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Encyclopedia > Mishneh Torah

The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written "Rambam" in English). The Mishneh Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180, and may be regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish rabbinic law, custom and tradition. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי transliterated: Yehudi) is used in many ways but generally refers to a follower of Judaism, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of these attributes. ... Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī;; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished, (in knowledge). In the ancient Judean schools the sages were addressed as רִבִּי (Ribbi... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of infidelities. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between...


The work consists of fourteen books, which subdivide into sections, chapters and paragraphs. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash) was built in ancient Jerusalem in c. ...

Contents


Names of the work

  • Mishneh Torah ("Repetition of the Torah") is an appellation originally used for the Biblical book of Deuteronomy.
  • Yad ha-Chazakah ("The Strong Hand"), its parallel title, derives from its subdivision in fourteen books. When transcribed into Hebrew letters, the number fourteen forms the word yad (hand).
  • Later sources simply refer to the work as "Maim", "Maimonides" or "RaMBaM", although Maimonides composed other works.

Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ...

The books and sections

  1. Madda' (Knowledge):
    1. Yesodei ha-Torah: Belief in God and other Jewish principles of faith
    2. De'ot: general proper behavior
    3. Talmud Torah: see Torah study
    4. Avodah Zarah: the prohibition against idolatry
    5. Teshuvah: the law and philosophy of repentance
  2. Ahavah (Love): the precepts which must be observed at all times if the love due to God is to be remembered continually (prayer, tefillin).
  3. Zemanim (Times):
    1. Sabbath
    2. Eiruv, a Rabbinic device that facilitates Sabbath observance
    3. Yom Tov: prohibitions on major Jewish holidays that are different from the prohibitions of Sabbath
    4. Shevitat `Asor: laws of Yom Kippur, except for the Temple service (see Avodat Yom ha-Kippurim, below)
    5. Hametz u-Matza: see Passover
    6. Shofar ve-Lulav ve-Sukkah: see Rosh Hashanah and Sukkot
    7. Chanukah u-Megillah: see Hannukah and Purim
  4. Nashim (Women):
    1. Ishut: laws of marriage, including kiddushin and the ketubah
    2. Geirushin: see divorce
    3. Yibum va-Chalitzah: see levirate marriage
    4. Na'arah Betulah: the law of a man who seduces or rapes an unmarried woman
    5. Sotah
  5. Kedushah (Holiness)
    1. Issurei Biah: forbidden sexual relations, including niddah, incest, adultery. Since intermarriage with non-Jews is forbidden, the laws of conversion to Judaism are also included.
    2. Ma'akhalot Assurot: forbidden foods (see kashrut)
    3. Shechitah: ritual slaughter
  6. Hafla'ah (Separation): laws of vows and oaths
  7. Zera'im (Seeds): agricultural laws
  8. Avodah (Divine Service): the laws of the Temple in Jerusalem
  9. Korbanot (Offerings): laws for offerings in the Temple, excepting those of the whole community
  10. Tohorah (Cleanness): the rules of ritual purity
  11. Nezikin (Injuries): criminal and tort law
  12. Kinyan (Acquisition): laws of the marketplace
  13. Mishpatim (Rights): civil law
  14. Shofetim (Judges): the laws relating legislators, the Sanhedrin, the king, and the judges.

This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... Judaism affirms a number of basic principles of faith that one is expected to uphold in order to be said to be in consonance with the Jewish faith. ... Torah study is the study of Jewish religious texts by Jews for religious (as opposed to academic) purposes. ... Idolatry is a term used by many religions to describe the worship of a false deity, which is an affront to their understanding of divinity. ... Repentance is the feeling and act in which one recognizes and tries to right a wrong, or gain forgiveness from someone that they wronged. ... Prayer is an effort to communicate with God, or to some deity or deities, or another form of spiritual entity, or otherwise, either to offer praise, to make a request, or simply to express ones thoughts and emotions. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are leather objects containing Biblical verses which are used in rabbinic Jewish prayer. ... Shabbat (שבת shabbāṯ, rest in Hebrew, or Shabbos in Ashkenazic pronunciation), is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. ... Jewish holiday, (or Yom Tom or chag or taanit in Hebrew) is a day that is holy to the Jewish people according to Judaism and is usually derived from the Hebrew Bible, specifically the Torah, and in some cases established by the rabbis in later eras. ... Jewish holiday, (or Yom Tom or chag or taanit in Hebrew) is a day that is holy to the Jewish people according to Judaism and is usually derived from the Hebrew Bible, specifically the Torah, and in some cases established by the rabbis in later eras. ... Yom Kippur (1878) Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippÅ«r) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday, beginning on the evening of the 14th day of Nisan, that commemorates The Exodus and freedom of the Children of Israel from Ancient Egypt. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (mid- to late-October). ... Chanukah (חנכה ḥănukkāh, or חנוכה ḥănūkkāh) is a Jewish holiday, also known as the Festival of lights. ... Purim (פּוּרִים Lots, Standard Hebrew Purim, Tiberian Hebrew Pûrîm: plural of פּוּר pûr Lot, from Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Persian Jews from the plot of the evil Haman to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. ... Marriage is a relationship between individuals which has formed the foundation of the family for most societies. ... A ketubah is a Jewish marriage contract. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody... Levirate marriage is the practice of a woman marrying one of her husbands sons or brothers after her husbands death, in order to continue his line. ... Incest is sexual activity or marriage between very close family members. ... Man and woman undergoing public exposure for adultery in Japan, around 1860 Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than their lawful spouse. ... Intermarriage normally refers to marriage to a person belonging to a different religion, tribe, nationality or ethnic background. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... Shechita Shechita (Hebrew ) is the ritual slaughter of animals, as prescribed for slaughter of mammals and birds according to Jewish dietary laws. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash) was built in ancient Jerusalem in c. ... Ritual purification is a feature of many religions. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ...

Language and style

The work is written in a clear Hebrew in the style of the Mishnah. Maimonides was reluctant to writing in Talmudic Aramaic, since it was known only to those who were specially interested in it (Preface to the "Mishneh Torah"). His previous works had been written in Arabic. The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


Maimonides' sources

Maimonides sought brevity and clarity in his Mishneh Torah and as in his Commentary on the Mishnah, he refrained from detailing his sources. He felt it sufficient to name his sources in the preface. He drew upon the Torah and the rest of Tanakh (the Old Testament), both Talmuds, and the Midrashic literature. On occasion he preferred rulings in certain Midrash collections to rulings in the Talmud, which at the time was a rare opinion. Torah (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ... Midrash (pl. ...


Later sources include the responsa (teshuvot) of the Geonim. The maxims and decisions of the Geonim are frequently presented with the introductory phrase "The Geonim have decided" or "There is a regulation of the Geonim", while the opinions of Isaac Alfasi and Joseph ibn Migash (his immediate teacher apart from his father Maimon) are prefaced by the words "My teachers have decided". Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ... Geonim (also Gaonim) (גאונים) (Singular: Gaon [גאון] meaning pride in Biblical Hebrew and genius in modern Hebrew) were the rabbis who were the Jewish Talmudic sages who were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta/ Exilarch who wielded secular... Rabbi Isaac Alfasi (Isaac Hakohen 1013-1103), also the Rif (ריף), is best known for his work of Halakha, the legal code Sefer Ha-halachot (ספר ההלכות), considered the first fundamental work in halakhic literature. ...


Maimonides likewise refers to Spanish, French, and Palestinian rabbinic authorities, although he does not name them, nor is it known to whom he refers. He drew from non-Jewish sources, and a great part of his researches on the calendar was based upon Greek theories and reckonings. Since these rules rested upon sound argument, he thought that it made no difference whether an author was a prophet or a Gentile. In a like spirit he adopted principles of Aristotelian Greek philosophy in the first book of the Mishnah Torah, although no authority for these teachings was to be found in Talmudic or midrashic literature. Classical (or early) Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ...


A number of laws appear to have no source in any of the works mentioned; it is thought that Maimonides deduced them through independent interpretations of the Bible.


Omissions

Maimonides did not surrender his independent judgment even when his views were in conflict with other authorities. It was impossible, in his opinion, to renounce one's own reasons or to reject recognized truths because of some conflicting statements in the Talmud or the Midrash. Thus he made a ruling on his own authority and based upon his medical knowledge without being able to establish it by any statement of the older authorities.


He likewise omitted many regulations contained in the Talmud and Mishnah, such as those precepts which depended on superstitious views or on the belief in demons. In a similar spirit he passed over much that was forbidden in the Talmud as injurious to health. The exact reasons for these omissions have been the subject of much speculation.


Opposition

Critics and criticism

The Mishneh Torah was strongly opposed almost as soon as it appeared. Major sources of contention were the absence of sources and the fact that the work appeared to be intended to supersede study of the Talmud. Some criticisms appear to have been less rational in nature. The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ...


The most sincere but influential opponent, whose comments are printed parallel to virtually all editions of the Mishneh Torah, was Rabbi Abraham ben David of Posquières, France, 1100s, (Raavad III). Abraham ben David was a Jewish, French commentator on the Talmud. ...


Many critics were especially bitter against the new methods which he had employed, and the very peculiarities which he had regarded as merits in his work failed to please his opponents because they were innovations. Thus they reproached him because he wrote in Hebrew instead of in the customary Talmudic idiom, because he departed from the Talmudic order and introduced a division and arrangement of his own, and because he dared to decide according to the Tosefta and the Jerusalem Talmud as against the Babylonian Talmud. The Tosefta is a second compilation of oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ...


Especially sharp was the blame heaped upon Maimonides because he neglected to cite his sources; this was considered an evidence of his superciliousness, since it made it difficult, if not absolutely impossible, for scholars to verify his statements, and compelled them to follow his decisions absolutely.


Maimonides' Reply

Maimonides defended himself. He had not composed this work for glory; he desired only to supply the necessary but lacking code, for there was danger lest pupils, weary of the difficult study, might go astray in decisions of practical importance (Letter to Rabbi Jonathan of Lunel, in which he thanks the latter for certain corrections; Responsa of Maimonides, 49).


He noted that it had never been his intention to abolish Talmudic studies, nor had he ever said that there was no need of the "Halakot" of Rabbi Isaac Alfasi, for he himself had lectured to his pupils on the Gemara and, at their request, upon Alfasi's work (Responsa, No. 140).


He said that his omission of his sources was due solely to his desire for brevity, although he regretted that he had not written a supplementary work citing his authorities for those halakot whose sources were not evident from the context. He would, however, should circumstances permit, atone for this error, however toilsome it might be to write such a supplement (Responsa, No. 140). Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish rabbinic law, custom and tradition. ...


Raavad was forced to acknowledge that the work of Maimonides was a magnificent contribution (note on Kilayim 6:2), nor did he hesitate to praise him and approve his views in many passages, citing and commenting upon the sources.


Later works (e.g. Yosef Karo's "Kesef Mishné") set out to find sources for Maimonides' decisions, and to resolve any disputes between him and the Raavad. Rabbi Yosef (Joseph) Ben Ephraim Karo is one of the most important leaders in the history of halakha (Jewish law). ...


Yonah of Gerona

Special mention should be made of Yonah of Gerona, a nephew of Nachmanides, who was initially a member of the vocal opponents of the "Yad". He was involved in the burning of a number of copies of the work in the 1240's. Regret followed, when he saw the Talmud being burnt in Paris in 1244, which he interpreted as a sign from Heaven that he had been mistaken. He set out to the Land of Israel, composing a classic work on penitence (titled Shaarei Teshuva, "The Gates of Repentance") during his soul-searching. Nahmanides is the common name for Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi; the name is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Ben Nahman, meaning Son of Nahman. He is also commomly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, and by his Catalan name... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ... Events Sultan Malik al-Muattam razes city walls. ... This article concerns the concept of The Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael) in Jewish and Christian thought from its Biblical sources to the present day. ...


Influence

Decisors

Thus the work of Maimonides, notwithstanding the sharp attacks upon it, soon won general recognition as an authority of the first importance for ritual decisions. According to several authorities ("Yad Mal'akhi" rule 26, pg 186), a decision may not be rendered in opposition to a view of Maimonides, even though the latter apparently militated against the sense of a Talmudic passage, for in such cases the presumption was that the words of the Talmud were incorrectly interpreted. Likewise: "One must follow Maimonides even when the latter opposed his teachers, since he surely knew their views, and if he decided against them he must have disapproved their interpretation" (ibid, rule 27).


Even when later authorities, like Asher ben Jehiel (the Rosh), decided against Maimonides, it became a rule of the Oriental Jews to follow the latter, although the European Jews, especially the Ashkenazim, preferred the opinions of the Rosh in such cases. But the hope which Maimonides expressed, that in time to come his work and his alone would be accepted, has been only half fulfilled. His "Mishneh Torah" is indeed still very popular, but there has been no cessation in the study of other works. Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ...


Ironically, while Maimonides refrained from citing sources out of concern for brevity (or perhaps because he designed his work to be used without studying the Talmud or other sources first), the result has often been the opposite of what he intended. Various commentaries have been written which seek to supply the lacking source documentation, and indeed today the Mishneh Torah is sometimes used as a sort of an index to aid in locating Talmudic passages. In cases where Maimonides' sources or interpretation thereof is questionable, the lack of clarity has at times led to lengthy analyses and debates - quite the opposite of the brevity he sought to attain.


Codes and commentators

Mishneh Torah itself has been the subject of a number of commentaries: Kesef Mishné by Yosef Karo, Mishné la-Melech, Lechem Mishné, Radvaz and Hagahot Maimoni (which details Ashkenazi customs). Most commentators aim to resolve criticisms of the Raavad, and to trace Maimonides' sources to the text of the Talmud, Midrash and Geonim. Rabbi Yosef (Joseph) Ben Ephraim Karo is one of the most important leaders in the history of halakha (Jewish law). ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ... Midrash (pl. ... Geonim (also Gaonim) (גאונים) (Singular: Gaon [גאון] meaning pride in Biblical Hebrew and genius in modern Hebrew) were the rabbis who were the Jewish Talmudic sages who were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta/ Exilarch who wielded secular...


Later codes of Jewish law, e.g. Arba'ah Turim by Rabbi Jacob ben Asher and Shulkhan Arukh by Rabbi Yosef Karo, draw heavily on Maimonides' work, and in both whole sections are often quoted verbatim. Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים, Hebrew: Four columns - on the High Priests breastplate), also abbreviated as Tur, is an important work of Jewish law, composed by Rabbi Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... Jacob ben Asher, in Hebrew Yaakov ben Asher, (1270-ca 1340) was an influential Medieval rabbinic authority. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... Rabbi Yosef (Joseph) Ben Ephraim Karo is one of the most important leaders in the history of halakha (Jewish law). ...


Present day

The in-depth study of Mishneh Torah underwent a revival in Lithuanian Judaism in the late 19th century. Prominent authorities who have written recent commentaries on the work are Rabbis Meir Simcha of Dvinsk (Ohr Sameiach), Chaim Soloveitchik (Chiddushei Rabbi Chaim), Isser Zalman Meltzer (Even ha-Ezel) and, more recently, Eliezer Menachem Schach (Avi Ezri) and Menachem Mendel Schneerson (Hadran al ha-Rambam). Rabbi Meir Simcha of Dvinsk (1843-1926) was a prominent leader of Orthodox Judaism in Eastern Europe in the early 20th century. ... Chaim (Halevi) Soloveitchik, also known as Reb Chaim Brisker, (1853-July 30, 1918) was a rabbi and Talmudic scholar credited as the founder of the Brisk yeshivas approach to Talmudic study within Judaism. ... Eliezer Menachem Schach (also known as Eliezer Menachem Man Schach, or Shach) (January 22, 1898 - November 2, 2001), was an an Orthodox rabbi and the leader of Israels mitnagdim (non-Hasidic Haredi Ashkenazi Jews) from the 1970s until his death. ... Rabbi M.M. Schneerson The third Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch dynasty was also named Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (with a h) Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902-June 12, 1994), referred to by his followers as The Rebbe, was a prominent Orthodox Jewish rabbi who was the seventh and last...


Mishneh Torah is often one of the first post-Talmudic sources consulted when investigating a question of Jewish law. Likewise, many scholary speeches (e.g. the traditional Rabbi's speech on the Shabbat preceding Pesach and Yom Kippur) often revolve around a difficulty between two passages in Maimonides' work. Shabbat (שבת shabbāṯ, rest in Hebrew, or Shabbos in Ashkenazic pronunciation), is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. ... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday (lasting seven days in Israel and among some liberal Diaspora Jews, and eight days among other Diaspora Jews) that commemorates the exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Egypt; it is also observed by some Christians to... Yom Kippur (1878) Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippÅ«r) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


Today, thousands of Orthodox Jews, particularly Chabad Hasidim, participate in one of the annual study cycles of Mishneh Torah (1 or 3 chapters a day). Orthodox Judaism is the stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works and the Rabbinical commentary... Chabad Lubavitch, or Lubavich, is one of the largest branches of Hasidic Judaism founded by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi . ... Hasidic Judaism (from the Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious, from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ...


English translations

  • The Yale Judaica series edition of the Mishneh Torah is almost complete.
    • Introduction , Isadore Twersky (1982) ISBN 0300028466
    • Book 2, The Book Of Love , Menachem Kellner (2004) ISBN 0300103484
    • Book 3, The Book Of Seasons , Solomon Gandz and Hyman Klein (1961) ISBN 0300003226
    • Book 4, The Book Of Women , Isaac Klein (1972) ISBN 0300010699
    • Book 5, The Book Of Holiness , Leon Nemoy, Louis I. Rabinowitz, and Philip Grossman (1965) ISBN 0300008465
    • Book 6, The Book Of Asservations , B. D. Klein (1962) ISBN 0300006330
    • Book 7, The Book Of Agriculture , Isaac Klein (1979) ISBN 0300022239
    • Book 8, The Book Of Temple Service , Mendell Lewittes (1957) ISBN 0300004974
    • Book 9, The Book Of Offerings , Herbert Dan, (1950) ISBN 0300003986
    • Book 10, The Book Of Cleanness , Herbert Dan, (1954) ISBN 0300003978
    • Book 11, The Book Of Torts , Hyman Klein (1954) ISBN 0300006322
    • Book 12, The Book Of Acquisitions , Isaac Klein (1951) ISBN 0300006314
    • Book 13, The Book Of Civil Laws , Jacob J. Rabinowitz (1949) ISBN 0300008457
    • Book 14, The Book Of Judges , Abraham M. Hershman (1949) ISBN 0300005482
  • Excerpted translation by Philip Birnbaum: "Maimonides' Mishneh Torah: Yad Hazakah", Hebrew Pub. Co. 1944. ISBN 0884824373

See also

Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ...

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Mishneh Torah (554 words)
The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written "Rambam" in English).
The Mishneh Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180, and may be regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus.
Mishneh Torah is composed in a lucid, well-styled Hebrew.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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