- For the U.S. hockey team's victory in the 1980 Winter Olympics, see Miracle on Ice, or Miracle (movie)
According to many religions, a miracle is an intervention by God in the universe. One must keep in mind that in Judaism, Christianity, Islam and in other faiths people have substantially different definitions of the word miracle. Even within a specific religion there is often more than one usage of the term.
Sometimes the term miracle may refer to the action of a supernatural being that is not a god. Then the term divine intervention refers specifically to the direct involvement of a deity.
Miracles as an act of God
Adherents of many religions assert that miracles, if established, are logical proof of the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient, and all-benevolent God. In this view, a miracle can be defined as a violation of laws of nature by a supernatural being. To wit:
- There are events that seem to be miracles.
- The best explanation for these events is that they were performed by a supernatural being.
- Therefore, there is probably a supernatural being (i.e., God) that performs what appear to be miracles.
A number of criticisms of this point of view exist:
- While the existence of miracles may imply the existence of a supernatural miracle worker, that supernatural miracle worker need not be an omnipotent, omniscient, and all-benevolent God; it could be any supernatural being.
- Some argue that miracles, if established, are evidence that a perfect God does not exist, as such a being would not want to, or need to, violate its own laws of nature. Roman Catholic theologians accept this reasoning, and only conclude that the miracles are from an omnipotent God, because they believed to have previously logically proven (through concepts like the prime mover) that there must be a single omnipotent, omniscient, God.
Miracles as described by the Bible
The description of most miracles in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and in the Christian New Testament are generally the same as the modern-day definition of the word: God intervenes in the laws of nature.
A literal reading of the Biblical accounts shows that there are a number of ways this can occur: God may suspend or speed up the laws of nature to produce a supernatural occurrence; God can create matter out of nothing; God can breathe life into inanimate matter. The Bible does not explain details of how these miracles happen.
The Bible also attributes many natural occurrences to God, such as the sun rising and setting, and rain falling.
Today many Orthodox Jews, most Christians, and most Muslims adhere to this view of miracles. This view is generally rejected by non-Orthodox Jews, liberal Christians and Unitarian-Universalists.
Many events commonly understood to be miraculous may not actually be instances of the impossible, as commonly believed. For instance, consider the parting of the Sea of Reeds (in Hebrew Yâm-Sûph; often mistranslated as the "Red Sea") This incident occurred when Moses and Israelites fled from bondage in Egypt, to begin their exodus to the promised land. The book of Exodus never says that the Reed Sea split in an immediate and drastic fashion. Rather, according to the text God caused a strong wind to slowly drive the shallow waters to land, overnight. In this case, there is no claim that God pushed apart the sea as it is shown in many films; rather, the miracle would be that Israel crossed this precise place, at exactly the right time, when Moses lifted his staff, and that the pursuing Egyptian army then drowned when the wind stopped and the piled waters rushed back in.
Most events later described as miracles are not labeled as such by the Bible; rather the text simply describes what happened. Often these narratives will attribute the cause of these events to God.
Miracles as events pre-planned by God
In rabbinic Judaism, most rabbis of the Talmud held that the laws of nature were inviolable. The idea of miracles that contravened the laws of nature were hard to accept; however, at the same time they affirmed the truth of the accounts in the Tanakh. Therefore some explained that miracles were in fact natural events that had been set up by God at the beginning of time.
In this view, when the walls of Jericho fell, it was not because God directly brought them down. Rather, God planned that there would be an earthquake at that place and time, so that the city would fall to the Israelites. Instances where rabbinic writings say that God made miracles a part of creation include Midrash Genesis Rabbah 5:45; Midrash Exodus Rabbah 21:6; and Ethics of the Fathers/Pirkei Avot 5:6.
Aristotelian views of miracles
Aristotle rejected the idea that God could or would intervene in the order of the natural world; his view of miracles was incompatible with Biblical view.
Neo-Aristotelian views of miracles
Jewish neo-Aristotelian philosophers, who are still influential today, include Maimonides, Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon, and Gersonides. Directly or indirectly, their views are still prevalent in much of the religious Jewish community. Christian and Muslim neo-Aristotelian philosophers should also be discussed in this section; also please note if their works are still studied and accepted today, and if so, by whom.
Non-literal reinterpretations of miracles
These are held by both classical and modern thinkers.
In Numbers 22 is the story of Balaam and the talking donkey. Many hold that for miracles such as this, one must either assert the literal truth of this story, or one must then reject the story as false. However, some Jewish commentators (e.g. Saadiah Gaon and Maimonides) hold that stories such as these were never meant to be taken literally in the first place. Rather, these stories should be understood as accounts of a prophetic experience, which are dreams or visions.
Joseph H. Hertz, a 20th century Jewish biblical commentator, writes that these verses "depict the continuance on the subconscious plane of the mental and moral conflict in Balaam's soul; and the dream apparition and the speaking donkey is but a further warning to Balaam against being misled through avarice to violate God's command."
Miracles as seen by the Church Fathers
Early Christian writers of the first few centuries appear to take the biblical stories of miracles at face value. In addition, they report additional miracles that happened in later centuries. The purposes of miracles vary, but recurring themes are miracles done for the benefit of a person, such as physical healing, or raising from the dead; miracles done to prevent or discourage some evil from happening, such as Herod being consumed with worms upon inviting people to worship him, or various martyrs being found unusually difficult to kill, such as not being touched by flames; and often times to increase the faith of those who witnessed or later heard of the miracles, whether the faith of current believers or unbelievers moved to convert to Christianity after witnessing a miracle.
Miracles as a product of creative art
Miracles are the product of creative story tellers. They use them to embellish incidents, sacred objects and persons and places with a heroic theological flavor. Miracles allow people and situations to become bigger than life, and to stir the emotions of the listener more than the mundane and ordinary. Miracles are remembered. The meaning of miracles may be more important than "did they really happen". Not every one "feels" miracles in the same way. The discussion of miracles and wonders, like religion and various "personal" philosophies, draws an emotional response. Few people question their own phenomenological reality when there is a conviction involving the existence or non-existence of miracles. There is comfort in certainty.
Miracles as an expected frequent commonplace event
Littlewood's law states that individuals can expect miracles to happen to them, at the rate of about one per month. By its definition, seemingly miraculous events are actually commonplace.
Catholic view of miracles
A miracle is an unnatural occurence that is brought about by divine intervention.
What separates people from the supernatural is called a veil. Human beings can only perceive the information gathered by the five senses, anything outside of this cannot be perceived. Sometimes people foul up the creation of God, at times endangering the entire existence of man and nature; it is at times like these that miracles must be performed to rescue humans and nature.
Anyone can perform a miracle if he or she adheres to the following points. The person should be clear of any sin, long before that one should be well aware of what a sin really is. One should live entirely by the dictates of Christ. Fasting, penance, atonement and most of all prayer is very crucial to the success of the miracle. The last point is a clear understanding if the miracle is in line with the teachings and desire of Christ and His One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church.
A Satan-assisted miracle is a temprorary miracle that disguises itself as a genuine miracle. The miracle is more based on hysteria than on anything guinenly happening in the supernatural. The miracle does not last long and the situation is back to square one in a short period of time. The goal of the miracle is to attest false prophets and soothsayers.
Since Adam and Eve set foot on the earth there have been an estimated 40,000,000+ miracles. There have been huge miracles like the parting of the Red Sea, the raising of Lazarus from the dead and the ressurection of Jesus from the dead. Then there are the medium and small and very small ones that are not looked at as miracles. Each person's life consists of miracles and weird happenings that have either saved their lives or averted danger. The Vatican records some 12,756+ clear miracles the smaller or unclear miracles have simply been rejected point blank. Single saints like St. Francis of Assisi and St. Anthony have been credited with hundreds of miracles during their lifetime and thousands after their death till this very day. Saints do miracles by interceeding or suffering or making atonement on behalf of the sinner before God and His absolute justice.
External references and links
- Eisen, Robert (1995). Gersonides on Providence, Covenant, and the Chosen People. State University of New York Press.
- Goodman, Lenn E. (1985). Rambam: Readings in the Philosophy of Moses Maimonides. Gee Bee Tee.
- Kellner, Menachem (1986). Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought. Oxford University Press.
- Woodward, Kenneth L. (2000). The Book of Miracles. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-82393-4.
- Andrew Dickson White (1896 first edition. A classic work constantly reprinted) A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, See chapter 13, part 2, Growth of Legends of Healing: the life of Saint Francis Xavier as a typical example. This book has the highest recommendation by the master puzzlist, magician, rationalist and devout Martin Gardner, and his students. Oh, Martin is also The Royal Historian of OZ!
- The Academic Study of Miracles (http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/philosophy/staff/luck/index.html)
- Skeptics Dictionary on miracles (http://skepdic.com/miracles.html)