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Space Station Mir
Mir following separation from the Space Shuttle Discovery, June 12, 1998
Mir following separation from the Space Shuttle Discovery, June 12, 1998
Station statistics
Call sign: Mir
Crew: 3
Launch: 1986-02-19
21:28:23 UTC
Launch pad: LC200/39, Baikonur Cosmodrome,
USSR
Reentry: 2001-03-23
05:50:00 UTC
Mass: 124,340 kg
(274,123 lbs)
Living volume: 350
Perigee: 386 km (207.9 nmi)
Apogee: 398 km (212.5 nmi)
Orbit inclination: 51.6 degrees
Orbital period: 89.8 minutes
Orbits per day: 16.13
Days in orbit: 5,519 days
Days occupied: 4,592 days
Distance travelled: 3,638,470,307 km
(1,964,616,800 nmi)
Statistics as of Deorbit on 2001-03-23.
Configuration
Final configuration of Mir, with docked Space Shuttle
Final configuration of Mir, with docked Space Shuttle
Space Station Mir

Mir (Russian: Мир, which can mean both Peace and World) was a Soviet (and later Russian) orbital station. Mir was humanity's first consistently inhabited long-term research station in space, and the first 'third generation' type space station, constructed over a number of years with a modular design. The word Mir may have the following meanings: From Russian мир, meaning peace or world) Mir, a Soviet space station. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 626 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 2010 pixel, file size: 3. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational spacecraft in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Call sign can refer to different types of call signs: Airline call sign Aviator call sign Cosmonaut call sign Radio and television call signs Tactical call sign, also known as a tactical designator See also: International Callsign Allocations, Maritime Mobile Service Identity This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Rockets (including missiles) can be launched from the following: for a launch into an orbital spaceflight and beyond: a launch pad, including a floating platform (see San Marco platform, Sea Launch) for the launch into a suborbital flight also: a missile silo a mobile launcher vehicle a submarine air launch... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... The launch pad refers to the facilities where rockets or spacecrafts liftoff. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... “Reentry” redirects here. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... “km” redirects here. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... This article describes degree as a unit of temperature. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (552x691, 116 KB) Diagram of the Mir space station with a space shuttle docked Description: en: Diagram of the Mir space station with a space shuttle docked de: Module der Raumstation Mir, an die gerade ein Space Shuttle angedockt ist. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... CCCP redirects here. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ...


Mir holds the record for longest continuous human presence in space at eight days short of 10 years, and, through a number of collaborations, was made internationally accessible to cosmonauts and astronauts of many countries. The most notable of these, the Shuttle-Mir Program, saw American Space Shuttles visiting the station eleven times, bringing supplies and providing crew rotation. Mir was assembled in orbit by successively connecting several modules, each launched separately from 1986 to 1996. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ...


The station existed until 23 March 2001, when it was deliberately de-orbited, breaking apart during atmospheric re-entry over the South Pacific Ocean. is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Atmospheric entry is the transition from the vacuum of space to the atmosphere of any planet or other celestial body. ... Pacific redirects here. ...

Contents

Development

Mir Base Block with the five ports in a spherical node at the station’s forward end (left)
Mir Base Block with the five ports in a spherical node at the station’s forward end (left)

Mir was authorized as part of the third generation of Soviet space systems in a February 17, 1976 decree to design an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station. Four Salyut space stations had already been launched since 1971. Three more were launched during the development of Mir. At the time it was planned that the base blocks (DOS-7 and DOS-8) would be equipped with a total of four docking ports: two at either end of the station as with the Salyut stations, and an additional two ports on either side of a docking sphere at the front of the station. By August 1978, this had evolved to the final configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2200x1380, 91 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2200x1380, 91 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... Isolated view of the Mir Core Module Closeup of Mirs Core Module. ... For other uses, see Zvezda. ...


It was originally planned that the ports would connect to 7.5 tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These modules would have used a Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, and descent module and orbital module would have been replaced with a long laboratory module.[1] Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ...

Zvezda Service Module under construction. Sister to the Mir Core and originally to be the core of Mir 2
Zvezda Service Module under construction. Sister to the Mir Core and originally to be the core of Mir 2

The Mir program was consolidated with Vladimir Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station program in a February 1979 resolution. The docking ports were reinforced to accommodate 20 tonne space station modules based on the TKS spacecraft. NPO Energia was responsible for the overall space station; however, work was subcontracted to KB Salyut, the development arm of the Khrunichev due to ongoing work on Energia, Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, and Progress spacecraft. KB Salyut began work in 1979, and drawings were released in 1982-1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels (taken from Almaz), and the new Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Altair satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, and Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2028, 4407 KB) Zvezda Service Module under construction (NASA) original description: The Zvezda Service Module, the first Russian contribution and third element to the International Space Station (ISS), is shown under construction in the Krunichev State Research and Production Facility (KhSC... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2028, 4407 KB) Zvezda Service Module under construction (NASA) original description: The Zvezda Service Module, the first Russian contribution and third element to the International Space Station (ISS), is shown under construction in the Krunichev State Research and Production Facility (KhSC... Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomei (Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й) (June 30, 1914—December 8, 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist and rocket engineer. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... The TKS spacecraft was first designed as a Proton rocket launched manned spacecraft, with the VA (Vozvrashaemiy Apparat) capsule on top for the crew, where they would enter the lower portion of the TKS, the FGB (the Functional Cargo Block), through a hatch cut in the heat shield. ... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Russian: ), also known as RKK Energiya, is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... Khrunichev State Space Scientific Production Center is a Moscow-based producer of space-launch systems. ... An artists conception of a Soviet Buran space shuttle lifting off atop the Energia booster. ... Salyut 7 was launched on April 19, 1982, the last of the Salyut space station program. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... Kurs is a radio telemetry system used by the Russian space program. ... Altair, also referred to as Luch, is a series of 5 Geosynchronous Russian relay satellites. ... This article is about the breathing apparatus. ...


By early 1984 work on Mir had ground to a halt while all resources were being put into the Buran program to get the Buran space shuttle ready for flight test. Funding was returned in early 1984 when Valentin Glushko was ordered by the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defense to orbit Mir by early 1986, in time for the 27th Communist Party Congress.[1] This article is about the Buran space program in general. ... The Buran spacecraft, serial number 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational space shuttle from the Soviet Unions Buran program. ... Valentin Petrovich Glushko (born September 2, 1908 in Odessa, Ukraine, died January 10, 1989) was a Russian engineer and rocketry pioneer. ... 27th Congress of the CPSU (February 25, 1986—March 6, 1986) was held in Moscow. ...


It was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still make the 1986 launch date. It was decided on Cosmonaut's Day (April 12) to ship the flight model to Baikonur and conduct the systems testing and integration there. Mir arrived at the launch site on May 6, 1985. 1100 of 2500 cables required rework based on the results of tests to the ground test model at Khrunichev. In October Mir was rolled outside its cleanroom. The first launch attempt on February 16, 1986 was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed. The second attempt on February 19, 1986 at 21:28:23 UTC was successful, meeting the political deadline.[1] Map showing Baikonurs location in Kazakhstan. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Khrunichev State Space Scientific Production Center is a Moscow-based producer of space-launch systems. ... For the Cleanroom software engineering methodology, see Cleanroom Software Engineering. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Early existence

Due to the pressure to launch the station in such short order, mission planners were left without Soyuz spacecraft or modules to launch to the station at first. It was decided to launch Soyuz T-15 on a dual mission to both Mir and Salyut 7.[1] Leonid Kizim (3) Vladimir Solovyov (2) (1) number of spaceflights each crew member has completed, including this mission. ... Salyut 7 was launched on April 19, 1982, the last of the Salyut space station program. ...


Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov first docked with the Mir space station on March 15, 1986. During their nearly 51-day stay on Mir, they brought the station online and checked its systems. They also unloaded two Progress spacecraft launched after their arrival, Progress-25 and Progress-26.[2] Leonid Kizim (born August 5, 1941) is a former Russian cosmonaut. ... The name Vladimir Solovyov, with alternate transliterations Soloviev, Soloviyov, Solovyev may refer to one of the following people. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ...


On May 5, 1986 they undocked from Mir for a day-long journey to Salyut-7. They spent 51 days there and gathered 400 kg of scientific material from Salyut 7 for return to Mir. While Soyuz T-15 was at Salyut-7, the unmanned Soyuz TM-1 arrived at the unoccupied Mir and remained for 9 days, testing the new Soyuz TM. Soyuz T-15 redocked with Mir on June 26 and delivered the experiments and 20 instruments, including a multichannel spectrometer. The EO-1 crew spent their last 20 days on Mir conducting Earth observations before returning to earth on July 16, 1986, leaving the new station unoccupied.[3] is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Soyuz TM-1 was an unmanned Soyuz-TM test. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Spectrometer A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...

Mir's configuration after the arrival of Kvant-1 in 1987
Mir's configuration after the arrival of Kvant-1 in 1987

The second expedition to Mir, Mir EO-2, launched on Soyuz TM-2 on February 5, 1987. During their stay, the Kvant-1 module was launched on March 30, 1987. It was the first, experimental version of a planned series of '37K' modules scheduled to be launched to Mir on the Soviet Buran space shuttle. Kvant-1 was originally planned to dock with Salyut 7; however, due to technical problems during its development, it was reassigned for Mir. The module carried the first set of six gyroscopes for attitude control. The module also carried instruments for X-ray and ultraviolet astrophysical observation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2228x1548, 128 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2228x1548, 128 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Crew Launched: Yuri Romanenko (3) Aleksandr Laveykin (1) Landed: Alexander Viktorenko (1) Aleksandr Laveykin (1) Muhammed Faris (1) - Syria Mission Parameters Mass: 7100 kg Perigee: 341 km Apogee: 365 km Inclination: 51. ... Kvant-1 (Russian: ; lit. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Buran spacecraft, serial number 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational space shuttle from the Soviet Unions Buran program. ... Salyut 7 was launched on April 19, 1982, the last of the Salyut space station program. ...

Further information: Kvant-1
Mir with Kvant-1 module and Soyuz TM-3

The initial rendezvous of the Kvant-1 module with Mir on April 5th 1987 was troubled by the failure of the onboard control system. After the failure of the second attempt to dock, the onboard cosmonauts, Yuri Romanenko and Aleksandr Laveykin, conducted a spacewalk to fix the problem. They found a trash bag between the module and the station, which prevented the docking. The bag was left in orbit after the departure of one of the cargo ships. They removed the bag and completed docking on April 12th.[4][5] Kvant-1 (Russian: ; lit. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Roman Yurievich Romanenko (Major, Russian Air Force) (born August 9, 1971, in Schelkovo, near Moscow) is a test-cosmonaut at the Yu. ... Aleksandr Laveykin was born in Moscow, Russian SFSR on April 21, 1951. ...


The Soyuz TM-2 launch was the beginning of a string of 6 Soyuz launches and three long-duration crews between February 5, 1987 and April 27, 1989. This time period also saw the first international visitors to the station, Muhammed Faris, Abdul Ahad Mohmand and Jean-Loup Chrétien. With the departure of Mir EO-4 on Soyuz TM-7 April 27, 1989 the station was once again left unoccupied. Muhammed Faris (born May 26, 1951) is a former Syrian cosmonaut. ... Abdul Ahad Mohmand (b. ... Spationaut Jean-Loup Chrétien Jean-Loup J.M. Chrétien, retired Général de Brigade (brigadier general) of the Armée de lAir (French air force), spationaut on several Franco-Soviet space missions, and former NASA mission specialist. ... Crew Launched: Alexander A. Volkov (2) Sergei Krikalev (1) Jean-Loup Chrétien (2) Landed: Alexander A. Volkov (2) Sergei Krikalev (1) Valeri Polyakov (1) (1) number of spaceflights each crew member has completed, including this mission. ...


First expansion phase

Further information: Kvant-2

The launch of Soyuz TM-8 on September 5, 1989 marked the beginning of the longest human presence in space to date. It also marked the beginning of Mir's second expansion. The Kvant-2 and Kristall modules were now ready for launch. Alexander Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov docked with Mir and brought the station out of its five-month hibernation. On September 29 the cosmonauts installed equipment in the docking system in preparation for the arrival of Kvant 2, the first of the 20-ton add-on modules based on the TKS spacecraft from the Almaz program.[6] Isolated view of Kvant-2 Cut-away view of Kvant-2 Kvant-2 (Russian: ; lit. ... Crew Alexander Viktorenko (2) Aleksandr Serebrov (3) Mission parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 390 km Apogee: 392 km Inclination: 51. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Isolated view of Kvant-2 Cut-away view of Kvant-2 Kvant-2 (Russian: ; lit. ... The Kristall (Russian: ; lit. ... Alexander Stepanovich Viktorenko (Александр Степанович Викторенко) is a Russian cosmonaut. ... Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Serebrov (Александр Александрович Серебров) is a former Russian cosmonaut. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The TKS spacecraft was first designed as a Proton rocket launched manned spacecraft, with the VA (Vozvrashaemiy Apparat) capsule on top for the crew, where they would enter the lower portion of the TKS, the FGB (the Functional Cargo Block), through a hatch cut in the heat shield. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ...

Mir following the arrival of Kvant-2 in 1989.
Mir following the arrival of Kvant-2 in 1989.

After a delay of 40 days due to problems with a batch of computer chips, Kvant-2 was launched on November 26. After problems deploying the craft's solar array and with the automated docking systems on both Kvant-2 and Mir, Kvant-2 was docked manually on December 6. Kvant-2 added a second set of gyrodines to Mir. The module also carried the new life support systems for recycling water and generating oxygen on board Mir, reducing its dependence on resupply from the ground. Kvant-2 also featured a large airlock with a one-meter hatch. A special backpack unit, an equivalent of the U.S. Manned Maneuvering Unit, was located inside Kvant-2's airlock.[6][7] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Isolated view of Kvant-2 Cut-away view of Kvant-2 Kvant-2 (Russian: ; lit. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. astronaut Bruce McCandless uses a manned maneuvering unit A Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) is a rocket pack (propulsion backpack that snaps onto the back of the spacesuit) which has been used on spacewalks (EVAs) from NASAs space shuttle, allowing an astronaut to move independently from the shuttle. ...

Mir's configuration after the arrival of Kristall in 1990
Mir's configuration after the arrival of Kristall in 1990

Soyuz TM-9 launched Mir EO-6 crew members Anatoly Solovyev and Aleksandr Balandin on February 11, 1990. While docking, the EO-5 crew on board Mir saw that 3 thermal blankets on the Soyuz-TM 9 were loose, potentially creating problems on reentry. It was decided that this would be manageable. Their stay on board Mir saw the addition of the Kristall module. The module was launched on May 31. The first docking attempt on June 6 was aborted due to an attitude control thruster failure. The Kristall module arrived at Mir’s front port on June 10, and was relocated to the lateral port opposite Kvant-2 the next day, restoring the equilibrium of the complex. Due to the delay in the docking of Kristall, EO-6 was extended by 10 days to permit the activation of Kristall’s systems, and to accommodate the EVA to repair the loose thermal blankets on Soyuz-TM 9.[8] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2624x2722, 275 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2624x2722, 275 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... The Kristall (Russian: ; lit. ... Crew Anatoly Solovyev (2) Aleksandr Balandin (1) Mission parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 373 km Apogee: 387 km Inclination: 51. ... Anatoly Yakovlevich Solovyev (Russian: Анатолий Яковлевич Соловьёв; born January 16, 1948, in Riga) is a former Russian pilot, cosmonaut, and Colonel. ... Aleksandr Nikolayevich Balandin (born July 30, 1953 in Fryazino, Moscow Oblast, Russian SFSR) is a Russian cosmonaut. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Kristall module contained a number of furnaces for the creation of crystals in micro-gravity. Also on board was biotechnology research equipment, including a small greenhouse for plant cultivation experiments. The unit was equipped with a source of light and a feeding system. The module also contained equipment for astronomy observations. The main feature, however, was the two APAS-89 Androgynous Peripheral Attach System docking ports designed to be compatible with the Buran shuttle. Although they were never used with a Buran Shuttle, they were later used with the American Space Shuttle.[9] APAS-89 androgynous docking unit Space Shuttle Orbital Docking System close-up APAS in a Shuttle-Mir docking. ... The Buran spacecraft, serial number 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational space shuttle from the Soviet Unions Buran program. ...

Further information: Kristall

The EO-7 relief crew arrived aboard Soyuz TM-10 on August 3, 1990. The new crew arrived at Mir with quail for Kvant-2's cages. A quail laid an egg en route to the station. It was returned to Earth, along with 130 kg of experiment results and industrial products, in Soyuz TM-9.[8] Three more expeditions continued to visit Mir while tensions back on Earth grew. The Mir EO-10 crew launched aboard Soyuz TM-13 on October 2, 1991 was the last crew to launch from the USSR, and continued the occupation of Mir through the fall of the Soviet Union. The unlaunched modules, Spektr and Priroda, were not so lucky. The newly formed Russian Federal Space Agency was unable to finance them and they were put into storage, ending Mir's first expansion.[10][11][12] The Kristall (Russian: ; lit. ... Soyuz TM-10 was the tenth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the bird. ... Crew Launched: Alexander A. Volkov (3) Toktar Aubakirov (1)- Kazakhstan Franz Viehböck (1) - Austria Landed: Alexander A. Volkov (3) Sergei Krikalev (2) Klaus-Dietrich Flade (1) - Germany Mission Parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 195 km Apogee: 232 km Inclination: 51. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Isolated view of Priroda Diagram of Priroda pointing out external features Cut-away view of Priroda Closeup of the Travers antenna taken by the crew of STS-79 The Priroda (Russian: ; lit. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство России, commonly known as Roskosmos) or RKA, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos), is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ...


International cooperation

Mir is seen orbiting about 350 kilometres above New Zealand.
Mir is seen orbiting about 350 kilometres above New Zealand.
Main article: Shuttle-Mir Program

In September 1993 U.S. Vice-President Al Gore and Russian prime minister Viktor Chernomyrdin announced plans for a new space station, which would later be called the International Space Station, or ISS. They also agreed that, in preparation for this new project, the U.S. would be involved in the Mir project in the years ahead, under the code name Phase One (the ISS being Phase Two). Space shuttles would take part in the transport of supplies and people to and from Mir, and American astronauts would live on Mir for many months on end, allowing the U.S. to share and learn from the unique experience that Russia had with long duration space flights. From http://antwrp. ... From http://antwrp. ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin (Russian: Ви́ктор Степа́нович Черномы́рдин) (born April 9, 1938) is a Russian politician. ... ISS redirects here. ...


The U.S. involvement in the Mir program also brought new funds to Mir. The most notable use of these was the completion and launch of the Spektr and Priroda modules. Also, the Mir Docking Module was constructed to make the process of docking the shuttle to the station easier. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Isolated view of Priroda Diagram of Priroda pointing out external features Cut-away view of Priroda Closeup of the Travers antenna taken by the crew of STS-79 The Priroda (Russian: ; lit. ... Isolated view of the Mir Docking Module. ...

The American Space Shuttle Atlantis docked to the Russian Mir Space Station
The American Space Shuttle Atlantis docked to the Russian Mir Space Station

Starting in March 1995, seven U.S. astronauts spent 28 months on Mir. During their stay several acute emergencies occurred, notably a small fire on February 23, 1997, and a collision with an unmanned Progress spacecraft on June 25, 1997. The latter left a hole in the Spektr module, which was then sealed off from the rest of the station. On both occasions the necessity for complete evacuation using the Soyuz escape craft was narrowly avoided. Several space walks were needed to restore full power to Mir, and one of these was inside the Spektr module from which all the air had escaped. After the emergencies, the U.S. Congress and NASA considered whether the U.S. should abandon the program out of concern for the astronauts' safety, but NASA administrator Daniel S. Goldin decided to continue the program. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2730x2400, 1858 KB) Atlantis Docked to Mir Description: This view of the Space Shuttle Atlantis still connected to Russias Mir Space Station was photographed by the Mir-19 crew on July 4, 1995. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2730x2400, 1858 KB) Atlantis Docked to Mir Description: This view of the Space Shuttle Atlantis still connected to Russias Mir Space Station was photographed by the Mir-19 crew on July 4, 1995. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Daniel Saul Goldin (born July 23, 1940) served as the 9th and longest-tenured Administrator of NASA from April 1, 1992, to November 17, 2001. ...


In June 1998, the final U.S. Mir astronaut Andy Thomas left the station aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. Andrew Andy Sydney Withiel Thomas (born December 18, 1951 in Adelaide, South Australia) is an Australian-born U.S. aerospace engineer and a NASA astronaut. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational spacecraft in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ...


Mir was originally planned to be followed by a Mir 2, and elements of that project are now an integral part of the International Space Station, including the core module (now called Zvezda) which was labeled as "Mir-2" for quite some time in the factory. For other uses, see Zvezda. ...


Life on Mir

Mir and the Moon, two satellites of the Earth
Mir and the Moon, two satellites of the Earth

Inside, the 100-ton Mir looked like a cramped labyrinth, crowded with hoses, cables and scientific instruments — as well as articles of everyday life, such as photos, children's drawings, books and a guitar. It commonly housed three crew members, but it sometimes supported as many as six for up to a month. Except for two short periods, Mir was continuously occupied until August 1999. Download high resolution version (639x601, 263 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (639x601, 263 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... This article is about the mazelike structure from Greek mythology. ...


Two amateur radio call signs, U1MIR and U2MIR, were assigned to Mir in the late 1980s, allowing radio operators on Earth to communicate with the cosmonauts.[13]


Peter Llewellyn almost visited Mir in 1999 after promising US$100 million for the privilege.[14] Peter Rodney Llewellyn (born November 1, 1947 in Walthamstow, England, and not Wales as he leads people to believe), is an international businessman who is bestl-known for having nearly persuaded the Russian Space Agency into permitting him to fly on the Space Station Mir in 1999. ... USD redirects here. ...


Final days and deorbit

Mir space station breaking up in Earth's atmosphere over the South Pacific on March 23, 2001.

Near the end of its life, there were plans for private interests to purchase Mir, possibly for use as the first orbital television/movie studio. The privately-funded Soyuz TM-30 mission, launched on April 4, 2000, carried two crew members, Sergei Zalyotin and Alexandr Kaleri, to the station for two months to do repair work with the hope of proving that the station could be made safe. But this was to be the last manned mission to Mir. While Russia was optimistic about Mir's future, its commitments to the International Space Station project left no funding to support the aging Mir. The Mir Spacestation breaking up in Earths atmosphere over the South Pacific. ... The Mir Spacestation breaking up in Earths atmosphere over the South Pacific. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A movie studio is a controlled environment for the making of a film. ... Crew Sergei Zalyotin (1) Alexandr Kaleri (3) Mission Parameters Mass: ? kg Perigee: 186 km Apogee: 222 km Inclination: 51. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... External link NASA Biography Categories: Stub | 1962 births | Astronauts ... External link NASA Biography Categories: Stub | 1956 births | Russian astronauts | Crew members of ISS Expeditions ... ISS redirects here. ...


Mir's deorbit was done in three stages. The first stage was waiting for atmospheric drag to decay Mir’s orbit an average of 220 kilometers (137 mi). This began with the docking of Progress M1-5, a modified version of the Progress M carrying 2.5 times more fuel in place of supplies. The second stage was the transfer of the station into a 165 x 220 km (103 x 137 mi) orbit. This was achieved with two burns of the Progress M1-5's control engines at 00:32 UTC and 02:01 UTC on March 23, 2001. After a two-orbit pause, the third and final stage of Mir's deorbit began with the burn of Progress M1-5's control engines and main engine at 05:08 UTC, lasting a little over 22 minutes. Reentry into Earth's atmosphere (100 km/60 mi) of the 15-year-old space station occurred at 05:44 UTC near Nadi, Fiji. Major destruction of the station began around 05:52 UTC and the unburned fragments fell into the South Pacific Ocean around 06:00 UTC.[15] [16] An object moving through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ... Orbital decay is the process of prolonged reduction in the height of a satellite’s orbit due to drag produced by an atmosphere. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Atmospheric entry is the transition from the vacuum of space to the atmosphere of any planet or other celestial body. ... Air redirects here. ... Sri Siva Subramaniya temple, a centre of worship for Fijis Hindu community and one of Nadis most visible landmarks. ...


In anticipation of the reentry of Mir, the owners of Taco Bell towed a large target out into the Pacific Ocean. If the target was hit by a falling piece of Mir, every person in the United States would be entitled to a free Taco Bell taco. The company bought a sizable insurance policy for this "gamble."[17] No piece of the station struck the target. Taco Bell Corp. ...


NASA created an animation of the Mir deorbit.


Support craft

A Space Shuttle Atlantis out-the-window view showing a Soyuz spacecraft docked with Mir
A Space Shuttle Atlantis out-the-window view showing a Soyuz spacecraft docked with Mir

The Mir space station was primarily supported by the Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft. Soyuz craft provided manned access to and from the station, allowing for crew rotations. Soyuz craft also functioned as a lifeboat for the station, allowing for a relatively quick return to earth in the event of an emergency. The unmanned Progress cargo vehicles were only used to resupply the station and were incapable of surviving reentry. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ...

A view of the Space Shuttle Atlantis departing the Mir.
A view of the Space Shuttle Atlantis departing the Mir.

It was anticipated that it would also be the destination for flights by the later-abandoned Buran space shuttle. The Kristall module even carried two APAS-89 Androgynous Peripheral Attach System docking ports designed to be compatible with the Buran shuttle. These were later used with the American Space Shuttle. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 589 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3052 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 589 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3052 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Shuttle Buran, serial number 11F35 K1, was the only space shuttle to come out of the Shuttle Buran program that was completed. ... The Kristall (Russian: ; lit. ... APAS-89 androgynous docking unit Space Shuttle Orbital Docking System close-up APAS in a Shuttle-Mir docking. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ...


During the Shuttle-Mir Program, Mir was also supported by Space Shuttles, allowing American and other western astronauts to visit or stay long-term on the station. The visiting US shuttles used a modified docking collar originally designed for the Soviet Buran shuttle, mounted on a bracket originally designed for use with Space Station Freedom. A Docking Module was later added to the end of Kristall to eliminate the need to move the module and retract solar arrays for clearance issues. The shuttles provided crew rotation of the U.S. astronauts on station as well as carrying cargo to and from the station, performing some of the largest transfers of cargo of the time. With a space shuttle docked to Mir the temporary enlargements of living and working areas amounted to a complex that was the largest spacecraft in history at that time, with a combined mass of 275 tons (227 metric tonnes). The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... The Shuttle Buran, serial number 11F35 K1, was the only space shuttle to come out of the Shuttle Buran program that was completed. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... Isolated view of the Mir Docking Module. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ...


Mir modules

The Mir space station was constructed by connecting seven different modules, each launched into orbit separately by a Proton rocket, except for the Docking Module, which was brought to Mir by a Space Shuttle. The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ...

For more information about the modules, visit the module pages linked on the table below.
Module Launch Date Launch vehicle Docking Date Mass Soyuz Purpose Isolated view Mir Configuration Photo
Core February 19, 1986 Proton 8K82K N/A 20,100 kg (44,313 lb) N/A Main station living quarters, core of entire station to which all other modules were docked.
Kvant-1 March 31, 1987 Proton 8K82K ~April 9, 1987 10,000 kg (22,046 lb) TM-2 Astronomical observations and Material Science experiments.
Kvant-2 November 26, 1989 Proton 8K82K December 6, 1989 19,640 kg (43,299 lb) TM-8 Newer, more sophisticated life support systems, extra scientific experiments and an airlock.
Kristall May 31, 1990 Proton 8K82K June 10, 1990 19,640 kg (43,299 lb) TM-9 Technology, material processing, geophysics and astrophysics laboratory.
Spektr May 20, 1995 Proton 8K82K June 1, 1995 19,640 kg (43,299 lb) TM-21 Housed experiments for the Shuttle-Mir Program.
Docking Module November 12, 1995 Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-74) November 15, 1995 6,134 kg (13,523 lb) TM-22 Used as a docking port for the American Space Shuttle during the Shuttle-Mir Program.
Priroda April 23, 1996 Proton 8K82K April 26, 1996 19,000 kg (41,888 lb) TM-23 Remote Earth sensing module.

The Soyuz human spaceflight programme was initiated in the early 1960s as part of the Luna programme that was intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. ... Isolated view of the Mir Core Module Closeup of Mirs Core Module. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2200x1380, 91 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2200x1380, 91 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Kvant-1 (Russian: ; lit. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Crew Launched: Yuri Romanenko (3) Aleksandr Laveykin (1) Landed: Alexander Viktorenko (1) Aleksandr Laveykin (1) Muhammed Faris (1) - Syria Mission Parameters Mass: 7100 kg Perigee: 341 km Apogee: 365 km Inclination: 51. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (916x953, 47 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2228x1548, 128 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Isolated view of Kvant-2 Cut-away view of Kvant-2 Kvant-2 (Russian: ; lit. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Crew Alexander Viktorenko (2) Aleksandr Serebrov (3) Mission parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 390 km Apogee: 392 km Inclination: 51. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2767x1167, 121 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2276x1720, 178 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Kristall (Russian: ; lit. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Crew Anatoly Solovyev (2) Aleksandr Balandin (1) Mission parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 373 km Apogee: 387 km Inclination: 51. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2741x883, 79 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2624x2722, 275 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Crew Launched: Vladimir Dezhurov (1) Gennady Strekalov (6) Norman Thagard (5) - U.S.A. Landed: Anatoly Solovyev (4) Nikolai Budarin (1) Mission Parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 201 km Apogee: 247 km Inclination: 51. ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1384x888, 64 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1405x1359, 116 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Isolated view of the Mir Docking Module. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... STS-74 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Crew Yuri Gidzenko (1) Sergei Avdeyev (2) Thomas Reiter (1) - ESA (Germany) (1) number of spaceflights each crew member has completed, including this mission. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1234x1063, 52 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... From http://antwrp. ... Isolated view of Priroda Diagram of Priroda pointing out external features Cut-away view of Priroda Closeup of the Travers antenna taken by the crew of STS-79 The Priroda (Russian: ; lit. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Crew Launched: Yuri Onufrienko (1) Yury Usachev (3) Landed: Yuri Onufrienko (1) Yury Usachev (3) Claudie Haignere (1) Mission Parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 202 km Apogee: 240 km Inclination: 51. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1054x986, 55 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1797x1673, 180 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mir ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 626 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 2010 pixel, file size: 3. ...

Expeditions, spacewalks and crews

See also: List of spacewalks and Kerim Kerimov

Categories: Mir ... The table lists extra-vehicular activity at the Soviet space station Mir. ... Related article Mir extra-vehicular activity (just an excerpt from the table above) List of ISS spacewalks (just an excerpt from the table above) External link NASA JSC Oral History Project: See link near page end to Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology PDF document. ... Kerim Kerimov Kerim Kerimov (Azerbaijani: Kərim Əli oğlu Kərimov, Russian: Керим Алиевич Керимов; 1917 – 2003) was a Soviet rocket scientist, one of the founders of the Soviet space industry, and for many years a central figure in the Soviet space program. ...

Further reading

Mir's Legacy - The core modules of the International Space Station, Phase Two of the ISS program.
Mir's Legacy - The core modules of the International Space Station, Phase Two of the ISS program.

The story of Phase One is described in great detail by Bryan Burrough in his book Dragonfly: NASA and the Crisis Aboard Mir (1998). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 488 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1569 × 1926 pixel, file size: 428 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 488 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1569 × 1926 pixel, file size: 428 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ISS redirects here. ...


In popular culture

  • The station plays a prominent role as a refueling depot in the 1998 film Armageddon. Shown larger than its real life counterpart and referred to simply as the "Russian Space Station," it was destroyed in the film following a fuel leak.
  • The station serves a minor role as a refuge for S.R. Hadden in the 1997 film adaptation of Contact.
  • In the South Park episode "Pinkeye", Kenny's first death in the episode results from Mir crashing onto him. The episode originally aired about 3 ½ years before the actual de-orbiting.
  • In the 1999 movie Virus, an alien lifeform invades Mir.
  • In the short story "Above it All" by "Robert J. Sawyer" an American astronaut boards Mir to recover the corpse of a Russian cosmonaut.
  • In the User Friendly comic strip, Erwin, an Artificial Intelligence program, was transferred to and inhabited Mir for a period of time.
  • In the BBC sci-fi series Bugs, footage of the Mir space station was used to depict a space based laser cannon.
  • In the Pournelle/Niven novel, Footfall, a combined USSR/American crew is aboard Mir when it is taken over by the invading aliens. In Fallen Angels (Pournelle/Niven/Barnes), Mir and the then-proposed American space station Freedom have combined to create a single habitat for the break-away culture of astronauts and cosmonauts.

For other films with this name, see Armageddon (disambiguation). ... Contact is a 1997 science fiction film adapted from the novel by Carl Sagan. ... Scam and Confidence Man redirect here. ... Peter Rodney Llewellyn (born November 1, 1947 in Walthamstow, England, and not Wales as he leads people to believe), is an international businessman who is bestl-known for having nearly persuaded the Russian Space Agency into permitting him to fly on the Space Station Mir in 1999. ... USD redirects here. ... The World of Darkness (or WoD) is the name given to three related but distinct fictional universes. ... In the World of Darkness fictional universe produced by White Wolf Game Studio, the Black Spiral Dancers are a tribe of werewolves (or Garou) who have become corrupted by the Wyrm. ... Malfeas is a realm of the Umbra in the fictional World of Darkness setting of roleplaying games, novels, comics and video games created by White Wolf Game Studio. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Pinkeye is the seventh episode of Comedy Centrals animated series South Park. ... Kenny McCormick, voiced by Matt Stone, is one of the five (originally four) central characters of South Park, the four others being Eric Cartman, Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, and in recent seasons, Butters Stotch. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... The Wizard of Evergreen Terrace is the second episode of the tenth season of The Simpsons. ... The Great Money Caper is the seventh episode of the twelfth season of The Simpsons. ... Virus is a sci-fi/horror film released in 1999. ... Robert J. Sawyer is a Canadian hard science fiction writer, born in Ottawa in 1960 and now resident in Mississauga. ... For the concept in software engineering, see user-friendliness. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Bugs was a British television drama series which ran for four seasons from April 1995 to August 1999. ... This article is about the pay TV channel. ... Dead Like Me is an American television comedy-drama starring Ellen Muth and Mandy Patinkin as grim reapers in Seattle, Washington. ... George Lass, portrayed by Ellen Muth Photo by Carole Segal/Showtime Georgia George Lass (1985–2003) is a fictional character on the Showtime comedy-drama Dead Like Me. ... Footfall is a 1985 science fiction novel written by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle. ... Fallen Angels (1991) (ISBN 0743435826) is a Prometheus Award-winning novel by science fiction authors Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle, and Michael Flynn. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Wade, Mark. Mir complex. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  2. ^ Anikeev, Alexander. Spacecraft "Soyuz-T15". Manned Astronautics. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  3. ^ Wade, Mark. Mir EO-1. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  4. ^ Wade, Mark. Mir EO-2. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  5. ^ Zak, Anatoly. Spacecraft: Manned: Mir: Kvant-1 Module. RussianSpaceweb.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  6. ^ a b Wade, Mark. Mir EO-5. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  7. ^ Zak, Anatoly. Spacecraft: Manned: Mir: Kvant-2 Module. RussianSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  8. ^ a b Wade, Mark. Mir EO-6. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  9. ^ Zak, Anatoly. Spacecraft: Manned: Mir: Kristall Module. RussianSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  10. ^ Wade, Mark. Mir EO-10. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  11. ^ Wade, Mark. Spektr. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  12. ^ Wade, Mark. Priroda. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  13. ^ Astronaut Hams Astronaut Hams
  14. ^ No Mir flight for British businessman BBC News: May 27, 1999
  15. ^ The Final Days of Mir. The Aerospace Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  16. ^ Mir Space Station Reentry Page. Space Online. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  17. ^ Taco Bell press release March 19, 2001
  18. ^ No Mir flight for British businessman BBC News: May 27, 1999
  19. ^ Simpsons episode 5F21
  20. ^ Simpsons episode CABF03

For the American hammered dulcimer musician, see Mark Alan Wade. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the American hammered dulcimer musician, see Mark Alan Wade. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the American hammered dulcimer musician, see Mark Alan Wade. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the American hammered dulcimer musician, see Mark Alan Wade. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the American hammered dulcimer musician, see Mark Alan Wade. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the American hammered dulcimer musician, see Mark Alan Wade. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the American hammered dulcimer musician, see Mark Alan Wade. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the American hammered dulcimer musician, see Mark Alan Wade. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

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Mir
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Mir Hardware Heritage
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Mir Mission Chronicle
Preceded by
Salyut program
Mir program
1986–2001
Succeeded by
International Space Station
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... ISS redirects here. ... Isolated view of the Mir Core Module Closeup of Mirs Core Module. ... Kvant-1 (Russian: ; lit. ... Isolated view of Kvant-2 Cut-away view of Kvant-2 Kvant-2 (Russian: ; lit. ... The Kristall (Russian: ; lit. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Isolated view of the Mir Docking Module. ... Isolated view of Priroda Diagram of Priroda pointing out external features Cut-away view of Priroda Closeup of the Travers antenna taken by the crew of STS-79 The Priroda (Russian: ; lit. ... APAS-89 androgynous docking unit Space Shuttle Orbital Docking System close-up APAS in a Shuttle-Mir docking. ... Altair, also referred to as Luch, is a series of 5 Geosynchronous Russian relay satellites. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... From World War II until its breakup, the Soviet Union undertook projects to build rockets, craft, and instruments for war and exploration of space. ... Soyuz spacecraft from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project The Soyuz human spaceflight programme was initiated in the early 1960s as part of the manned lunar programme that was intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. ... ISS redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... Vostok spacecraft model The Vostok programme (Восто́к, translated as East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project that succeeded in putting a person into Earth orbit for the first time. ... Image:Woschod 1 Montage. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... The name Zond (meaning probe in Russian) is the name given to two series of Soviet unmanned space missions from 1964 to 1970 to gather information about nearby planets and test spacecraft. ... Proton-K rocket with Zond (7K-L1) circumlunar spacecraft (Baikonur) Details of the Soviet Moonshot were kept intensely secret until the arrival of glasnost. ... TMK was the designation of a Soviet Union space exploration project to send a manned flight to Mars (without landing). ... Spiral 50 / 50. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... The TKS spacecraft was first designed as a Proton rocket launched manned spacecraft, with the VA (Vozvrashaemiy Apparat) capsule on top for the crew, where they would enter the lower portion of the TKS, the FGB (the Functional Cargo Block), through a hatch cut in the heat shield. ... An artists conception of a Soviet Buran space shuttle lifting off atop the Energia booster. ... Model of Energia rocket with Buran shuttle The Soviet reusable spacecraft program Buran (Бура́н meaning snowstorm or blizzard in Russian) began in 1976 at TsAGI as a response to the United States Space Shuttle program. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Human spaceflight Mercury program Gemini program Apollo program Apollo-Soyuz (Soviet Union partnership) Skylab Space Shuttle Shuttle-Mir Program (Russian partnership) International Space Station (working together with Russia, Canada, ESA, and JAXA along with co-operators, ASI and Brazil) Orion Program Satellite and Robotic space missions Earth Observing Explorer I... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... ISS redirects here. ... Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The North American X-15 rocket plane was part of the USAF/NASA/USN X-series of experimental aircraft, including also the Bell X-1. ... A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... Man In Space Soonest was a American program to put an astronaut into outer space before the Soviet Union would be able to. ... An artists conception of the NASA reference design for the Project Orion spacecraft powered by nuclear propulsion. ... Artists conception of the X-20 during re-entry The X-20 Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a USAF program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and sabotage of enemy satellites. ... MOL test launch Nov. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... // Background The Orbital Space Plane program (now defunct and replaced by the Spiral series of CEV — Crew Exploration Vehicles) was designed to support the International Space Station requirements for crew rescue, crew transport and contingency cargo such as supplies, food and other needed equipment. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... ISS redirects here. ... Genesis I is an experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace and launched in 2006. ... Genesis II is the second experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 511 pixelsFull resolution (2928 × 1872 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... MOL test launch Nov. ... The original Skylab space station. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... Polyus cutaway The Polyus spacecraft, also known as Polus, Skif-DM, or 17F19DM, was a prototype orbital weapons platform designed to defend against anti-satellite weapons with recoilless cannon. ... Galaxy is the second phase of a technology demonstration program currently underway by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace as a follow on to the Genesis-class vehicles. ... ISS redirects here. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The first model of a planned Chinese space station, unveiled in 2000 Project 921-2 is the working name given by the Peoples Republic of China in 1992 for plans to create a manned space station. ... A revolutionary yacht designed and built by Len Last in Exeter in 1971. ... A photograph of a full-size mock up of the expanded BA 330 module on the ground at Bigelow Aerospaces North Las Vegas plant, to give an impression of its size. ... Galactic Suite is a planned space station intended for use as an orbital hotel to be made operational in 2012. ... A rotating wheel space station is a hypothetical wheel-shaped space station that could create artificial gravity by rotating. ... A Bernal sphere is a type of space habitat intended as a long-term home for permanent residents, first proposed in 1929 by Dr. John Desmond Bernal. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders The ONeill cylinder is a space habitat design proposed by physicist Gerard K. ONeill in his book, The High Frontier. ... Exterior view of a Stanford torus. ... Wet Workshop was originally any idea of using a spent rocket booster as a makeshift space station. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... Space Industries Incorporated was a company formed in the 1980s for the purpose of building a privately owned space station, which was to be called the Industrial Space Facility (ISF). ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2730x2400, 1858 KB) Atlantis Docked to Mir Description: This view of the Space Shuttle Atlantis still connected to Russias Mir Space Station was photographed by the Mir-19 crew on July 4, 1995. ... STS-60 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... Mir as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-63 STS-63 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Discovery. ... Crew Launched: Vladimir Dezhurov (1) Gennady Strekalov (6) Norman Thagard (5) - U.S.A. Landed: Anatoly Solovyev (4) Nikolai Budarin (1) Mission Parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 201 km Apogee: 247 km Inclination: 51. ... STS-71 was a Space Shuttle program mission. ... STS-74 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... STS-76 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Atlantis. ... STS-79 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle Crew Michael A. Baker (4), Mission Commander Brent W. Jett (2), Jr, Pilot John M. Grunsfeld (2), Mission Specialist Marsha S. Ivins (4), Mission Specialist Peter J.K. Wisoff (3), Mission Specialist Launched and stayed on Mir Jerry M. Linenger... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew Charles J. Precourt (3), Mission Commander Eileen M. Collins (2), Pilot Carlos I. Noriega (1), Mission Specialist Edward T. Lu, (1), Mission Specialist Jean-François Clervoy (2), (ESA) Mission Specialist Elena V. Kondakova (2), (RSA) Mission Specialist Launched... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew James D. Wetherbee (4), Commander Michael J. Bloomfield (1), Pilot Vladimir G. Titov (5), (RSA) Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski (2), Mission Specialist Jean-Loup Chrétien (3), (CNES) Mission Specialist Wendy B. Lawrence (2), Mission Specialist Launched and... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew Terrence W. Wilcutt (3), Commander Joe F. Edwards, Jr. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew Charles J. Precourt (4), Commander Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie (1), Pilot Wendy B. Lawrence (3), Mission Specialist Franklin R. Chang-Diaz (6), Mission Specialist Janet L. Kavandi (1), Mission Specialist Valery Victorovitch Ryumin (4), Mission Specialist - Russia Landed and... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... Norman Earl Thagard (born July 3, 1943) is an American scientist and former NASA astronaut. ... Shannon Matilda Wells Lucid (born January 14, 1943) is an American astronaut who holds the record for the longest duration stay in space by a woman. ... John Elmer Blaha (born August 26, 1942, in San Antonio, Texas) is a retired United States Air Force Colonel and a former NASA astronaut. ... Jerry Michael Linenger, M.D., M.S.S.M., M.P.H., Ph. ... Colin Michael Foale, CBE, PhD, (born 6 January 1957) is an Anglo-American astrophysicist and a NASA astronaut. ... David Alexander Wolf (born 23 August 1956) is an American astronaut and a veteran of four space shuttle missions and an extended stay aboard the Mir space station. ... Andrew Andy Sydney Withiel Thomas (born December 18, 1951 in Adelaide, South Australia) is an Australian-born US NASA astronaut. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mir - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2163 words)
Mir was based upon the Salyut series of space stations previously launched by the Soviet Union (seven Salyut space stations had been launched since 1971).
With the space shuttle docked to Mir the temporary enlargements of living and working areas amounted to a complex that was the world's largest spacecraft at that time in space history, with a combined mass of 250 tons.
The Mir space station was originally planned to be followed by a Mir 2, and elements of that project, including the core module (now called Zvezda) which was labeled as "Mir-2" for quite some time in the factory, are now an integral part of the International Space Station.
ESA Portal - Life in Space - Mir FAQs - Facts and history (876 words)
At Mir's core is a module where the astronauts live and six docking ports which are used for re-supply vehicles and to lock on the specialised modules that are used for various technical work.
Mir is under the responsibility of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviakosmos) and is operated by RSC Energia.
MIR’s purpose was to improve understanding of the difficulties faced in establishing a permanent presence in space.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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