheism; δύσθεος in the sense of "godless, ungodly" appearing e.g. in Aeschylus (Agamemnon 1590). The terms are nonce coinages, used by University of Texas at Austin philosophy professor Robert C. Koons in a 1998 lecture. According to Koons, "eutheism is the thesis that God exists and is wholly good, [... while] dystheism is the thesis that God exists but is not wholly good." However, many proponents of dystheistic ideas (including Elie Wiesel and David Blumenthal) do not offer those ideas in the spirit of hating God. Their work notes God's apparent evil or at least indifferent disinterest in the welfare of humanity, but does not express hatred towards him because of it.
  • Maltheism is an ad-hoc coining appearing on Usenet in 1985,[7] referring to the belief in God's malevolence inspired by the thesis of Tim Maroney that "even if a God as described in the Bible does exist, he is not fit for worship due to his low moral standards."[8] The same term has also seen use among designers and players of role-playing games to describe a world with a malevolent deity.[9]
  • Antitheism is direct opposition to theism. As such, it is generally manifested more as an opposition to belief in a god (to theism per se) than as opposition to gods themselves, making it more associated with antireligion. But antitheism by this definition does not necessarily imply belief in any sort of god at all, it simply stands in opposition to the idea of theistic religion. Under this definition, antitheism is a rejection of theism that does not necessarily imply belief in gods on the part of the antitheist. Some (particularly religious extremists) might equate any form of antitheism (or even atheism) to an overt opposition to God, since these beliefs run contrary to the idea of making devotion to God the highest priority in life.
  • Post-theism accepts the validity of the concept of God as inducing morality at a certain stage of human development, but postulates a stage where morality can exist without support in religious cult, rendering the concept of God superfluous.
  • Certain forms of dualism make the assertion that the thing worshipped as God in this world is actually an evil impostor, but that a true benevolent deity worthy of being called "God" exists beyond this world. The Gnostics (see Sethian, Ophites) believed that God (the deity worshipped by Jews and Christians) was really an evil creator or demiurge that stood between us and some greater, more truly benevolent real deity. Though there is no reason given why the higher God is not a creator God as well, nor why the higher God allows the realm of the evil demiurge as flawed and unjust to continue to exist. Similarly, Marcionites held beliefs deemed maltheistic in nature, depicting God as represented in the Old Testament as a wrathful, genocidal, malicious demiurge.
  • Satanism, as represented by the Church of Satan (founded by Anton Szandor LaVey) does not, as commonly presumed, advocate worship of Satan as a literal existing entity, but rather advocated rebellion against an all too real manifested god. As LaVey wrote about God:
[The belief that] 'God takes care of drunks and fools' is inaccurate. In truth, he doesn't even notice them. That's why nothing bad happens to them. I proceed on the assumption that God is an asshole, and only notices those who don't deserve his dubious 'attention': the sensitive, the just, the capable, the talented, the gifted. They are the butterflies whom God pulls the wings off of. You must be something special to be cursed by God.

The Eumenides redirects here. ... Thomas de Quincey from the frontispiece of Revolt of the Tartars, Thomas de Quincey (August 15, 1785 – December 8, 1859) was an English author and intellectual. ... Although the term atheism originated in the 16th century, based on Ancient Greek ἄθεος godless, denying the gods, ungodly[1] and open admission to positive atheism in modern times was not made earlier than in the late 18th century, atheistic ideas and beliefs, as well as their political influence, have a... Philip Pullman CBE (born October 19, 1946) is a British writer. ... The trilogy (U.K versions), in order of succession from left to right. ... Misanthrope redirects here. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and others. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Atheist redirects here. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragedies about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus, written by Aeschylus. ... A nonce word is a word used only for the nonce—to meet a need that is not expected to recur. ... University of Texas redirects here. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Elie Wiesel (born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30, 1928)[1] is a writer, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... The Generic Universal RolePlaying System, commonly known as GURPS, is a role-playing game system designed to adapt to any imaginary gaming environment. ... Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is active opposition to theism. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Atheist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ... Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ... The Ophites is a blanket term for numerous gnostic sects in Syria and Egypt about 100 A.D. The common trait was that these sects would give great importance to the serpent of the biblical tale of Adam and Eve, connecting the Tree of Knowledge (of Good and Evil) to... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Peter H. Gilmore, High Priest of the Church of Satan. ... Church of Satan logo The Church of Satan is an organization for those who practice self-preservation as articulated in The Satanic Bible, written in 1969 by Anton Szandor LaVey. ... Anton Szandor LaVey (11 April 1930 - 29 October 1997), born Howard Stanton Levey, was the founder and High Priest of the Church of Satan, author of The Satanic Bible, and creator of the religion known as as LaVeyan Satanism. ...

Theodicy

Main articles: Theodicy, Problem of evil, and Holocaust theology

Dystheistic speculation arises from consideration of the problem of evil—the question of why God—who is supposedly omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent—would allow evil to exist in the world. Koons notes that this is only a theological problem for a eutheist, since a dystheist would not find the existence of evil (or God's authorship of it) to be an obstacle to theistic belief. In fact, the dystheistic option would be a consistent non-contradictory response to the problem of evil. Thus Koons concludes that the problem of theodicy—explaining how God can be good despite the apparent contradiction presented in the problem of evil—does not pose a challenge to all possible forms of theism (i.e., that the problem of evil does not present a contradiction to someone who would believe that God exists but that he is not necessarily good). Theodicy (IPA: ) (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God, i. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... Holocaust theology refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate, soul-searching, and analysis, with the subsequent related literature, that attempts to come to grips with various conflicting views about the role of God in this human world and the dark events of the European Holocaust that occurred during... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... Theodicy (IPA: ) (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God, i. ...


This conclusion implicitly takes the first horn of the Euthyphro dilemma, asserting the independence of good and evil morality from God (as God is defined in monotheistic belief). Historically, the notion of "good" as an absolute concept has emerged in parallel with the notion of God being the singular entity identified with good. In this sense, dystheism amounts to the abandonment of a central feature of historical monotheism: the de facto association of God with the summum bonum. The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Platos dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro: Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods? (10a) In monotheistic terms, this is usually transformed into: Is what is moral... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Summum bonum (greatest or supreme good) was first introduced to humanity as Ahura-Mazda, `The Ultimate Good` who is God, by the Persian prophet Zoroaster, whose ideas would later heavily influence Judeo-Christian beliefs. ...


Arthur Schopenhauer wrote: "This world could not have been the work of an all-loving being, but that of a devil, who had brought creatures into existence in order to delight in the sight of their sufferings." Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ...


Critics of Calvin's doctrines of predestination frequently argued that Calvin's doctrines did not successfully avoid describing God as "the author of evil". Calvin may refer to: Calvin (Calvin and Hobbes) Calvin College, a college in Grand Rapids, Michigan People with the surname Calvin: John Calvin, theologian Melvin Calvin, American chemist Susan Calvin, fictional robopsychologist People with the given name Calvin: Calvin Coolidge, American President Calvin Cheng, fashion mogul Calvin Klein, fashion designer... Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ...


Much of post-Holocaust theology, especially in Judaic theological circles, is devoted to a rethinking of God's goodness. Examples include the work of David R. Blumenthal, author of Facing the Abusing God (1993) and John K. Roth, whose essay "A Theodicy of Protest" is included in Encountering Evil: Live Options in Theodicy (1982): Holocaust theology refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate, soul-searching, and analysis, with the subsequent related literature, that attempts to come to grips with various conflicting views about the role of God in this human world and the dark events of the European Holocaust that occurred during... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Everything hinges on the proposition that God possesses—but fails to use well enough—the power to intervene decisively at any moment to make history's course less wasteful. Thus, in spite and because of his sovereignty, this God is everlastingly guilty and the degrees run from gross negligence to mass murder...

To the extent that [people] are born with the potential and power to [do evil things], credit for that fact belongs elsewhere. "Elsewhere" is God's address.[10]

On a lighter note, Paul Erdős, the eccentric and extremely prolific Hungarian-born mathematician, referred to God as "the Supreme Fascist", who deliberately hid things from people, ranging from socks and passports to the most elegant of mathematical proofs. Paul ErdÅ‘s (Hungarian: ErdÅ‘s Pál, in English occasionally Paul Erdos or Paul Erdös, March 26, 1913 – September 20, 1996), was an immensely prolific (and famously eccentric) Hungarian-born mathematician. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ...


Divine malevolence in Scripture

There are various examples of arguable dystheism in the Bible, sometimes cited as arguments for atheism (e.g. Bertrand Russell 1957). Most of these are from the Pentateuch, the theological nature of which is still close to henotheism. A notable exception is the Book of Job, a classical case study of theodicy, which can be argued to consciously discuss the possibility of dystheism (e.g. Carl Jung, Answer to Job). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Atheist redirects here. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Theodicy (IPA: ) (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God, i. ... Jung redirects here. ... Antwort auf Hiob (Answer to Job) is a 1952 book by Carl Gustav Jung addressing the moral, mythological and psychological implications of the Book of Job. ...


Thomas Paine wrote in "The Age of Reason" that "whenever we read the obscene stories, the voluptuous debaucheries, the cruel and torturous executions, the unrelenting vindictiveness, with which more than half the Bible is filled, it would be more consistent that we called it the word of a demon than the word of God." But Paine's perspective was a deistic one, critical more of common beliefs about God than of God himself. For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... For the 18th Century intellectual and scientific movement, see The Age of Enlightenment. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ...


Hebrew Bible

  • The story of Adam and Eve, Genesis 2:16: God setting up a trap for Adam and Eve.
  • Tower of Babel, Genesis 11:1: God jealously chastising humanity for attempting to succeed using their own talent.
  • The Hardening of Pharaoh's Heart in the story of Moses in Exodus: God is explicitly shown to inspire impious behaviour on the Pharaoh's part (interfering with free will) so he can punish him for it.
  • Deuteronomy 7:1-6, 20:16-17, God calling for cruelty and even genocide against the Canaanites (mitzvot 596-598)
  • In the Book of Job God is shown to play idle games with Satan over the suffering of a pious man.
  • Deuteronomy 5:8-10 - God expressly admitting jealousy and in turn, punishing children - innocent of "iniquity of their fathers" - for generations after.

Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ... Main article: Mitzvah i know year 11 stella girls are looking at this right. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ...

New Testament

The Christian scriptures in the New Testament contain references to an "evil god", specifically the "prince of this world" (John 14:30, ο του κοσμου τουτου αρχων) or "god of this world" (2 Corinthians 4:4, ο θεος του αιωνος τουτου) who has "blinded the minds of men". For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Mainstream Christian theology sees these as references to Satan ("the Devil"), but Gnostics, Marcionites, and Manicheans saw these as references to Yahweh himself, and saw Jesus as rebelling against Yahweh.[citation needed] But these groups were dualists that held to the notion that the god of this world, the demiurge, was evil, but that there was a transcendent world greater than this one ruled by a true good god. Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ...


Although God as depicted in the New Testament is considered to be a "kinder, gentler" god than his characterization in the Old Testament, there are numerous examples that he has not really "changed his ways" after all:

  • Acts 5:1-11 - Ananias and Sapphira killed by God for claiming they had donated all the proceeds from a recent land sale to the church.
  • Romans 9 - Paul relates (9:9-13) how the destinies of Jacob and Esau were fixed by God before either had done any good or evil works, and concludes (9:14-18) that salvation and damnation are determined not by man's will or actions, but by God's will. He then considers (9:19) the question of how God can justly condemn evil men for fulfilling his will, and answers (9:20-21) that, just as a potter has power to shape clay, God has the right to form evil men for his own purposes, specifically, (9:22) to evince his wrath and power by destroying them.
  • Revelation 21:8 - God threatens those who do not believe in him with the eternal punishment (being thrown into a lake of burning sulphur).

For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...

Misotheism in art and literature

Misotheistic and/or dystheistic expression has a long history in the arts and in literature. Goethe's Prometheus, and the work of authors like the Marquis de Sade[11] are among the examples: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Prometheus (Goethe) Bedecke deinen Himmel, Zeus, Mit Wolkendunst Und übe, dem Knaben gleich, Der Diesteln köpft, An Eichen dich und Bergeshöhn! Mußt mir meine Erde Doch lassen stehn Und meine Hütte, Die du nicht gebaut, Und meinen Herd... Donatien Alphonse François de Sade (Marquis de Sade) (June 2, 1740 – December 2, 1814) (pronounced IPA: ) was a French aristocrat, french revolutionary and writer of philosophy-laden and often violent pornography. ...

  • John Milton's Paradise Lost is often cited as an apology of Satan's rebellion against a despotic God, suggesting that if God's supremacy is only justified by brute force, then Satan was justified in rebelling against God's tyranny.
  • Emily Dickinson's poem "Apparently With No Surprise" depicts God as approving of suffering in the world, relating the tale of a flower "beheaded" by a late frost as the sun "measure[s] off another day for an approving God".
  • Mark Twain argued against God in a posthumously published book, The Bible According to Mark Twain: Writings on Heaven, Eden, and the Flood. He talks, in part, about the African "sleeping sickness", malaria.
  • Ivan Karamazov in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's 1879 The Brothers Karamazov articulates what might be termed a dystheistic rejection of God. Koons covered this argument in the lecture immediately following the one referenced above. It was also discussed by Peter S. Fosl in his essay entitled "The Moral Imperative to Rebel Against God".

In more recent times, the sentiment is present in a variety of media: For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... From the daguerreotype taken at Mount Holyoke, December 1846 or early 1847. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Dostoevskys notes for chapter 5 of The Brothers Karamazov For other uses, see The Brothers Karamazov (disambiguation). ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... For other uses, see The Brothers Karamazov (disambiguation). ...


Poetry and drama

The characters in several of Tennessee Williams' plays express dystheistic attitudes, including the Rev. T. Lawrence Shannon in The Night of the Iguana. Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known as Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright who received many of the top theatrical awards. ... The Casa Iguana hotel in Mismaloya The Night of the Iguana is a play by Tennessee Williams about American tourists in Mexico. ...


Robert Frost's poem "Design" questions how God could have created death if he were benevolent. Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. ...


In Jewish author Elie Wiesel's play, The Trial of God (1979) the survivors of a pogrom, in which most of the inhabitants of a 17th-century Jewish village were massacred, put God on trial for his cruelty and indifference to their misery. The play is based on an actual trial Wiesel participated in that was conducted by inmates of the Auschwitz concentration camp during the Nazi holocaust, but it also references a number of other incidents in Jewish history including a similar trial conducted by the Hasidic Rabbi Levi Yosef Yitzhak of Berdichev: Elie Wiesel (born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30, 1928)[1] is a writer, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... The front page of a copy of Kedushas Levi printed in 1861 Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev (1740-1810) was a rabbi and Hasidic leader, and one of the most beloved figures of Eastern European Jewry. ...

Men and women are being beaten, tortured and killed. True, they are victims of men. But the killers kill in God's name. Not all? True, but let one killer kill for God's glory, and God is guilty. Every person who suffers or causes suffering, every woman who is raped, every child who is tormented implicates Him. What, you need more? A hundred or a thousand? Listen, either he is responsible or he is not. If he is, let's judge him. If he is not, let him stop judging us.

Video Games

In the video game God of War, the main character, Kratos, is misotheistic, as evidenced by his desire to kill the Greek gods. This article is for the PlayStation 2 game. ... Kratos may refer to: Cratos, a son of Zeus in Greek myth Operation Kratos, a codeword for SO13 tactics for dealing with terrorists Kratos MS 50, a tool for Electron ionization Kratos, the main protagonist in the video game series, God of War Kratos Aurion, a character from the Tales...


Modern literature

Several non-Jewish authors share Wiesel's concerns about God's nature, including Salman Rushdie (The Satanic Verses, Shalimar the Clown) and Anne Provoost (In the Shadow of the Ark): Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... For the verses known as Satanic Verses, see Satanic Verses. ... Shalimar the Clown cover Shalimar the Clown is a 2005 novel written by Salman Rushdie, an author perhaps most famous for his earlier work, The Satanic Verses. ... Anne Provoost (born 1964 in Poperinge, Belgium) is a Flemish author who lives in Antwerp, Belgium, with her husband and three children. ...

Why would you trust a God that doesn't give us the right book? Throughout history, he's given the Jewish people a book, he's given the Christians a book, and he's given the Muslims books, and there are big similarities between these books, but there are also contradictions. ... He needs to come back and create clarity and not ... let us fight over who's right. He should make it clear. So, my personal answer to your question, "Should we trust [a God who can't get things right]," I wouldn't.[12]

In speculative fiction

A number of speculative fiction works present a dystheistic perspective as long as in the works of H. P. Lovecraft and Olaf Stapledon's influential philosophical short novel Star Maker. Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Lovecraft Mythos is the term coined by the scholar S. T. Joshi[1] to describe the pseudomythological backdrop, settings, and themes employed by the American weird fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft. ... William Olaf Stapledon (May 10, 1886 – September 6, 1950) was a British philosopher and author of several influential works of science fiction. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Star Maker (1937) is a cornerstone work of science fiction by Olaf Stapledon, in which he undertakes the immense task of describing the entire history of life in the universe. ...


By the 1970's Harlan Ellison even described dsytheism as a bit of a science fiction cliché. Ellison himself has dealt with the theme in his "The Deathbird", the title story of Deathbird Stories, a collection based on the theme of (for the most part) malign modern-day gods. Lester del Rey's "Evensong" (the first story in Harlan Ellison's much-acclaimed Dangerous Visions anthology), tells the story of a fugitive God hunted down across the universe by a vengeful humanity which seeks to "put him in his place". Philip Pullman's previously mentioned trilogy, His Dark Materials presented the theme of a negligent or evil God to a wider audience. Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American writer of short stories, novellas, teleplays, essays, and criticism. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Deathbird is a novelette by Harlan Ellison which won the Hugo and Locus Poll Awards in 1974 for best novelette. ... Subtitled A Pantheon of Gods, this 1975 collection of short stories by Harlan Ellison addresses the theme of modern-day deities that have replaced the older, more traditional ones. ... A short story collection is a book of short stories all written by one author. ... Lester del Rey (Ramon Felipe Alvarez-del Rey) (June 2, 1915 - May 10, 1993) was an American science fiction author and editor. ... Evensong is a short story by Lester del Rey from Harlan Ellisons science fiction anthology Dangerous Visions. ... Dangerous Visions (ISBN 0-425-06176-0) was a path-breaking science fiction short story anthology edited by Harlan Ellison and published in 1967. ... Philip Pullman CBE (born October 19, 1946) is a British writer. ... The trilogy (U.K versions), in order of succession from left to right. ...


The original series of Star Trek featured episodes with dystheistic themes, amongst them "Who Mourns for Adonais?" and "Return of the Archons". "Encounter At Farpoint", the pilot episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, has Captain Jean-Luc Picard informing Q (who explicitly has god-like powers and briefly adopts the guises of myth figures such as the Egyptian Ra) that 24th century humans had no need any more to depend upon or worship god figures. The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... Who Mourns for Adonais? is a second season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series. ... The Return of the Archons is a first season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series. ... Encounter at Farpoint was the first episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Captain Jean-Luc Picard is a Starfleet officer in the fictional Star Trek universe. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ...


Popular music

Dystheistic sentiment has also made its way into popular music, evincing itself in controversial songs like "Dear God"[13] by the band XTC (later covered by Sarah McLachlan) and "Blasphemous Rumours"[14] by Depeche Mode, which tells the story of a teenage girl who attempted suicide, survived, and turned her life over to God, only to be hit by a car, wind up on life support, and eventually die. Dear God is a song in XTCs 1986 Album Skylarking, controversial because of its antitheism. ... XTC are an influential new wave band from Swindon, England. ... Sarah Ann McLachlan, OC,[2] OBC[2] (born January 28, 1968) is a Grammy-winning Canadian musician, singer and songwriter. ... Blasphemous Rumours / Somebody is Depeche Modes twelfth UK single (released on October 29, 1984), from the album Some Great Reward. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music band formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ...


The output of Oscar-winning songwriter/composer Randy Newman also includes several songs expressing dystheistic sentiment, including the ironic "He Gives Us All His Love" and the more overtly maltheistic "God's Song (That's Why I Love Mankind)",[15] both from his acclaimed 1972 album Sail Away. In the latter song, Newman bemoans the futility of dealing with God whose attitude towards humanity he sees as one of contempt and cruelty. For the boxer, see Randy Neumann. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sail Away is a 1972 album by Randy Newman. ...


Modern art

In 2006, Australian artist Archie Moore created a paper sculpture called "Maltheism", which was considered for a Telstra Art award in Australia during 2006. The piece was intended as a representation of a church made from pages of the Bible, specifically the Book of Deuteronomy: Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ...

...and within its text is the endorsement from God to Moses for invasion of other nations. It says that you have the right to invade, take all their resources, kill all the men (non-believers) and make no treaty with them.[16]

Notes

  1. ^ Jacob Grimm: Teutonic Mythology Chapter 1. page 2. (Grimm's Teutonic Mythology Translation Project.)
  2. ^ Richard Kennington (1991). "The 'Teaching of Nature' in Descartes' Soul Doctrine", in Georges Joseph Daniel Moyal: Rene Descartes: Critical Assessments. Routledge, 139. ISBN 0415023580. 
  3. ^ Richard M. Kennington (2004). "The Finitude of Descartes' Evil Genius", On Modern Origins: Essays in Early Modern Philosophy. Lexington Books, 146. ISBN 0739108158. 
  4. ^ New English Dictionary, under miso-; also explicitly in 1913, Noah Webster's Dictionary of the English Language.
  5. ^ "On Christianity As An Organ of Political Movement" (1846).
  6. ^ Bernard Schweizer, 'Religious Subversion in His Dark Materials in: Millicent Lenz, Carole Scott (eds.) His Dark Materials Illuminated: Critical Essays On Philip Pullman's Trilogy (2005), p. 172, note 3.
  7. ^ Apparently coined by Paul Zimmerman in August 1985, on net.origins referring to the misotheistic belief that God was in fact not a "Creator-God" but a "Damager-God".
  8. ^ Original Usenet posting of Maroney's "Even If I Did Believe" essay, 31 December 1983
  9. ^ Naylor et al. (1994)
  10. ^ Roth et al. (1982) - Extracted from a review of Roth's essay, in which the author comments that "Roth is painting a picture of God as the ultimate example of a bad and abusive parent!"
  11. ^ Iwan Bloch, Marquis De Sade: His Life and Works (2002), p. 216.
  12. ^ Transcript of interview with Anne Provoost by Bill Moyers for his "Faith and Reason" PBS TV series
  13. ^ "Dear God", performed by XTC (written by Andy Partridge)
  14. ^ "Blasphemous Rumours", performed by Depeche Mode (written by Martin L. Gore)
  15. ^ "God's Song (That's Why I Love Mankind)", performed by Randy Newman (written by Randy Newman)
  16. ^ From the educational resource pamphlet accompanying the presentation of the 23rd Telstra National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art Award

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press. ... Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  • Blumenthal, David R. (1993). Facing the Abusing God: A Theology of Protest. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1993, 348. ISBN 0-664-25464-0. 
  • Ehrman, Bart D. (2008). God's Problem: How the Bible Fails to Answer Our Most Important Question--Why We Suffer. New York, NY: HarperOne, 2008, 304. ISBN 0-061-17397-5. 
  • Mirabello, Mark, The Crimes of Jehovah (1997), ISBN 1884365132.
  • Naylor, Janet; Caroline Julian, Susan Pinsonneault (1994). GURPS Religion. Austin, TX: Steve Jackson Games, 1994, 176. ISBN 1-55634-202-0. 
  • Phillips, D. Z. (2005). The Problem of Evil and The Problem of God. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress, 2005, 280. ISBN 0-8006-3775-5. 
  • Provoost, Anne (2004). In the Shadow of the Ark. Minneapolis, MN: Arthur A. Levine, 2004, 384. ISBN 0-439-44234-6. 
  • Roth, John K. (et al) (1982). Encountering Evil: Live Options in Theodicy. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1982, 182. ISBN 0804205175. 
  • Russell, Bertrand (1957). Why I Am Not A Christian. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1957, 266. ASIN B000JX1TIK. 
  • Sutherland, Robert (2006). Putting God on Trial: The Biblical Book of Job. Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing, 2006, 226. ISBN 1-4120-1847-1. 
  • Schweizer, Bernard (2002). Rebecca West: Heroism, Rebellion, and the Female Epic. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002, 184. ISBN 0-313-32360-7. 
  • Wiesel, Elie (1979). The Trial of God. New York, NY: Random House, 1979, 208. ISBN 0-8052-1053-9. 

Bart D. Ehrman is a New Testament scholar and an expert on early Christianity. ...

See also

Look up misotheism in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Omnibenevolence is sometimes used to describe the property of being perfectly or absolutely good. ... Although the term atheism originated in the 16th century, based on Ancient Greek ἄθεος godless, denying the gods, ungodly[1] and open admission to positive atheism in modern times was not made earlier than in the late 18th century, atheistic ideas and beliefs, as well as their political influence, have a... In the Is the glass half empty or half full? phenomenon, the pessimistic approach would be to pick half empty. ... Summum bonum (greatest or supreme good) was first introduced to humanity as Ahura-Mazda, `The Ultimate Good` who is God, by the Persian prophet Zoroaster, whose ideas would later heavily influence Judeo-Christian beliefs. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning obligation or duty) is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. ... The divine command theory is the metaethical theory that morality (e. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... In philosophy, meta-ethics or analytic ethics [1] is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, and ethical statements, attitudes, and judgments. ...

External links

Academic
  • Lecture by Robert Koons (University of Texas at Austin) developing concepts of dystheism and eutheism (see also)
  • Articles and essays from web site of David R. Blumenthal (Professor of Judaic Studies at Emory University and author of Facing the Abusing God: A Theology of Protest)
  • The moral imperative to rebel against God by Peter S. Fosl in The Philosophers' Magazine
  • Why isn't Christianity considered evil? (from the AskPhilosophers forum at Amherst College)
Literary
  • Account from the life of Rabbi Levi Yitzhak of Berditchev that was part of the inspiration for Wiesel's "The Trial of God"
  • Transcript of interview with Elie Wiesel
  • Anne Provoost's novel In the Shadow of the Ark (interview)
Popular culture
  • George Carlin on God
  • Lyrics to Randy Newman's "God's Song (That's Why I Love Mankind)"
  • Lyrics to Depeche Mode's "Blasphemous Rumours"
  • Mr. Deity, a series of short videos by Brian Keith Dalton depicting a bumbling and callously malicious God
Online/blogosphere
  • Atrocities committed or commanded by God
  • Atrocities of God and his servants
  • Even If I Did Believe
  • Online introduction to Maltheism
  • Maltheism Blog
University of Texas redirects here. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ... Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. It is the third oldest college in Massachusetts. ... For the boxer, see Randy Neumann. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music band formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... Numina (presence, singular numen) conveys the sense of immanence, of the sacred spirit that informs places and objects in Roman religion. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and others. ... This entry discusses how the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam deal with God and gender. ... Below are words that designate a set or subset of beliefs. ... Binitarianism is a theology of two in one God, as opposed to one (unitarianism) or three (trinitarianism). ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Dystheism is the belief that God does exist but is not wholly good, or that he might even be evil. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... Kathenotheism is a term coined by the philologist Max Müller to mean the worship of one god at a time. ... Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of—or the rejection of—theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. ... Monolatrism or monolatry is a form of theology where adherents believe in the existence of multiple deities but worship only one. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Pandeism (Greek πάν, pan = all and Latin deus = God, in the sense of deism), is a term used at various times to describe religious beliefs. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... This article is about the religion. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Below are words that designate a set or subset of beliefs. ... Acosmism, in contrast to pantheism, denies the reality of the universe, seeing it as ultimately illusory, (the prefix a- in Greek meaning negation; like un- in English), and only the infinite unmanifest Absolute as real. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Atheist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... This article discusses Humanism as a non-theistic life stance. ... In philosophical debates about free will and determinism, libertarianism is generally held to be the combination of the following beliefs: that free will is incompatible with determinism that human beings do possess free will, and that determinism is false All libertarians subscribe to the philosophy of incompatibilism which states that... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... The New Thought Movement or New Thought is comprised of a loosely allied group of denominations, organizations, authors, philosophers, and individuals who share a set of metaphysical beliefs concerning healing, life force, visualization, and personal power. ... The term nondual is a literal translation of the Sanskrit term advaita, (meaning not two). ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun : will, from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... Below are words that designate a set or subset of beliefs. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

 
 

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