Misinformation is information that is incorrect, but not because of a deliberate attempt to mislead. Believers in misinformation are said to be misinformed but not lying. It is commonly confused with disinformation. The spreading of disinformation is a purposeful attempt to spread a known falsehood, whereas misinformation is the result of ignorance. Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ...
When they adopted the misinformation item as their own memory, they did so with a high degree of confidence, which is not something that one would expect from people who are merely guessing.
In sum, because subjects embrace the misinformation item with a high degree of confidence, and they do so very quickly, we believe that pure guessing does not play a significant role in producing the misinformation effect in studies in which fairly typical exposure time and retention interval parameters are used.
We believe that the misinformation effect is sufficiently pervasive and eventually may be so highly controllable that we are tempted to propose a Watsonian future for the misinformation effect (see Watson, 1939, p.
Recognizing this threat and also the power of the new electronic means of communication, the propagandists are engaged in extensive efforts to flood the Internet with their offerings.
Paul was certain to win with this exhortation, because the things which he was advocating are naturally ascendant in the human spirit.
Where true information and misinformation stand in direct competition with one another in the presence of hundreds of millions of human beings with equal and easy access to both, true information will triumph most of the time.
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