FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Miscarriage of justice
Criminal procedure
Criminal trials and convictions
Rights of the accused
Right to a fair trial  · Speedy trial
Jury trial  · Presumption of innocence
Exclusionary rule (U.S.)
Self-incrimination  · Double jeopardy
Verdict
Acquittal  · Conviction
Not proven (Scot.)  · Directed verdict
Sentencing
Mandatory  · Suspended  · Custodial
Dangerous offender (Can.)
Capital punishment  · Execution warrant
Cruel and unusual punishment
Post-conviction events
Parole  · Probation
Tariff (UK)  · Life licence (UK)
Miscarriage of justice
Exoneration  · Pardon
Related areas of law
Criminal defenses
Criminal law  · Evidence
Civil procedure
Portals: Law  · Criminal justice

A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that he or she did not commit. The term can also be applied to errors in the other direction — "errors of impunity" — and to civil cases, but those usages are rarer, though the occurrences appear to be much more common. Most criminal justice systems have some means to overturn, or "quash", a wrongful conviction, but this is often difficult to achieve. The most serious instances occur when a wrongful conviction is not overturned for several years, or until after the innocent person has been executed or died in jail. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Exoneration occurs when a perason waho hars beoen convaicted osf ah crieme irs laeter proved to have been innocent of that crime. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... Headline text The rights of the accused is a class of rights in that apply to a person in the time period between when they are formally accused of a crime and when they are either convicted or acquitted. ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jury. ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... In United States constitutional law, the exclusionary rule is a legal principle holding that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the U.S. Constitution is inadmissible for a criminal prosecution in a court of law (that is, it cannot be used in a criminal trial). ... Self-incrimination is the act of accusing oneself of a crime for which a person can then be prosecuted. ... For other uses, see Double jeopardy (disambiguation). ... In law, a verdict indicates the judgment of a case before a court of law. ... In criminal law, an acquittal is the legal result of a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict of guilty being entered against the accused. ... Not proven is a verdict available to a court in Scotland. ... In U.S. law, a directed verdict is an order from the judge presiding over a jury trial that one side or the other wins. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... A mandatory sentence is a judicial decision setting the punishment to be inflicted on a person convicted of a crime where judicial discretion is limited by law. ... A suspended sentence is a legal construct. ... A custodial sentence is a judicial sentence, imposing a punishment (and hence the resulting punishment itself) consisting of mandatory custody of the convict, either in prison (incarceration) or in some other closed therapeutic and/or (re)educational institution, such as a reformatory, (maximum security) psychiatry or drug detoxication (especially cold... In the Canadian legal system, the dangerous offender designation allows the courts to impose an indefinite sentence on a convicted person, regardless of whether the crime carries a life sentence or not. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... An execution warrant is a warrant which authorizes the execution or capital punishment of an individual. ... “Cruel And Unusual” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Medical parole be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Under British criminal law, a tariff is the minimum period that a person serving an indefinite prison sentence must serve before that person becomes eligible for parole. ... Life licence is a term used in the British criminal justice system for the conditions under which a prisoner sentenced to life in jail may be released. ... Exoneration occurs when a perason waho hars beoen convaicted osf ah crieme irs laeter proved to have been innocent of that crime. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Errors of impunity is a term used in Brian Forsts book Errors of Justice and in Robert Bohms introduction to a special edition of The Journal of Criminal Justice on miscarriages of justice. ...


"Miscarriage of justice" is sometimes synonymous with wrongful conviction, referring to a conviction reached in an unfair or disputed trial. Wrongful convictions are frequently cited by death penalty opponents as cause to eliminate death penalties to avoid executing innocent persons. In recent years DNA evidence has been used to clear many people falsely convicted. Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Genetic fingerprinting or DNA testing is a technique to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ...


Scandinavian languages have a word, the Norwegian variant of which is justismord, which is literally translated "justice murder". The term exists in several languages and was originally used for cases where the accused was convicted, executed and later cleared after death. With capital punishment decreasing, the expression has acquired an extended meaning, namely any conviction of a person of a crime he/she did not commit. The retention of the term "murder" both demonstrates universal abhorrence against wrongful convictions and awareness of how destructive wrongful convictions are. How many people are needed to testify against someone charged for treason who is denying it?

Contents

General issues

Causes of miscarriages of justice include:

  • confirmation bias on the part of investigators
  • withholding or destruction of evidence by police or prosecution
  • fabrication of evidence
  • biased editing of evidence
  • poor identification
  • overestimation/underestimation of the evidential value of expert testimony
  • contaminated evidence
  • faulty forensic tests
  • false confessions due to police pressure or psychological weakness
  • misdirection of a jury by a judge during trial
  • perjured evidence by the real guilty party or their accomplices (frameup)
  • perjured evidence by the supposed victim or their accomplices
  • perjured evidence by police officers or their accomplices
  • perjured evidence of confession given by jailhouse informants
  • errors of due process and errors of impunity
  • failure or incompetence of the defense

Often, whether a case is in fact a miscarriage of justice remains controversial for a long time. The criminal justice system in most countries is predisposed against changing its mind, only overturning a wrong conviction when the evidence against the conviction is overwhelming. The result is that many wrongly-convicted people spend many years in prison before their convictions are quashed and they are released. It has been suggested that Myside bias be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ... An expert witness is a witness, who by virtue of education, or profession, or experience, is believed to have special knowledge of his subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely his opinion. ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... A false confession is where a suspect in a crime admits their guilt to the crime, even though they are not responsible for the crime. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... A frameup refers to the act of framing someone, that is, providing false evidence in order to prove someone guilty of a crime. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Errors of impunity is a term used in Brian Forsts book Errors of Justice and in Robert Bohms introduction to a special edition of The Journal of Criminal Justice on miscarriages of justice. ... A controversy is a contentious dispute, a disagreement over which parties are actively arguing. ...


The risk of miscarriages of justice is one of the main arguments against the death penalty. Where condemned persons are executed promptly after conviction, the most significant effect of a miscarriage of justice is irreversible. (Wrongly-executed people are nevertheless occasionally posthumously pardoned — which is essentially a null action — or have their convictions quashed.) Many states that still practice the death penalty hold condemned persons for ten years or more before execution. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up null in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Even when a wrongly-convicted person is not executed, spending years in prison often has an effect on the person and their family that is irreversible and substantial. The risk of miscarriage of justice is thereby also a reasonable argument against long sentences, like life sentence, and cruel sentence conditions.


Cases in numerous countries

Australia

  • Lindy Chamberlain was convicted for the murder of her 9 week-old daughter, Azaria, in 1982 after claiming that the baby had been taken off by a dingo. In 1988 her conviction was overturned and she was released from prison.
  • Andrew Mallard was convicted for the murder of jeweller Pamela Lawrence in 1994 after eight unrecorded hours of police interrogation and a brief recorded "confession" that followed. In 2005 the High Court of Australia was advised that the prosecution and/or police had withheld evidence which showed his innocence, and overturned his conviction. As such Mallard was released from prison. A "cold case" review of the murder conducted after Mallard's release implicated one Simon Rochford as the actual offender and Mallard was exonerated.
  • Salvatore Fazzari, Jose Martinez and Carlos Pereiras were convicted in 2006 for the murder of Phillip Walsham in 1998. The conviction was overturned by the Western Australian Court of Appeal in 2007 on the grounds that the the verdicts of guilty were unreasonable and could not be supported on the evidence [1].

Lindy Chamberlain-Creighton (born 4 March 1948, née Alice Lynne Murchison) was at the center of one of Australias most publicised murder trials, in which she was convicted of killing her baby daughter, Azaria. ... Azaria Chamberlain, with mother Lindy. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus dingo (Meyer, 1793) Dingo range Breed standards (external link) ANKC The dingo (plural dingoes or dingos) or warrigal, Canis lupus dingo, is a type of wild dog, probably descended from the Indian Wolf (Canis Indica). ... Andrew Mallard is a West Australian who was convicted in 1995 and sentenced to life imprisonment for the violent murder of Pamela Lawrence on May 23, 1994. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ...

Canada

  • Robert Baltovich was convicted in 1992 of the murder of Elizabeth Bain; released in 2000 to prepare an appeal based on new evidence; although he has not been officially exonerated, the Crown has not pursued the case since his release; new evidence points to Paul Bernardo, an acquaintance of Ms Bain's, as her killer.
  • James Driskell, Canadian wrongfully convicted in 1991 of the murder of Perry Harder; his conviction was quashed and the charges stayed in 2005 due to DNA testing, but he has not been fully exonerated.
  • Donald Marshall, Canadian Mi'kmaq Aboriginal wrongfully convicted in 1971 of the murder of Sandy Seale; acquitted on appeal in 1983 after an additional witness to the murder came forward.
  • In 1969, David Milgaard, a 16-year old, was convicted and given a life sentence for the murder of 20-year old nursing aide Gail Miller. After 23 years of imprisonment, the Supreme Court of Canada allowed for the release of Milgaard. Five years later DNA testing proved his innocence.
  • Guy Paul Morin, Canadian wrongfully convicted in 1992 of the murder of Christine Jessop; he was exonerated by DNA evidence in 1995.
  • Thomas Sophonow, Canadian wrongfully convicted in 1981 of the murder of Barbara Stoppel; acquitted on appeal in 1985, and conclusively exonerated by DNA evidence in 2000.
  • Ronald Dalton, wrongfully convicted of murdering his late wife, Brenda Dalton in August 1988. It was later found that Brenda Dalton choked on cereal
  • Steven Truscott's wrongful conviction of murder in the death of Lynne Harper stood for 48 years before finally being overturned August 28, 2007

Robert Baltovich born July 17th,1965 is a Canadian man who was convicted in 1992 of the murder of his girlfriend Elizabeth Bainborn July 11th,1967in Scarborough -West HiLL, Toronto Ontario. ... Paul Kenneth Bernardo, (he later assumed the name Paul Teale) (born August 27, 1964 in Scarborough, Ontario), is a Canadian serial killer, known for the murders he committed with his wife Karla Homolka. ... James Patrick Driskell (b. ... Donald Marshall, Jr. ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Micmac or MicMac) are a First Nations people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ... Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... Milgaards mugshot David Milgaard (born july 1952)in Winnipeg, Manitoba is a Canadian who was wrongfully convicted for the murder and rape of nursing assistant Gail Miller. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Guy Paul Morin is a Canadian who was wrongly convicted of the October, 1984 murder of his nine-year-old, next-door-neighbour, Christine Jessop of Queensville, Ontario. ... Steven Murray Truscott (born January, 1945) is a Canadian who was convicted of murder in 1959. ... Cheryl Lynne Harper (born August 31, 1946) was a schoolgirl who was raped and murdered near Clinton, Ontario, on June 9 or 10, 1959. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

France

  • Joan of Arc was executed in 1431 on charges of heresy. She was posthumously cleared in 1456.
  • Jean Calas from Toulouse was executed on 10 March 1762 for murder of his son Marc Antoine. The philosopher Voltaire, convinced of his innocence, succeeded in reopening of the case and rehabilitation of Jean in 1765.
  • Alfred Dreyfus was wrongly convicted for treason in 1894. After being imprisoned on Devil's Island he was proven innocent with the assistance of Emile Zola and definitively rehabilitated only in 1906. See the Dreyfus Affair.
  • In 2005, thirteen persons were finally proven innocent of child molestation after having served four years in prison. A fourteenth died in prison. Only four persons were proven guilty. This infamous case, which has deeply shaken the public opinion, is known as the "Affaire d'Outreau", the Outreau case, from the name of the city where these persons lived, in the north of France.

Joan of Arc, or Jeanne dArc in French,[1] (1412 – May 30, 1431)[2] is a 15th century national heroine of France. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jean Calas (1698 - 1762) was a merchant living in Toulouse, France, famous for having been the victim of a biased trial due to his being a Protestant. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Devils Island. ... mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Outreau Trial was a miscarriage of justice in France. ...

Italy

Pietro Valpreda (22 June 1933 - 6 July 2002) was an Italian anarchist, dancer and novelist. ... The Piazza Fontana bombing (Italian: ) refers to the terrorist bombing on December 12, 1969 in the offices of Banca Nazionale dellAgricoltura (National Agrarian Bank) in Piazza Fontana, Milan, Italy, carried out by far-right terrorists. ...

Ireland

The Sallins Train Robbery occurred on 31 March 1976 when the Cork to Dublin mail train was robbed near Sallins in County Kildare, Republic of Ireland. ...

Netherlands

  • Cees Borsboom was released in December 2004 after serving four years in prison of a sentence of 18 years for a murder in June 2000 of a 10-year old girl in a Schiedam park, which he had nothing to do with. He was released after Wik Haalmeijer confessed the murder. This confession was confirmed by DNA evidence on the victim and the description of the attacker given to the police by another victim, Maikel, who narrowly survived the attack. Investigation of the way criminal justice acted in this case revealed that the police and the public prosecutor made large mistakes, ignored relevant information and brutalised the 11-year old victim Maikel. The minister of justice Piet Hein Donner had to take all responsibility. In September 2005 he survived a no-confidence motion in parliament but did set up the Posthumus I and Posthumus II committees. The state of the Netherlands paid Cees Borsboom € 600.850,- compensation and the parents of Maikel an unknown amount.
  • This event, as well as the similarly overturned case of the Putten Three, led to the installation of the Posthumus I committee, which analysed what had gone wrong in the Schiedam Park Murder case, coming to the conclusion that "tunnel-vision" led the police to ignore and misinterpret scientific evidence. Subsequently the so-called Posthumus II committee was set up to investigate whether more of such cases might have occurred. The committee received 25 applications from concerned and involved scientists, and decided to take three of them into further consideration, among them the celebrated Lucia de Berk case (submitted by Philosophy Professor Ton Derksen). This could lead to recommendations for retrial.
  • There are also continuing attempts to get the celebrated Deventer murder case, the Ida Post case, the Enschede incest case, the Overzier murder case and the Kevin Sweeney case reopened, in all of which tunnel-vision and misuse of complex scientific evidence is claimed by independent researchers (among them, the well-known law professors Wagenaar, van Koppen, Israëls, Crombag) to have led to miscarriages of justice.

Jan Pieter Hendrik Donner (born 20 October 1948 in Amsterdam) was Dutch Minister of Justice in the third Balkenende cabinet as member of the Dutch Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). ... Lucia de Berk (born The Hague, Netherlands 22 September 1961), in the Dutch media generally called Lucy de B. or Lucia de B., is a Dutch nurse who was sentenced to life imprisonment in 2003 for four murders and three attempted murders on patients in her care. ...

New Zealand

  • Arthur Allan Thomas, a New Zealand farmer, was twice convicted of the murders of Jeanette and Harvey Crewe on June 17, 1970. He spent 10 years in prison but a Royal Commission in 1980 showed the prosecution cases were flawed, and that police had deliberately planted bullets in a garden to use as evidence. Thomas was given a Royal Pardon, and was released and awarded $1 million compensation for wrongful convictions.
  • David Bain was convicted in 1995 of the murder of all five members of his family the previous year. After 13 years in prison, his convictions were finally overturned in 2007 by the Privy Council, who found that a substantial miscarriage of justice had occurred. He has been granted bail pending a retrial.

Arthur Allan Thomas is a New Zealander who become well known for being convicted and then pardoned for a murder in the 1970s. ... David Bain (born March 27, 1972 in Dunedin, New Zealand) was convicted in May 1995 for the murder of his parents and siblings on 20 June the previous year. ...

Norway

  • Per Kristian Liland, wrongfully convicted of murdering two of his friends in 1969. He was cleared in 1994.
  • Fritz Moen was wrongfully convicted for separate murders of two 20-year old women in 1976 and 1977. He was cleared for one murder in 2005 and the second in 2006, after his death.
  • Sveinung Rødseth was wrongfully convicted in 1981 for the murder of his 5-month old daughter. He was cleared in 1997.
  • Atle Hage was wrongfully convicted for incest to his two children in 1984. His wife accused him when the couple divorced.

He commited suicide in 1987, his life in ruins after time in prison. In 1997 his two children, then 20 and 22, demanded the case reopened, claiming that no molestation had found place and that Hages wife had lied. Hage was cleared in 1998. Hages ex-wife later made similar accusations against her new husband. Fritz Yngvar Moen, born December 17, 1941 - died March 28, 2005, was a Norwegian wrongfully convicted for two distinct felony murders, serving a total of 18 years in prison. ...

  • Former Lagmannsretts judge Trygve-Lange Nielsen has worked with dedication to clear victims for wrongful incest convictions. In 2004, 24 cases were solved as wrongful. Nielsen has stated that as many as 150 convictions or more probably are wrongful.

Spain

The Constitution of Spain guarantees compensation in cases of miscarriage of justice. Due to its turbulent history, Spain has had many constitutions since the first one was drafted in 1812. ...

  • The case known as "El crimen de Cuenca" (the crime of Cuenca) where in 1910 two peasants were convicted of the murder of another peasant who had disappeared even though the body was never found. Some years later the disappeared peasant showed up again and proved the conviction was wrongful.
  • The so-called "Banninkhof case" where Dolores Vazquez was convicted of the murder of Rocío Banninkhof in 1999. Later DNA evidence exonerated her.

El crimen de Cuenca, (The Crime of Cuenca) is a Spanish movie (1979), directed by Pilar Miró and based on historical facts which happened in the early 20th century in the Spanish province of Cuenca. ...

Sweden

  • Joy Rahman, a man of Bangladeshi origin, was in 1994 wrongfully convicted to life imprisonment for the murder of an elderly lady. After almost nine years in prison, he was freed by the Svea Court of Appeal, and later awarded 8 million SEK, the highest compensation ever awarded to a person in Sweden for wrongful conviction.[2]

The Svea Court of Appeal (Svea hovrätt in Swedish) is one of six appeal courts in the Swedish legal system. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ...

United Kingdom

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

In the United Kingdom a jailed person whose conviction is quashed may be paid compensation for the time they were incarcerated. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Compensation has several different meanings as indicated below. ...


It was a notable problem that the parole system assumes that all convicted persons are actually guilty, and that it poorly handled those who are not. In order to be paroled, a convicted person was required to sign a document in which, among other things, they confessed to the crime for which they were convicted. Someone refusing to sign such a declaration of remorse ended up spending longer in jail than a genuinely guilty person would have. Some wrongly convicted people, such as the Birmingham Six, were refused parole for this reason. In 2005 the system changed in this respect, and a handful of prisoners started to be paroled without ever admitting guilt. It has been suggested that Medical parole be merged into this article or section. ... The Birmingham Six were six men—Hugh Callaghan, Patrick Hill, Gerard Hunter, Richard McIlkenny, William Power and John Walker—sentenced to life imprisonment in 1975 in an infamous miscarriage of justice for two pub bombings in Birmingham, England on November 21, 1974 that killed 21 people. ...


In the event of a "perverse" verdict that involves the conviction of a defendant who should not have been convicted on the basis of the evidence presented, English law has no means of correcting this error: appeals being based exclusively upon new evidence or errors by the judge or prosecution (but not the defence), or because of jury irregularities. The tacit underlying assumption is that untrained juries are perfect and do not make mistakes. There is no right to a trial without jury.


During the early 1990s there was a series of high-profile cases revealed to have been miscarriages of justice. Many resulted from police fabricating evidence, in order to convict the person they thought was guilty, or simply to convict someone in order to get a high conviction rate. The West Midlands Serious Crime Squad became notorious for such practices, and was disbanded in 1989. In 1997 the Criminal Cases Review Commission [3] was established specifically in order to examine possible miscarriages of justice. However, it still requires either strong new evidence of innocence or new proof of a legal error by the judge or prosecution. For example, merely insisting you are innocent and the jury made an error, or stating that there was not enough evidence to prove guilt, is not enough. It is not possible to question the jury's decision or query on what matters it was based. The waiting list for cases to be considered for review is at least two years on average. See, for example: The West Midlands Serious Crime Squad was a police unit in the English West Midlands which operated from 1974 to 1989. ... The Criminal Cases Review Commission is the independent public body set up to investigate possible miscarriages of justice in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ...

Danny McNamee is a former electronic engineer from Crossmaglen, Northern Ireland, who was wrongly convicted in 1987 of bomb-making for the Irish Republican Armys Hyde Park bombing of 1982. ... Raphael Rowe, Michael Davis, and Randolph Johnson, were jailed for life at the Old Bailey in March 1990 for a series of attacks and robberies around Londons orbital motorway on a night in December, 1988. ... Jonathan Jones is a Welsh man convicted of murder but acquited on appeal. ...

Other miscarriages include:
  • Robert Green, Henry Berry and Lawrence Hill were hanged in 1679 at Greenberry Hill on false evidence for the unsolved murder of Edmund Berry Godfrey.
  • Adolph (or Adolf) Beck, whose notorious wrongful conviction in 1896 led to the creation of the Court of Criminal Appeal.
  • Timothy Evans' wife and young daughter were killed in 1949. Evans was convicted of killing of his daughter and hanged. It was later found that the real murderer was Reg Christie, another tenant in the same house, who eventually killed six women. Evans was the first person in Britain to receive a posthumous free pardon.
  • Derek Bentley, executed for murdering a police officer. The charge was based on the fact that during a police chase, he shouted to an armed friend 'Let him have it'. The case is often said to be a miscarriage of justice, and the verdict was overturned half a century later. It should be noted, however, that the grounds for overturning the verdict was that the trial had not been fair, due to various procedural defects. Had Bentley still been alive, there would certainly have been a retrial; he was not pronounced innocent by the Court of Appeal.
  • Stephen Downing was convicted of the murder of Wendy Sewell in a Bakewell churchyard in 1973. The 17-year-old had a reading age of 11 and worked at the cemetery as a gardener. The police made him sign a confession that he was unable to read. The case gained international notoriety as the "Bakewell Tart" murder. After spending 27 years in prison, Stephen Downing was released on bail in February of 2001, pending the result of an appeal. His conviction was finally overturned in January 2002.
  • John Joseph Boyle aged 18 was convicted under the pretences of an alleged confession to membership of the convicted at Belfast City Commission on 14 October 1977 of possession of firearms and ammunition with intent to endanger life, and membership in the I.R.A. He was sentenced to ten years in prison on the first count, and to two years in prison on the second count, the terms to run concurrently. A suspended sentence of two years imprisonment imposed for a previous offence was also invoked, making a total of twelve years in prison. When released he underwent a long fight to prove his innocence. In 2003, his conviction was quashed but he has been denied compensation.
  • Andrew Evans served more than 25 years for the murder of 14-year-old Judith Roberts. He confessed to the 1972 murder after seeing the girl's face in a dream. His conviction was overturned in 1997.
  • In 1974 Judith Ward was convicted of murder of several people caused by a number of IRA bombings 1973. She was finally released in 1992.
  • The Birmingham Six were fraudulently convicted in 1975 of planting two bombs in pubs in Birmingham in 1974 which killed 21 people and injured 182. They were finally released in 1991.
  • The Guildford Four were wrongly convicted in 1975 of being members of the Provisional IRA and planting bombs in two Guildford pubs which killed four people. They served nearly 15 years in prison before being released in 1989. (See Tony Blair's apology under The Maguire Seven below.)
  • The Maguire Seven were convicted in 1976 of offences related to the Guildford and Woolwich bombings of 1974. They served sentences ranging from 5 to 10 years. Giuseppe Conlon died in prison. Their convictions were quashed in 1991. On 9 February 2005 British Prime Minister Tony Blair issued a public apology to the Maguire Seven and the Guildford Four for the miscarriages of justice they had suffered. He said: "I am very sorry that they were subject to such an ordeal and such an injustice. They deserve to be completely and publicly exonerated."
  • Stefan Kiszko was convicted in 1976 of the sexual assault and murder of an 11-year old Lesley Molseed in 1975. He spent 16 years in prison before he was released in 1992, after a long campaign by his mother. He died of a heart attack the following year at the age of 41. His mother died a few months later.
  • The Bridgewater Four were convicted in 1979 of murdering Carl Bridgewater, a 13-year-old paper boy who was shot on his round when he disturbed robbers at a farm in Staffordshire. Patrick Molloy died in jail in 1981. The remaining three were released in 1997.
  • The Cardiff Three, Steven Miller, Yusef Abdullahi and Tony Paris were falsely jailed for the murder of prostitute Lynette White, stabbed more than 50 times in a frenzied attack in a flat above a betting shop in Cardiff's Butetown area on Valentine's Day 1988, in 1990 and later cleared on appeal. In 2003, Jeffrey Gafoor was jailed for life for the murder. The breakthrough was due to modern DNA techniques used on evidence taken from the crime scene. Subsequently, in 2005, 9 retired Police Officers and 3 serving Officers were arrested and questioned for false imprisonment, conspiracy to pervert the course of justice and misconduct in public office.
  • Peter Fell, a former hospital porter, described in the media as a "serial confessor" and a "fantasist", was sentenced to two life terms in 1984 for the murder of Ann Lee and Margaret "Peggy" Johnson, who were killed whilst they were out walking their dogs in 1982. His conviction was overturned in 2001.
  • Sally Clark was convicted in 1996 of the murder of her two small sons Christopher and Harry, and spent 3 years in jail, finally being released in 2003 on appeal. The convictions were based solely on the analysis of the deaths by the Home Office Pathologist Alan Williams, who failed to disclose relevant information about the deaths, and backed up by the paediatric professor Sir Roy Meadow, whose opinion was pivotal in several other child death convictions, many of which have been overturned or are in the process of being challenged. In 2005 Alan Williams was found guilty of serious professional misconduct and barred from practicing pathology for 3 years. In July 2005 Meadows was also struck off for serious professional misconduct and barred. Sally Clark became alcoholic as a result of her ordeal and died in 2006.
  • Angela Canning also jailed wrongly for 4 years on the now discredited evidence of Roy Meadows. Angela was later stalked by a jail inmate she befriended, and the strain of the wrongful conviction destroyed her marriage.
  • Donna Anthony, 25 at the time, was wrongly jailed in 1998 for the death of her 11 month old son, and finally released in 2005, also because of the opinion of Sir Roy Meadow.
  • The Gurnos Three, also known as the Merthyr Tydfil Arson Case (Annette Hewins, Donna Clarke and Denise Sullivan). Wrongly convicted of the arson attack on the home of Diane Jones, aged 21, in October 1995. Someone had torn away part of the covering of her front door and poured in petrol to start the fire. The fire spread so rapidly that Ms Jones and her two daughters, Shauna, aged two and Sarah-Jane, aged 13 months, were all killed. The convictions of Ms Hewins and Ms Clarke were quashed at the Court of Appeal in February 1998 and a retrial ordered in the case of Ms Clarke.
  • Michelle and Lisa Taylor, wrongly convicted for the murder in 1991 of Alison Shaughnessy, a bank clerk who was the bride of Michelle's former lover. The trial was heavily influenced by inaccurate media reporting and deemed unfair.
  • Paul Blackburn was convicted in 1978 when aged 15 of the attempted murder of a 9-year old boy, and spent more than 25 years in 18 different prisons, during which time he maintained his innocence. He said he had never considered saying he was guilty to secure an earlier release because it was a matter of "integrity". He was finally released in May 2005 when the Court of Appeal ruled his trial was unfair and his conviction 'unsafe'.
  • The Cardiff Newsagent Three, Michael O'Brien, Darren Hall and Ellis Sherwood, were wrongly convicted for the murder of a newsagent, Phillip Saunders. On October 12 1987 Mr Saunders, 52, was battered with a spade outside his Cardiff home. The day's takings from his kiosk had been stolen, and five days later he died of his injuries. The three men spent 11 years in jail before the Court of Appeal quashed the conviction in 1999. The three have since been paid six figure compensation, but South Wales Police had still not apologised or admitted liability for malicious prosecution or misfeasance.
  • Andrew Adams, wrongly convicted of the murder of a retired teacher. His conviction was finally quashed on 12th Jan 2007, after spending 14 years in jail.

Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... Primrose Hill. ... Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey (23 December 1621 - 12 October 1678) was an English magistrate whose mysterious death caused anti-Catholic uproar in England. ... This article might not be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Timothy John Evans (November 20, 1924 – March 9, 1950) was a young man, possibly mentally retarded, who was hanged in the United Kingdom in 1950 for the murder of his infant daughter. ... 10 Rillington Place, Ladbroke Grove, Notting Hill, London, was the site of the crimes of John Reginald Christie, one of Britains most notorious serial killers, resulting in a miscarriage of justice which contributed towards the abolition of the death penalty in Britain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stephen Downing (born 1957) is a English man who was convicted of murdering Wendy Sewell in Bakewell, Derbyshire in 1973. ... Bakewell is a small market town in Derbyshire, England, deriving its name from Badecas Well. According to the UK 2001 census the civil parish of Bakewell had a population of 3,979. ... Wrongly convicted of a number of bombings at the age of 25, Judith Ward was jailed and fought 18 years to prove her innocence, and eventually wrote a book, after her conviction was quashed in 11th May 1992. ... The Birmingham Six were six men—Hugh Callaghan, Patrick Hill, Gerard Hunter, Richard McIlkenny, William Power and John Walker—sentenced to life imprisonment in 1975 in an infamous miscarriage of justice for two pub bombings in Birmingham, England on November 21, 1974 that killed 21 people. ... Birmingham (pron. ... The Guildford Four were a group of people (Paul Hill, Gerry Conlon, Patrick Paddy Armstrong and Carole Richardson), who were wrongly convicted in the United Kingdom in October 1975 for the Provisional IRAs Guildford pub bombing — which killed five people and injured sixty-five more — and imprisoned for over... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... , For other places with the same name, see Guildford (disambiguation). ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The Maguire Seven case was an infamous event of wrongful conviction in the United Kingdom. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Stefan Ivan Kiszko (24 March 1952 – 23 December 1993), a tax clerk, was the subject of an infamous miscarriage of justice in the United Kingdom. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other persons named Sally Clark, see Sally Clark (disambiguation). ... Sir Roy Meadow is a prominent British paediatrician. ... Sir Samuel Roy Meadow (born 1933) is a prominent British paediatrician. ... Donna Anthony is a British woman from Somerset who was jailed in 1998 for the murder of her two babies, but was cleared and freed after spending more than six years in prison. ... Paul Blackburn (b. ... Andrew Adams was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1993 for the murder of teacher Jack Royal in Newcastle upon Tyne, England on 19 March 1990. ...

Errors of impunity
  • John Bodkin Adams, would seem to be a particularly notable case when a man was acquitted when he may, now with access to archives, be considered to have been guilty in all likelihood. Adams was arrested in 1956 for the murders of Edith Alice Morrell and Gertrude Hullett. He was tried in 1957 and found not guilty of the first charge and the second was dropped via a Nolle prosequi, an act which the presiding judge, Lord Justice Patrick Devlin, later termed "an abuse of power"[4]. Police archives, opened in 2004, suggest that evidence was passed to the defence by the DPP in order to allow Adams to avoid the death sentence, then still in force. Home Office pathologist Francis Camps suspected Adams of killing 163 patients in total.[5] Adams was only ever fined for minor offences and struck off the medical register for four years.

Errors of impunity is a term used in Brian Forsts book Errors of Justice and in Robert Bohms introduction to a special edition of The Journal of Criminal Justice on miscarriages of justice. ... John Bodkin Adams, (January 21, 1899–July 4, 1983) was a general practitioner in Eastbourne cleared of murdering one of his patients. ... Edith Alice Morrell (?? ?? 1868 - 13 November 1949), was a resident of Eastbourne and patient of the suspected serial killer John Bodkin Adams. ... Gertrude Bobby Hullett (?? ?? 1906 - 23 July 1956), was a resident of Eastbourne and patient of the suspected serial killer John Bodkin Adams. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Patrick Devlin may refer to Lord Devlin (1905–1992), a British Law lord L. Patrick Devlin, Professor of Communication at the University of Rhode Island Category: ... DPP may stand for: Democratic Progressive Party, a political party in the Republic of China favoring Taiwanese Independence Director of Public Prosecutions, an officer of the law in several countries Danish Peoples Party, a political party in Denmark Directie van de Interne Dienst voor Preventie en Bescherming op het... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... Francis Camps was a famous British pathologist in the 1950s. ...

Scotland

Reflecting Scotland's own legal system, which differs from that of the rest of the United Kingdom, the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) was established in April 1999. All cases accepted by the SCCRC are subjected to a robust and thoroughly impartial review before a decision on whether or not to refer to the High Court of Justiciary is taken. This article is about the country. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... The Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) is a non-departmental public body in Scotland and was established by the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (as amended by the Crime and Punishment (Scotland) Act 1997). ... Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ...

Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi (born April 1, 1952) is a former Libyan intelligence officer, head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, and director of the Center for Strategic Studies in Tripoli. ... The cockpit landed in a farmers field near a tiny church in Tundergarth, Scotland Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan Ams daily Frankfurt-London-New York-Detroit evening flight. ... The trial began on May 3, 2000 The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years, four months and 13 days after the sabotage of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. ...

United States of America

  • May 1886; Chicago, Haymarket Riot: eight union leaders sentenced for a bomb explosion during a demonstration.
  • 1920; Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, two Italian anarchists, tried and sentenced to death for the killing of two people during a robbery in 1920. In 1977, Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis issued a proclamation stating that Sacco and Vanzetti had not been treated justly and that "any disgrace should be forever removed from their names."
  • 1931; Scottsboro Boys
  • 1949; Iva Toguri D'Aquino was convicted of treason for allegedly being the notorious 'Tokyo Rose', when federal prosecutors knew she was innocent. Based on the proof of her innocence, President Gerald Ford pardoned her in January 1977.
  • 1954; Dr. Sam Sheppard, American convicted in 1954 of killing his wife in their home; Sheppard maintained she had been killed by an intruder, appealed his case to the Supreme Court. After serving ten years in prison, he was granted a new trial and was finally acquitted. A television series and film (both titled The Fugitive) are widely believed to have been inspired by his story.
  • 1961; Clarence Earl Gideon who was convicted in 1961 of robbery, successfully argued in the Supreme Court in the case Gideon v. Wainwright that his trial was unfair due to his lack of an attorney because of his inability to pay for one. He was given a retrial in 1963 with a free public defender and was acquitted.
  • 1976; Robert Wilkinson, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia County, 1976: police beat him into signing a confession and intimidated witnesses to identify him. He was convicted of arson and murder and sentenced to five consecutive life terms. He was released later in year after the actual perpetrators were convicted in federal court. The charges were refilled in 1977; indictments dismissed three months later. A federal court ruled prosecutor David Berman ignored, withheld and/or destroyed exculpatory evidence -- the actual perpetrators came to him and confessed. In dismissing Wilkinson's later indictment, the court ruled the prosecution was being maintained in bad faith. Prosecutors still insist he is guilty.
  • 1976; Randall Adams convicted of the 1976 murder of police officer Robert Wood in Texas largely due to testimony from David Ray Harris, who was later executed for a similar murder. Errol Morris's film, The Thin Blue Line explored his case and caused a closer examination, resulting in his release after 12 years in prison -- 4 of them on death row.
  • 1979; Gary Dotson, was the first person whose conviction (in 1979) was overturned because of DNA evidence, in 1989.
  • 1981; Clarence Brandley, Montgomery County, Texas, was convicted of capital murder in 1981. In 1989, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals overturned Brandley's conviction, finding that police and prosecutors, including James Keeshan, failed to investigate leads pertaining to other suspects, suppressed evidence placing other suspects at crime scene at time of crime, failed to call a witness who didn't support the state's case, allowed the perjured testimony of a witness to go uncorrected, and failed to notify Brandley that another man later confessed to the crime.
  • 1982; Ron Williamson and Dennis Fritz, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma,were intimidated by police into confessions for the 1982 rape and murder of Debra Sue Carter and convicted. In 1999, DNA evidence exonerated them.
  • 1983; John Gordon Purvis, Broward County, Florida, a severely mentally ill person, despite no physical evidence that he was even at the scene of the murder, was intimidated by police into confessing to the murder of Susan Hamwi and her daughter in 1983.Later, investigators found that Paul Hamwi, Susan Hamwi's ex-husband, had hired Robert Wayne Beckett Sr. and Paul Serio to murder Susan Hamwi and Purvis was exonerated in 1993.
  • 1984; Darryl Hunt, convicted in 1984 of the rape and murder of Deborah Sykes, spent 19 years in prison, 9 of which were served after DNA evidence indicated that he did not commit the rape. Since Hunt was an African-American, the case was heavily charged with the topic of race relations.
  • 1992; Joshua Rivera, 36, was sentenced 37 years for a 1992 murder. On September 19, 1992, Leonard Aquino was in front of a building and was approached by a couple of men who spoke briefly, then opened fire. Mr. Aquino was killed; another man, Paul Peralta, was shot, but survived. Rivera was known to people in the building and had a conviction for gun possession. He was charged and convicted of the crime. In 2006 Jaime Acevedo confessed he drove the real killer to the murder scene, and that Rivera was not involved.[6]
  • 1999; The Tulia incident, in which 46 people, forty who were African-American, were arrested on a drug sting under undercover officer Tom Coleman. Despite the lack of credible evidence, many pled guilty to receive lesser sentences seeing as they would not receive a fair trial (those convicted received harsher sentences). Further investigations and other evidence led to the release of most of the "Tulia 46" by 2004, who were further compensated a total of $6,000,000 collectively to avoid further litigation.
  • 1965; Peter Limone, Joseph Salvati and the families of the two other men who died in prison were awarded $101.7 million as compensation for framing by the FBI.[7]

The Haymarket Riot on May 4, 1886 in Chicago is generally considered to have been an important influence on the origin of international May Day observances for workers. ... Bartolomeo Vanzetti (left) and Nicola Sacco in handcuffs Nicola Sacco (April 22, 1891 – August 23, 1927) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (June 11, 1888 – August 23, 1927) were two Italian-born American anarchists, who were arrested, tried, and executed via electrocution in Massachusetts for the charge of murder and theft. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... The case of the Scottsboro Boys arose in Scottsboro, Alabama during the 1930s, when nine black youths, ranging in age from thirteen to seventeen, were accused of raping two white women, one of whom would later recant. ... Samuel Holmes Sheppard, D.O. (1923 – April 6, 1970) was an American osteopathic physician [1] involved in a famous and controversial murder trial when he was convicted of the murder of his pregnant wife, Marilyn Sheppard. ... The Fugitive is an American television series produced by QM Productions and United Artists Television that aired on ABC from 1963-1967. ... The Fugitive is a 1993 Academy Award and Golden Globe Award winning feature film, based on the television series The Fugitive, starring Harrison Ford as Dr. Richard Kimble, and Tommy Lee Jones as Deputy United States Marshal Samuel Gerard. ... Clarence Earl Gideon Clarence Earl Gideon (August 30, 1910 – January 18, 1972) was a poor drifter accused in a Florida state court of felony theft, who fought to have a lawyer appointed to his case resulting in the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Gideon v. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym... Holding The Sixth Amendment right to counsel is a fundamental right applied to the states through the Fourteenth, and requires that indigent criminal defendants be provided counsel at trial. ... An attorney is someone who represents someone else in the transaction of business: For attorney-at-law, see lawyer, solicitor, barrister or civil law notary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Trial de novo. ... In the United States, a public defender is a lawyer whose duty is to provide legal counsel and representation to indigent defendants in criminal cases who are unable to pay for legal assistance. ... Robert Wilkinson may refer to: Robert Wilkinson Furnas - third Governor of Nebraska. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love endure Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country Commonwealth County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Randall Dale Adams (born in 1949) is an anti-death penalty activist. ... Errol Morris Errol Morris (born February 5, 1948) is an American Academy Award winning documentary film director. ... The Thin Blue Line is a 1988 documentary film concerning the murder of a Texas police officer who had stopped a car for a routine traffic citation. ... In May, 1979, Gary Dotson was found guilty and sentenced to 25 to 50 years for rape and another 25 to 50 years for aggravated kidnaping, the terms to be served concurrently. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ron Williamson was a baseball player who was wrongly convicted and sentenced to death in 1988 for the rape and murder of Debra Carter in Ada, Oklahoma. ... John Gordon Purvis Jr. ... Darryl Hunt is an African-American man from Winston-Salem, North Carolina who was wrongfully convicted in 1984 of the rape and murder of a young newspaper reporter, Deborah Sykes, but was later exonerated by DNA evidence. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. ... Tulia is a city located in Swisher County, Texas. ...

Province of Massachusetts Bay

  • Salem witch trials, malicious gossip gone awry resulted in the killing of 19 innocent people before the sentences were overturned (1692).

A map of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. ... 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex Counties of Massachusetts in 1692... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ...

See also

A false confession is where a suspect in a crime admits their guilt to the crime, even though they are not responsible for the crime. ... A macro shot of a palm and the base of several fingers; as seen here, debris can gather between the ridges. ... The Innocence Project refers to a number of non-profit legal clinics in the United States. ... List of people sentenced to death wANA HASTINGS HAS NICE TITSho were either exonerated, pardoned, or had their death sentences commuted: // United Kingdom Timothy Evans, hanged in England on March 9, 1950, pardoned posthumously in 1966 United States Illinois January 11, 2003: ana hastings has huge tits See Also State... Police misconduct refers to brutality, corruption or other objectionable actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties. ... False allegations of child sexual abuse are allegations of child sexual abuse that occur as a result of both intentional and unintentional coaching, misinterpretation of events, poor interviewing techniques,[1] psychologically disturbed accusers, or conscious manipulation by the accuser. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Judgment of the Supreme Court of Western Australia in the Martinez, Fazzari and Pereiras appeal
  2. ^ Alternative Report to the CERD-Committee with respect to Sweden’s commitments according to the ICERD, United Nations Association of Sweden, 2004
  3. ^ Criminal Cases Review Commission
  4. ^ Devlin, Patrick; "Easing the Passing", London, The Bodley Head, 1985
  5. ^ Cullen, Pamela V., "A Stranger in Blood: The Case Files on Dr John Bodkin Adams", London, Elliott & Thompson, 2006, ISBN 1-904027-19-9
  6. ^ New York Times; November 16, 2006; In Murder Case, New Evidence but Same Cell
  7. ^ CNN

  Results from FactBites:
 
Justice Action Australia - Home (543 words)
Justice Action is a community-based organisation comprising criminal justice and prison activists.
Justice Action sees restorative justice and mentoring as the way forward with social problems.
JUSTICE ACTION representing convicts in the host Penal Colony of Australia, having regained their right to political expression in the High Court of Australia last week, now exercise that right of political expression.
Miscarriage of justice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3249 words)
A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that he or she did not commit.
The risk of miscarriages of justice is one of the main arguments against the death penalty.
Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi By December 2005, the SCCRC is expected to rule on whether there has been a miscarriage of justice in Megrahi's case (his appeal [2] against conviction for the 1988 Lockerbie bombing was rejected in March 2002) and whether to allow a fresh appeal to the High Court of Justiciary.
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