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Encyclopedia > Minsk
Мінск
Минск
Minsk
Skyline of МінскМинскMinsk
Official flag of МінскМинскMinsk
Flag
Official seal of МінскМинскMinsk
Seal
Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast
Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast
Coordinates: 53°54′N, 27°34′E
Country
Subdivision
Belarus
Minsk
Founded 1067
Government
 - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov
Area
 - City 305.47 km²  (117.9 sq mi)
Elevation 280.4 m (919.9 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 1,780,000
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EET (UTC+3)
Area code(s) +375 17
License plate 7
Website: www.minsk.gov.by

Coordinates: 53°54′″N, 27°34′″E Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 637 KB)Minsk, Victory Square (summer 2004, by mikkalai) The text over the buildings reads Подвиг народа - бессмертен, The Feat of the People is Immortal This... Image File history File links Flag_of_Minsk,_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Minsk,_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (966x797, 31 KB) from german wiki - http://de. ... Administrative center Minsk Largest cities Minsk - 1,780,000 Maladzechna - 98,514 Myadzel - N/A Raions 22  - Cities 22  - Urban localities 20  - Villages N/A City raions 8 Area  Ranked  - Total 40,200 km²  - % of National total 15. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... The metre (or meter, see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Minsk - capital of Belarus Mińsk Mazowiecki - a town in Poland Minsk family of computers USSR aircraft carrier Minsk Minsk Voivodship There also was a refrigerator brand Minsk, those fridges were well-known all over the former USSR and Eastern-bloc countries. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Minsk (Belarusian: Мінск /mʲinsk/; Russian: Минск /miɲsk/), is the capital and largest city in Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Niamiha rivers. Minsk is also a headquarters of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). As the national capital, Minsk has a special administrative status in Belarus and is also the administrative centre of Minsk voblast (province) and Minsk raion. This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Svislach (Свiслач, Russian: Свислочь, Svisloch) is a river in Belarus, a right tributary of the Berezina River. ... flood on July 25, 2004 Niamiha (Belarusian: Няміга Russian: Немига) is a river, flowing through Minsk now (like many lost little rivers of Minsk), contained in a culvert. ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Belarus ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ...


The earliest references to Minsk date to the 11th century (1067). In 1242, Minsk became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and it received its town privileges in 1499. From 1569, it was a capital of the Minsk Voivodship in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was annexed by Russia in 1793, as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. From 19191991, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian SSR. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Town privileges was an important feature of European towns during most of the 2nd millenium. ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Minsk Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Mińskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Minsk Official language Belarusian, Polish, Russian and Yiddish (before WWII) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density...

Contents

Geography & Climate

Minsk is located on the southeastern slope of the Minsk Hills, a region of rolling hills running from the southwest (upper reaches of the river Nioman) to the northeast - that is, to the Lukomskaje lake in northwestern Belarus. The average altitude above sea level is 220 m. The geography of Minsk was formed during the two most recent Ice Ages. The Svislach river, which flows across the city from the northwest to the southeast, is located in the urstrohmtal, an ancient river valley formed by water flowing from melting ice sheets at the end of the last Ice Age. Minsk was initially founded on the hills. However, in the 20th century, it grew to include the relatively flat plains in the southeast. The western parts of the city are the most hilly. Neman River near Alytus The Neman or Niemen (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Curonian lagoon which is connected to the Baltic Sea at KlaipÄ—da. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Svislach (Свiслач, Russian: Свислочь, Svisloch) is a river in Belarus, a right tributary of the Berezina River. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

Satellite view
Satellite view

Minsk is located in the area of mixed forests typical for most of Belarus. Pinewood and mixed forests are still present at the edge of the city, especially in the north and east. Some of the forests were transformed into parks (for instance, the Chelyuskinites Park) as the city grew. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 177 KB) Minsk, Belarus from space. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 177 KB) Minsk, Belarus from space. ... Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. ... Pinewood Studios is a major film studio that is situated approximately 20 miles west of London among the pine trees on what was the estate of Heatherden Hall in the village of Iver Heath in Iver Parish, in the county of Buckinghamshire, England. ... An Australian park A park is any of a number of geographic features. ... Chelyuskinites Park (Russian: , Russian: ,) is an urban forest park in Minsk, Belarus of area 78 hectares. ...


Minsk has a moderate climate, owing to its location between the strong influence of the moist air of the Atlantic Ocean and the dry air of the Eurasian landmass. Its weather is, however, unstable and tends to change often. The average January temperature is -6,1° Celsius (21°F), while the average July temperature is +17,8° Celsius (64°F). The lowest temperature was recorded on 17 January, 1940 (-40 °C) (-40°F) and the warmest on 29 July, 1936 (+35 °C)(95°F). The air is often moist, with humidity levels at 80-90%, especially during the cold season. There are on average 135 humid days a year, compared with only 6 dry days. This results in frequent fogs, common in the autumn and spring. Minsk receives annual precipitation of 646 mm (25.4 in), of which one third falls during the cold period (as snow and rain) and two thirds in the warm period. Throughout the year, most winds are westerly and northwesterly, bringing cool and moist air from the Atlantic. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Animation of snowcover changing with the seasons Trees covered with snow Snow covering a leaf. ... Rain is a source of precipitation which forms when separate drops of water fall to the Earths surface from clouds. ...


History

Main article: History of Minsk
The Saviour Church (1577) is part of an archaeological reservation in Zaslavl, 23 km northwest of Minsk
The Saviour Church (1577) is part of an archaeological reservation in Zaslavl, 23 km northwest of Minsk

// Early East Slavs settled the forested hills of today’s Minsk by the 9th century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1508, 410 KB) en: Church of Praabrazennia Sv. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1508, 410 KB) en: Church of Praabrazennia Sv. ... Church of Transfiguration of Holy Saviour Zaslaŭje (Belarusian: ; Russian: ) is a town in Minsk oblast of Belarus 12 miles (20 kilometres) northwest of Minsk. ...

Early history

The area of today's Minsk was settled by the Early East Slavs by the 9th century. The Svislach River valley was the settlement boundary between two Early East Slavs tribes - the Krivichs and Dregovichs. By 980, the area was incorporated into the early medieval Principality of Polatsk, one of the earliest East Slav states. Minsk was first mentioned in the name form Měneskъ (Мѣнескъ) in the Primary Chronicle for the year 1067.[2] 1067 is now widely accepted as the founding year of Minsk, though the town (by then fortified by wooden walls) had certainly existed for some time by then. The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Svislach (Свiслач, Russian: Свислочь, Svisloch) is a river in Belarus, a right tributary of the Berezina River. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian or Krivichi), a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of the Neman basin. ... The Dregovichs or (more correct) Dregovichi (Дреговичи, Dregovichi in Russian; Дреговичі, Drehovychi in Ukrainian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs, which inhabited the territories down the stream of the Pripyat River and northern parts of the Right-bank Dnieper river (the borders of the tribes domain are still not eastablished... Events Births Emperor Ichijo of Japan Humbert I of Savoy Avicenna Godiva, Countess of Mercia Deaths Categories: 980 ... Principality of Polatsk (Belarusian: Полацкае княства ,Russian: Полоцкое княжество ) is a medieval principality of the Early East Slavs, one of the constituent principalities within the Kievan Rus. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ...


In the early 12th century, the Principality of Polatsk disintegrated into smaller fiefs. The Principality of Minsk was established by one of the Polatsk dynasty princes. In 1129, the Principality of Minsk was annexed by Kiev, the dominant principality of Kievan Rus; however in 1146 the Polatsk dynasty regained control of the principality. By 1150, Minsk rivaled Polatsk as the major city in the former Principality of Polatsk. The princes of Minsk and Polatsk were engaged in years of struggle trying to unite all lands previously under the rule of Polatsk. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Principality of Polatsk (Belarusian: Полацкае княства ,Russian: Полоцкое княжество ) is a medieval principality of the Early East Slavs, one of the constituent principalities within the Kievan Rus. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: PoÅ‚ock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... Events Emperor Toba of Japan begins his cloistered rule sharing power with Sutuku, ex-emperor Shirakawas son. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ...


Lithuanian and Polish rule

Minsk escaped the Mongol invasion of Rus in 1237-1239. However, in later years it was attacked by nomadic invaders from the Golden Horde, who turned many principalities of disintegrated Kievan Rus into their vassal states. Trying to avoid the Tatar yoke, the Principality of Minsk sought protection from Lithuania from various northern princes, who had been consolidating their power in the region. In 1242, Minsk became a part of the expanding Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was joined peacefully and local elites enjoyed high rank in the society of the Grand Duchy. In 1413, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland entered into a union. Minsk became the centre of Minsk Voivodship (province). In 1441, the Lithuanian prince Kazimierz IV Jagiellon included Minsk in a list of cities enjoying certain privileges, and in 1499, during the reign of his son, Aleksander Jagiellon, Minsk received town privileges under Magdeburg law. In 1569, after the Union of Lublin, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland merged into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Afterwards, a Polish community including government clerks, officers, and craftsmen settled in Minsk. The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... This page is about the year 1441. ... Kazimierz IV Jagiellon ((?)Polish: , Lithuanian: ; 1427 - 1492), of the House of Jagiellons, was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447 to his death. ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reign December 12, 1501 - August 19, 1506. ... Town privileges was an important feature of European towns during most of the 2nd millenium. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

The High Square as painted in the 1840s
The High Square as painted in the 1840s

By the middle of the 16th century, Minsk was an important economic and cultural centre in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was also an important centre for the Eastern Orthodox Church. Following the Union of Brest, both the Uniate church and the Roman Catholic Church increased in influence. The High Square in Minsk, 1840s This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The High Square in Minsk, 1840s This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская ву́нія) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of the newly... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI.It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ...


In 1654, Minsk was conquered by troops of Tsar Alexei of Russia. Russians governed the city until 1667, when it was regained by Jan Kasimir, King of Poland. By the end of the Polish-Russian war, Minsk had only about 2,000 residents and just 300 houses. The second wave of devastation occurred during the Great Northern War, when Minsk was occupied in 1708 and 1709 by the Swedish army of Charles XII and then by the Russian army of Peter the Great. The last decades of the Polish rule involved decline or very slow development, since Minsk had become a small provincial town of little economic or military significance. By 1790, however, it had a population of 6,500-7,000 and was slowly re-expanding to the city limits of 1654. Most of the Minsk residents at the time were Jews and Poles, with a minority of Belarusians. Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Reign From November, 1648 until September 16, 1668 Elected In November 1648 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 19, 1649 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Constance of Austria Consorts Ludwika Maria Children with Ludwika Maria Maria Anna... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Poland-Lithuania Saxony later also Prussia, Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Augustus II the Strong Frederick IV of Denmark Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Charles XII is: Charles XII, or Karl XII, (1682 - 1718), King of Sweden - see Charles XII of Sweden a 19th_century racehorse _ see Charles XII (horse) a pub in the Yorkshire village of Heslington, named after the racehorse - see Heslington This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Russian rule

Russian Orthodox church of St. Mary Magdalene (built in 1847)
Russian Orthodox church of St. Mary Magdalene (built in 1847)

Minsk was annexed by Russia in 1793 as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. In 1796, it became the centre of the Minsk guberniya (province). All of the Polish street names were replaced by Russian, though the spelling of the city's name remained unchanged. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 1039 KB) en: Church of Saint Mary Magdalene, Minsk, Belarus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 1039 KB) en: Church of Saint Mary Magdalene, Minsk, Belarus. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ...


Throughout the 19th century, the city continued to grow and significantly improve. In the 1830s, major streets and squares of Minsk were cobbled and paved. A first public library was opened in 1836, and a fire brigade was put into operation in 1837. In 1838, the first local newspaper, Minskie gubernskie vedomosti (“Minsk province news”) went into circulation. The first theatre was established in 1844. By 1860, Minsk was an important trading city with a population of 27,000. There was a construction boom that led to the building of 2 and 3-story brick and stone houses in Upper Town. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Jan. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


Minsk's development was boosted by improvements in transportation. In 1846, the Moscow-Warsaw road was laid though Minsk. In 1871, a railway link between Moscow and Warsaw ran via Minsk, and in 1873, a new railway from Romny in Ukraine to the Baltic Sea port of Libava (Liepaja) was also constructed. Thus Minsk became an important rail junction and a manufacturing hub. A municipal water supply was introduced in 1872, the telephone in 1890, the horse tram in 1892, and the first power generator in 1894. By 1900, Minsk had 58 factories employing 3,000 workers. The city also boasted theatres, cinemas, newspapers, schools and colleges, as well as numerous monasteries, churches, synagogues, and a mosque. According to the 1897 Russian census, the city had 91,494 inhabitants, with some 47,561 Jews constituting more than half of the city population. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Liepāja. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


20th century

The Jesuit collegium in 1912
The Jesuit collegium in 1912

In the early years of the 20th century, Minsk was a major centre for the worker's movement in Belarus. It was also one of the major centres of the Belarusian national revival, alongside Vilnia. However, the First World War affected the development of Minsk tremendously. By 1915, Minsk was a battle-front city. Some factories were closed down, and residents began evacuating to the east. Minsk became the headquarters of the Western Front of the Russian army and also housed military hospitals and military supply bases. The Jesuit Collegium in Minsk This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Jesuit Collegium in Minsk This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Articles with similar titles include Vilnius... “The Great War” redirects here. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The Russian Revolution had an immediate effect in Minsk. A Worker's Soviet was established in Minsk in October of 1917, drawing much of its support from disaffected soldiers and workers. After the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, German forces occupied Minsk in February of 1918. On 25 March, 1918, Minsk was proclaimed the capital of the Belarusian People's Republic. The republic was short-lived; in December, 1918, Minsk was taken over by the Red Army. In January, 1919 Minsk was proclaimed the capital of Byelorussian SSR, though later in 1919 (see Operation Minsk) and again in 1920, the city was controlled by the Second Polish Republic during the course of the Polish-Bolshevik war. Under the terms of the Peace of Riga, Minsk was handed over to the Russian SFSR and became the capital of the Byelorussian SSR, one of the constituent republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile in Canada National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... State motto: Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Minsk Official language Belarusian, Polish, Russian and Yiddish (before WWII) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Poland Bolshevist Russia Commanders StanisÅ‚aw Szeptycki Unknown Strength 14,000 Unknown Casualties Unknown heavy Operation Minsk refers to the Polish offensive and capture of Minsk from the Bolshevik control in 1919. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... State motto: Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Minsk Official language Belarusian, Polish, Russian and Yiddish (before WWII) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density... Soviet redirects here. ...


A programme of reconstruction and development was begun in 1922. By 1924, there were 29 factories in operation; schools, museums, theatres, libraries were also established. Throughout the 1920s and the 1930s, Minsk saw rapid development with dozens of new factories being built and new schools, colleges, higher education establishments, hospitals, theatres, and cinemas being opened. During this period, Minsk was also a centre for the development of Belarusian language and culture. Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ...



Before World War II, Minsk had had a population of 300,000 people. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June, 1941, as part of Operation Barbarossa, Minsk immediately came under attack. The city was bombed on the first day of the invasion and was occupied by the German Army four days later. However, some factories, museums and tens of thousands of civilians had been evacuated to the east. The Germans designated Minsk the administrative centre of Reichskomissariat Ostland and treated the local population harshly. Communists and sympathisers were killed or imprisoned; thousands were forced into slave labour, both locally and after being transported to Germany. Homes were requisitioned to house German occupying forces. Thousands starved as food was seized by the German Army and paid work was scarce. Some residents did support the Germans, especially at the beginning of the occupation, but by 1942, Minsk had become a major centre of the Soviet partisan resistance movement against the occupation, in what is known as the Great Patriotic War. For this role, Minsk was awarded the title Hero City in 1974. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler, Ion Antonescu, C.G.E. Mannerheim, Benito Mussolini, Miklós Horthy, Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Minsk was, however, the site of one of the largest Nazi-run ghettos in World War II, temporarily housing over 100,000 Jews. (See below for the external link on the Minsk Ghetto). The name ghetto refers to an area where people from a given ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Minsk was liberated by Soviet troops on 3 July, 1944, during Operation Bagration. The city was the centre of German resistance to the Soviet advance and saw heavy fighting during the first half of 1944. Factories, municipal buildings, power stations, bridges, most roads and 80% of houses were reduced to rubble. In 1944, Minsk's population was reduced to a mere 50,000. Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Soviet redirects here. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

The Railway station square, an example of Stalinist Minsk
The Railway station square, an example of Stalinist Minsk

After World War II, Minsk was rebuilt, but not reconstructed. The historical centre was replaced in the 1940s and 1950s by Stalinist architecture, which favoured grand buildings, broad avenues and wide squares. Subsequently, the city grew rapidly as a result of massive industrialisation. Since the 1960s Minsk's population has also grown apace, reaching 1 million in 1972 and 1.5 million in 1986. This rapid population growth was primarily driven by mass migration of young, unskilled workers from rural areas of Belarus, as well as by migration of skilled workers from other parts of the Soviet Union. To house the expanding population, Minsk spread beyond its historical boundaries. Its surrounding villages were absorbed and rebuilt as mikroraions, districts of high-density apartment housing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 628 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 628 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Unrealised design for the Palace of Soviets, Moscow, by Boris Iofan, 1933 Stalinist architecture (also referred to as Stalins Empire style or Socialist Classicism) is a term given to constructions that were built in the Soviet Union between 1933, when Boris Iofans draft for Palace of Soviets was... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Recent developments

Island of Tears, with a recently constructed memorial church
Island of Tears, with a recently constructed memorial church

Throughout the 1990s, after the fall of Communism, the city continued to change. As the capital of a newly-independent country, Minsk quickly acquired the attributes of a major city. Embassies were opened, and a number of Soviet administrative buildings became government centers. During the early and mid-1990s, Minsk was hit by an economic crisis and many development projects were halted, resulting in high unemployment and underemployment. Since the late 1990s, there have been improvements in transport and infrastructure, and a housing boom has been underway since 2002. On the outskirts of Minsk, new mikroraions of residential development have been built. Metro lines have been extended, and the road system (including the Minsk ring road) has been improved. Owing to the small size of the private sector in Belarus, most development has so far been financed by the government. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 876 KB) en: Island of Tears, Minsk, Belarus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 876 KB) en: Island of Tears, Minsk, Belarus. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Microdistrict, or microraion (Russian: ), is a residential compound—a primary structural element of the residential area construction used in the Soviet Union. ... MKAD is the name of the beltway that goes around Minsk, Belarus. ...


Etymology and historical names

The Old East Slavic name of the town was Мѣньскъ (i.e. Měnsk < Early Proto-Slavic or Late Indo-European Mēnĭskŭ), derived from a river name Měn (< Mēnŭ, with the same etymology as German Main). The direct continuation of this name in Belarusian is Miensk (pronounced [mʲɛnsk], according to the Łacinka alphabet). Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Map showing the position of the Main in Germany The Main (pronounced in German like the English word mine) is a river in Germany, 524 km long (including White Main 574 km), and one of the more significant tributaries of the Rhine river. ... The Łacinka alphabet (лацінка) is the variant of the Latin alphabet which was used for writing the Belarusian language. ...

Independence Square in the centre of Minsk
Independence Square in the centre of Minsk

In the 16th and 17th centuries, however, the pronunciation of this name in the Ruthenian language common to the ancestors of Belarusians and Ukrainians was influenced by the pronunciation of as i in many Ukrainian dialects. The resulting form of the name, Minsk (spelled either Минскъ or Мѣнскъ) was taken over both in Russian (modern spelling: Минск) and Polish (Mińsk), and under the influence especially of Russian it also became official in Belarusian. However, some Belarusian-speakers continue to use Miensk (spelled Мeнск) as their preferred name for the city. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1491 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1491 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


When Belarus was under Polish rule, the names Mińsk Litewski 'Minsk of [the Grand Duchy of] Lithuania' and Mińsk Białoruski 'Minsk in Belarus' were used to differentiate this place name from Mińsk Mazowiecki 'Minsk in Masovia'. In modern Polish, Mińsk without an attribute is Minsk, which is about 50 times bigger than Mińsk Mazowiecki; cf. Brest-Litovsk and Brześć Kujawski for a similar case). This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... Brześć Kujawski is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship, Poland. ...


Sources: Max Vasmer. Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Vol. 2. Heidelberg 1955. ISBN 3-533-00665-4. = Макс Фасмер. Этимологический словарь русского языка. Vol. 2. Санкт-Петербург 1996, p. 625. ISBN 5-7684-0020-6 (online version).


Demographics

Population growth

Year Population
1450 5 000
1654 10 000
1667 2 000
1790 7 000
1811 11 000
1813 3 500
1860 27 000
1897* 91 500
1917* 134 500
1941 300 000
1944 50 000
1959* 509 500
1970* 907 100
Year Population
1972 1 000 000
1979* 1 276 000
1986 1 500 000
1989* 1 607 000
1999* 1 680 000
2006 1 780 000

* - census // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Ethnic groups

During the first centuries of its existence, Minsk was a city with a predominantly Early East Slavic population (the forefathers of modern-day Belarusians). After the 1569 Polish-Lithuanian union, the city became a destination for migrating Poles (who worked as administrators, clergy, teachers and soldiers) and Jews (who were mainly employed in trade and as craftsmen). During the last centuries of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth many locals were polonized and abandoned their Belarusian culture. After the Partitions of Poland, Minsk became part of the Russian Empire, the Russians essentially stepping in to the leadership role enjoyed by the Poles in earlier centuries. By the end of the 19th century Minsk was undergoing increasing russification. Many locals became russified and claim Russian ethnicity. The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Polonization (in Polish: polonizacja) is the assumption, voluntary or involuntary, complete or partial, of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ...


At the time of the 1897 census, Jews were the largest ethnic group in Minsk (51.2% of the population). Other substantial ethnic groups were Russians (25.5%), Poles (11.4%) and Belarusians (9%). The latter figure may be not accurate as some local Belarusians were likely to be counted as Russians. There was also a small traditional community of Lipka Tatars living in Minsk for centuries. Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only census carried out in the Imperial Russia. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ...


Both World War I and World War II affected the demographics of the city. The Jewish community suffered catastrophic losses during the Nazi occupation—very few survived. In the post-war years Minsk's population grew primarily as a result of rural migrants from other parts of Belarus moving to the city. “The Great War” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... National Socialism redirects here. ...


In 1959 Belarusians made up 63.3% of the city's residents. Other ethnic groups included Russians (22.8%), Jews (7.8%), Ukrainians (3.6%), Poles (1.1%) and Tatars (0.4%). Migration of rural migrants from other parts of Belarus in the 1960s and 1970s changed the ethnic composition further. By 1979 Belarusians made up 68.4% of the city's residents. Other ethnic groups included Russians (22.2%), Jews (3.4%), Ukrainians (3.4%), Poles (1.2%) and Tatars (0.2%). Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...


According to the 1999 census, Belarusians make up 79.3% of the city's residents. Other ethnic groups include Russians (15.7%), Ukrainians (2.4%), Poles (1.1%) and Jews (0.6%). The Russian and Ukrainian populations of Minsk peaked in the late 1980s (at 325,000 and 55,000 respectively). After the break-up of the Soviet Union, many of them chose to move to their respective mother countries. The Jewish population of Minsk peaked in the early 1970s at 50,000 (according to official figures; independent estimates put the figure at 100-120,000), but then declined as a result of emigration to Israel, the USA and Germany. Today there are only about 10,000 Jews living in Minsk. The traditional minorities of Poles and Tatars have remained at much the same size (17,000 and 3,000 respectively). There was migration of rural Poles from the western part of Belarus to Minsk, and many Tatars moved to Minsk from Tatarstan. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


Some more recent ethnic minority communities are establishing themselves in the city. The most prominent are migrants from the Caucasus countries—Georgians, Armenians and Azerbaijanis each numbering about 2,000-5,000. They began migrating to Minsk back in the 1970s, and more migrants have joined them since. Many of them are employed in the retail trade in open-air markets. There is also small but prominent Arab community in Minsk, primarily represented by recent migrants from Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Algeria, etc. (often graduates of Minsk universities who decide to settle in Belarus and their families). There is also a small community of Roma people, numbering about 2,000, which is settled in suburbs of north-western and southern Minsk. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ); is a member of a Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Languages

Throughout its history Minsk has been a city of many languages. Initially most of its residents spoke Ruthenian (which later developed into modern Belarusian). However, after 1569 the official language was Polish. By the end of the 18th century most residents of Minsk were Polish-speakers (or Yiddish-speakers among the Jewish community). Yiddish remained a major language in Minsk until the early 20th century. In the 19th century Russian became the official language and by the end of that century it had become the language of administration, schools and newspapers. The Belarusian national revival increased interest in the Belarusian language—its use has grown since the 1890s, especially among the intelligentsia. In the 1920s and early 1930s Belarusian was major language of Minsk, including for administration and education (both secondary and tertiary). However, since the late 1930s Russian again began gaining dominance. This process accelerated after World War II —by the mid-1980s Minsk was almost exclusively Russian-speaking. A short period of Belarusian national revival in the early 1990s has seen a rise in numbers of Belarusian speakers. However, in 1994 the newly elected president Alexander Lukashenko slowly reversed this trend. Most residents of Minsk now use Russian exclusively in their everyday lives at home and at work, although Belarusian is understood as well. Substantial number of recent migrants from the rural areas uses Trasyanka (Russo-Belarusian pidgeon language) in their everyday lives. Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Yiddish (&#1497;&#1497;&#1460;&#1491;&#1497;&#1513;, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Yiddish (&#1497;&#1497;&#1460;&#1491;&#1497;&#1513;, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Belarusian (беларуская мова) is the language of the Belarusian people. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko or Alyaksandar Ryhoravich Lukashenka (Belarusian: , Russian: ) (born August 30, 1954 at Kopys, Vitebsk voblast) has been the President of Belarus since 1994. ... Trasianka or trasyanka (be: трасянка) is a Belarusian–Russian patois or a kind of interlanguage (from the linguistic point of view). ...


The most commonly used and understood international language in Minsk, especially among the younger generation, is English. The second widely spoken international language is German. French and Spanish are understood by only a few. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Religion

There is no reliable statistics on religious affiliations in Minsk or in Belarus. According to various estimates, between 30% to 50% of Minsk's population do not practice any religion, while being either atheist, agnostic or simply spiritual, but not attached to a particular formal religious institution. Of those Minsk residents who are religious, about 70% consider themselves to be Russian Orthodox, 15-20% - Roman Catholic, and about 5% - Protestants. Most ethnic Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians from central and eastern parts of Belarus are Russian Orthodox, while Poles and Belarusians from Western Belarus are often Roman Catholic. There are small religious communities of Jews and Muslims (the latter - primarily recent migrants from countries or regions with predominantly Muslim population, such as Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Syria, Iran, Tadjikistan, etc). Total number of religious groups registered in Minsk is 116. For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... Look up spiritual in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (&#1056;&#1091;&#1089;&#1089;&#1082;&#1072;&#1103; &#1055;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1086;&#1089;&#1083;&#1072;&#1074;&#1085;&#1072;&#1103; &#1094;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1086;&#1074;&#1100;) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (&#1056;&#1091;&#1089;&#1089;&#1082;&#1072;&#1103; &#1055;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1086;&#1089;&#1083;&#1072;&#1074;&#1085;&#1072;&#1103; &#1094;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1086;&#1074;&#1100;) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... West Belarus is the name used by Russian and Belarusian government to denote the territory of modern Belarus that belonged to Second Polish Republic between World War I and World War II. The term is used mostly in historic context. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Republic of Tajikistan (&#1058;&#1086;&#1207;&#1080;&#1082;&#1080;&#1089;&#1090;&#1086;&#1085;), formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in Central Asia. ...


Currently there are 24 churches of various denominations, another 10 are being built or reconstructed.


In 17th-19th century most common religion in Minsk was represented by the Uniate Church (see Belarusian Greek Catholic Church), which under the Russian Empire was dissolved and merged into Russian Orthodox Church. The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Belarusian Greek Catholic Church (Belaruskaya Hreka-Katalickaya Carkva, BHKC), sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Belarusian Byzantine Catholic Church, is the heir within Belarus of the Union of Brest. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


Government and administrative divisions

In 1938 Minsk was divided into smaller administrative units (raions, or districts) due to rapid population growth. On 17 March 1938 three districts were established: A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ...

  • Stalinski, i.e., Stalin district, renamed into Zavodzki (Factory/Plant district, after major tractor and automobile plants located there) in 1961
  • Varashylauski, i.e., Voroshilov district, renamed into Savetski (Soviet district) in 1961
  • Kahanovichski, i.e., Kaganovich district, renamed into Kastrychnitski (October district) in 1957

Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: &#1048;&#1086;&#1089;&#1080;&#1092; &#1042;&#1080;&#1089;&#1089;&#1072;&#1088;&#1080;&#1086;&#1085;&#1086;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095; &#1057;&#1090;&#1072;&#1083;&#1080;&#1085;), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: &#4312;&#4317;&#4321;&#4308;&#4305; &#4335;&#4323;&#4326;&#4304;&#4328;&#4309;&#4312;&#4314... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Kliment Voroshilov Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (&#1050;&#1083;&#1080;&#1084;&#1077;&#769;&#1085;&#1090; &#1045;&#1092;&#1088;&#1077;&#769;&#1084;&#1086;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095; &#1042;&#1086;&#1088;&#1086;&#1096;&#1080;&#769;&#1083;&#1086;&#1074;) (January 23, 1881 - December 2, 1969) was a Soviet military commander and... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Lazar Kaganovich Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (&#1051;&#1072;&#769;&#1079;&#1072;&#1088;&#1100; &#1052;&#1086;&#1080;&#1089;&#1077;&#769;&#1077;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095; &#1050;&#1072;&#1075;&#1072;&#1085;&#1086;&#769;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095;) (November 22, 1893&#8211;July 25, 1991) was a Soviet politician and a supporter of Joseph Stalin. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Districts

There are now 9 administrative districts:

Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (Russian Михаил Васильевич Фрунзе) (1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... “Red October” redirects here. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: &#1042;&#1083;&#1072;&#1076;&#1080;&#769;&#1084;&#1080;&#1088; &#1048;&#1083;&#1100;&#1080;&#769;&#1095; &#1051;&#1077;&#769;&#1085;&#1080;&#1085;  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (&#1059;&#1083;&#1100;&#1103;&#769;&#1085;&#1086;&#1074;) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 &#8211; January 21, 1924), was a... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... Minsk Tractor Works (Russian: Минский тракторный завод, МТЗ, MTZ) may refer to two entities: a plant in Minsk, Belarus and a plant association in Belarus. ... MAZ-105 bus. ...

Microraions

There are also microraions - bedroom community areas of housing development outside the historical centre. Many of them are named after the suburban villages swallowed by the city. Microdistrict, or microraion (Russian: ), is a residential compound—a primary structural element of the residential area construction used in the Soviet Union . ... Commuters waiting for the morning train in Maplewood, New Jersey A bedroom community, dormitory town, or commuter town is a community that is primarily residential in character, with most of its workers commuting to a nearby town or city to earn their livelihood. ...

Church of Sts. Peter and Paul (1613).
Church of Sts. Peter and Paul (1613).
  • Aeradromnaya
  • Akademharadok
  • Anharskaya
  • Azyaryshcha
  • Chyrvony Bor
  • Chyzhouka
  • Drazdy
  • Drazhnya
  • Kharkauskaya
  • Kuntsaushchyna
  • Kurasoushchyna
  • Loshytsa
  • Malinauka
  • Maly Trastsyanets
  • Masyukoushchyna
  • Paudnyovy Zahad
A typical microraion
A typical microraion
  • Paunochny Pasyolak
  • Sierabranka
  • Shabany
  • Sokal
  • Sosny
  • Stsypyanka
  • Suhkarava
  • Syarova
  • Uruchcha
  • Uskhod
  • Uskhodni
  • Vyalikaya Slyapyanka
  • Vyasnyanka
  • Zahad
  • Zyalyony Luh

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 1144 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 1144 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Belarus-Minsk-View_from_above-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Belarus-Minsk-View_from_above-2. ...

Economy

Minsk is the economic capital of Belarus. It has developed industrial and services sectors which serve the needs not only of the city, but of the entire nation. Services are: plural of service Tertiary sector of industry IRC services Web services the name of a first-class cricket team in India This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Industry

Entry to the massive Tractor Factory
Entry to the massive Tractor Factory

Minsk is the major industrial centre of Belarus. The city has over 250 factories and plants. Its industrial development started in the 1860s and was facitilated by the railways built in the 1870s. However, much of the industrial infrastructure was destroyed during World War I and especially during World War II. After the last war the development of the city was linked to the development of industry, especially of R&D-intensive sectors (heavy emphasis of R&D intensive industries in urban development in the USSR is known in Western geography as 'Minsk phenomenon'). Minsk was turned into a major production site for trucks, tractors, gears, optical equipment, refrigerators, television sets and radios, bicycles, motorcycles, watches, and metal-processing equipment. Outside machine-building and electronics, Minsk also had textiles, construction materials, food processing, and printing industries. During the Soviet period, development of the industries was linked to suppliers and markets within the USSR, and the break-up of the union in 1991 led to a serious economic meltdown in 1991-1994. However, since the adoption of the neo-Keynesean policies under Aleksander Lukashenka's government in 1995, much of the gross industrial production was regained. Unlike many other cities in the CIS and Eastern Europe Minsk was not heavily de-industrialised in the 1990s. About 40% of the labour force is still employed in the manufacturing sector. Over 70% of produced goods are exported from Belarus, especially to Russia and other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States. However, the recent industrial revival did not lead to updating technologies and equipment (as FDI were discouraged), therefore much of the local industry is not highly competitive by international standards. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 564 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 564 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... “The Great War” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Alexander Lukashenko (Belarusian: , Aljaksandar Ryhoravič Lukašenka/Alyaksandar Ryhoravich Lukashenka; Russian: , Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko; born August 30, 1954) has served as the President of Belarus since July 1994. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... Foreign direct investment (FDI) is the movement of capital across national frontiers in a manner that grants the investor control over the acquired asset. ...


Services

As current government economic policies of Belarus favour a neo-socialist path of development, the service sector is underdeveloped in Minsk. In terms of development of the service sector, Minsk lags not only behind cities of comparable size and history (Warsaw, Prague, Kiev, Sofia) but even behind much smaller cities (Vilnius, Riga or Tallinn). A large part of the service sector is controlled by the government and has been showing sluggish growth. Key services include finance and banking, national and local government, and transportation. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Nickname: City of a Hundred Spires Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Government  - Mayor Boyko Borisov Area  - City 1,349 km²  (520. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Articles with similar titles include Vilnius... Coordinates: Founded 1201 Government  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area  - City 307. ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


Transport and infrastructure

Local Transport

Minsk has an extensive public transport system. Passengers are served by 8 tramway lines, over 70 trolleybus lines, and over 100 bus lines. A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. ... Å koda 14 Tr trolleybus in Vilnius, Lithuania. ...


Rapid Transit

A subway station
A subway station
Main article: Minsk Metro

Minsk is the only city in Belarus with an underground metro system. Construction of the metro began in 1977, soon after the city reached over a million people and the first line with 8 stations was opened in 1984. Since then it has expanded into a two line (Moskovskaya and Avtozavodskaya) respectively 9.5 and 18.1 kilometres long with 9 and 14 stations. Currently a 7.9 km extension of the Moskovskaya line is under construction with 2 stations due to open in 2007 and further 3 stations in 2011. There are plans for a network with three lines totaling (based on present expansion plans) 58.3 km of track with 45 stations and 3 train depots. For this to happen the third line should cut the city on a north-south axis crossing the existing two and thus forming a typical Soviet triangle layout, construction of the third line is expected to begin in 2011 and for the first stage to be delivered in late 2010s. Some layout plans speculate on a possible fourth line running from Vyasnyanka to Serabranka micro-rayons. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 629 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 629 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Minsk Metro is a metro system in Minsk, Belarus. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... edit The Moskovskaya Line (Russian: ), is a line of the Minsk Metro. ... edit The Avtozavodskaya Line (Russian: ), is a line of the Minsk Metro. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As of 2007 Minsk metro had 23 stations and 27.6 km. Trains use 223 standard Russian metro-cars. On an typical day Minsk metro is used by 800,000 passengers. During peak hours trains run each 2-2.5 minutes. The metro network employs 3,200 staff.


Currentely most of the urban transport is being actively renovated and upgraded to modern standards.


Railway and intercity bus

The new Railway terminal
The new Railway terminal

Minsk is the largest transportation hub in Belarus. It is located on the junction of Warsaw-Moscow railway (built in 1871) running from the south-west to the north-east of the city and Liepaja-Romny railway (built in 1873) running from the north-west to the south. The first railway connects Russia with Poland and Germany, the second connects Ukraine with Lithuania and Latvia. They cross at the Minsk-Passazhyrski railway station, main railway station of Minsk. The station was built in 1873 as Vilenski vakzal. The initial wooden building was demolished in 1890 and rebuilt in stone. During World War II Minsk railway station was completely destroyed. It was rebuilt in 1945-1946 and served until 1991. The new building of Minsk-Passazhyrski railway station was built in 1991-2002. Its construction was delayed due to financial difficulties. However now Minsk boasts one of the most modern and up-to-date railway stations in the CIS. There are plans to move all suburban rail traffic from Minsk-Passazhyrski to smaller stations Minsk- Uskhodni (East), Minsk-Paudnyovy (South) and Minsk-Paunochny (North) by 2020. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 653 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 653 KB) Photo made by my mother, Hanna Zelenko. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Liepa&#772;ja. ... Romny is a city in northern Ukraine. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Minsk railroad terminal (Belarusian: Russian: ) is the main passenger terminal in Belarus. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


There are three intercity bus stations, linking Minsk with suburbs, other cities in Belarus and in the neighbouring countries.


Airports

Airport Minsk-1
Airport Minsk-1

From 1982 Minsk had two airports. Minsk-1 opened in 1933 a few kilometres to the south of the historical centre. In 1955 it became an international airport and by 1970 served over 1 million passengers a year. From 1982 it mainly served domestic routes in Belarus and short-haul routes to Moscow, Kiev and Kaliningrad. Image File history File linksMetadata Belarus-Minsk-Airport_Minsk-1_(2). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Belarus-Minsk-Airport_Minsk-1_(2). ... Airport building of Minsk-1 Minsk-1 (IATA: MHP, ICAO: UMMM) is an airport located south of Minsk, Belarus. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ), until 1945 known by its German name Königsberg, then briefly as Kyonigsberg (), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ...


Airport Minsk-2 is located 42 km to the east of the city. It opened in 1982 (passenger terminal - in 1987.) It is an international airport undergoing modernisation with flights to Austria, Cyprus, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Poland, Russia, Turkey, United Kingdom, and other countries, operated by the national carrier Belavia and the German airline Lufthansa. Minsk International Airport or Minsk-2 (IATA: MSQ, ICAO: UMMS) (Belorussian: Нацыянальны аэрапорт Ðœiнск) is the main airport in Belarus, located 42 km to the east of Minsk, the capital of Belarus. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belavia Belarusian Airlines (Belarusian: Белавія) is an airline based in Minsk, Belarus. ... Deutsche Lufthansa AG (ISIN: DE0008232125) (pronounced ) is the largest airline in Germany, and the second-largest in Europe (behind Air France-KLM, but before British Airways). ...


Education

Minsk is the major educational centre of Belarus. It has over 500 nursery schools, 258 schools, 28 further education colleges, and 36 higher education instututions, including 12 major national universities (most specialising in certain areas of science and technology).


Major universities

  • Belarusian State University. Major Belarusian universal university, founded in 1921. In 2006 had 15 major departments (Applied Mathematics and Infoscience; Biology; Chemistry; Geography; Economics; International Relations; Journalism; History; Humanitarian Sciences; Law; Mechanics and Mathematics; Philology; Philosophy and Social Sciences; Physics; Radiophysics and Electronics). It also included 5 R&D institutes, 24 Research Centres, 114 R&D laboratories. The University employs over 2,400 lecturers and 1,000 research fellows; 1,900 of these hold Ph.D. or Dr.Sc. degrees. There are 16,000 undergraduate students at the university, as well as over 700 Ph.D. students.
  • Belarusian State University of Agricultural Technology. Specialised in agricultural technology and agricultural machinery.
  • Belarusian National Technical University. Specialised in technical disciplines.
  • Belarusian State Medical University. Specialised in Medicine and Dentistry. Since 1921 - Medicine Department of the Belarusian State University. In 1930 becomes separate as Belarusian Medical Institute. In 2000 upgraded to university level. Currently has 6 departments.
  • Belarusian State Economic University. Specialised in Finance and Economics. Founded in 1933 as Belarusian Institute for National Economy. Upgraded to university level in 1992.
  • Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts. Specialised in cultural studies, visual and performing arts.
  • Maxim Tank Belarusian State Pedagogical University. Specialised in teacher training for secondary schools.
  • Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics. Specialised in IT and radioelectronic technologies. Established in 1964 as Minsk Institute for Radioelectronics.
  • Belarusian State University of Physical Training. Specialised in sports, coaches and PT teachers training.
  • Belarusian State Technological University. Specialised in chemical and pharmaceutical technology, in printing and forestry. Founded in 1930 as Forestry Institute in Homel. In 1941 evacuated to Sverdlovsk, now Yekaterinburg. Returned to Gomel in 1944, but in 1946 relocated to Minsk as Belarusian Institute of Technology. Upgraded to university level in 1993. Currently has 9 departments.
  • Minsk State Linguistic University. Specialised in foreign languages. Founded in 1948 as Minsk Institute for Foreign Languages. In 2006 had 8 departments. Major focus on English, French, German and Spanish.
  • Andrei Sakharov International State Environmental University. Specialised in environmental sciences. Established in 1992 with the support from the United Nations. Focus on study and research of radio-ecological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power station disaster in 1986, which heavily affected Belarus.

Culture and religion

Minsk is the major cultural centre of Belarus. Its first theatres and libraries were established in the middle of the 19th century. Now it has 11 theatres and 16 museums. There are 20 cinemas and 139 libraries. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Churches

The Cathedral of Saint Virgin Mary, 1700-10, restored in 1951 and 1997. [1]
The Cathedral of Saint Virgin Mary, 1700-10, restored in 1951 and 1997. [1]
  • The Orthodox Cathedral of the Holy Spirit is actually the former church of the Bernardine convent (picture). It was built in the simplified Baroque style in 1642-87 and went through renovations in 1741-46 and 1869.
  • The Cathedral of the Virgin was built by the Jesuits as their monastery church in 1700-10; it overlooks the recently restored 18th-century city hall, located on the other side of the Independence Square;
  • Two other historic churches are the cathedral of St. Joseph, formerly affiliated with the Bernardine monastery, built in 1644-52 and repaired in 1983 (picture), and the fortified church of Sts. Peter and Paul, originally built in the 1620s and recently restored, complete with its flanking twin towers (picture).
  • The impressive Neo-Romanesque Roman Catholic cathedral of Sts. Simeon and Helene was built in 1906-10, immediately after religious freedoms were proclaimed in Imperial Russia and the tsar allowed dissidents to build their churches (picture);
  • The largest church built in the Russian imperial period of the town's history is dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene (picture);
  • Many Orthodox churches were built after the dissolution of the USSR in a variety of styles, although most remain true to the Neo-Russian idiom. A good example is St. Elisabeth's Convent, founded in 1999.

The Mariinsky Cathedral in Minsk File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Mariinsky Cathedral in Minsk File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The penitent Mary Magdalen, a much reproduced composition by Titian. ...

Theatres

Major theatres are:

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ... Yanka Kupa&#322;a (&#1071;&#1085;&#1082;&#1072; &#1050;&#1091;&#1087;&#1072;&#1083;&#1072;) (July 7, 1882 - June 28, 1942)penname Ivan Dominikovich Lucevich was a famous Belarussian poet. ...

Museums

The city hall (rebuilt in 2003) overlooks the Cathedral of the Virgin.
The city hall (rebuilt in 2003) overlooks the Cathedral of the Virgin.

Major museums include: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1772x1268, 400 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Minsk Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1772x1268, 400 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Minsk Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to...

  • Belarusian Great Patriotic War Museum
  • Belarusian National Arts Museum
  • Belarusian National History and Culture Museum
  • Belarusian Nature and Environment Museum
  • Ethnography and Folklore Museum
  • Maksim Bahdanovich Literary Museum
  • Old Belarusian History Museum
  • Yanka Kupala Literary Museum

The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Maksim Bahdanovič Maksim Bahdanovič (Belarusian language: Максім Багдановіч December 9, 1891 – May 25, 1917) was a famous Belarusian poet, journalist and literature critiscist. ... Yanka Kupa&#322;a (&#1071;&#1085;&#1082;&#1072; &#1050;&#1091;&#1087;&#1072;&#1083;&#1072;) (July 7, 1882 - June 28, 1942)penname Ivan Dominikovich Lucevich was a famous Belarussian poet. ...

Recreation areas

Chelyuskinites Park (Russian: , Russian: ,) is an urban forest park in Minsk, Belarus of area 78 hectares. ... K. S. Zaslonov Childrens Railroad in Minsk (Belarusian: ; Russian: ) is a narrow gauge railroad loop passing through the Chelyuskinites Park in Minsk, Belarus. ... Gorky Park: Entrance Gorky Park (парк Горького, центральный детский парк им. Максима Горького, Maksim Gorky Central Childrens Park) is an public park in Minsk, Belarus. ...

Sport

FC Dinamo Minsk is a Belarusian football club, playing in the capital of Minsk. ... FC MTZ-RIPO is a Belarusian Premier League football team (formerly known as FC Traktor and FC MTZ), part of Russian-Lithuanian businessman Vladimir Romanovs soccer holding which also includes Scottish Premier League club Hearts and Lithuanian A Lyga champion FBK Kaunas. ... FC Minsk is an Belarusian football club based in Minsk. ... FC Lakamatyu Minsk is an Belarusian football club based in Minsk. ...

Sister cities

Minsk maintains cultural links to a number of twin cities in various countres: For the 1997 film, see Twin Town Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Kathmandu (Nepali: काठमाडौं, Nepal Bhasa: यें) is the capital city of Nepal and it is also the largest city in Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: Country Brazil Region Southeast State Minas Gerais Founded 1701 Incorporated (as city) December 12, 1897 Government  - Mayor Fernando da Mata Pimentel (PT) Area  - City 330. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Bangalore (officially Bengaluru) (Kannada: ; pronunciation: in Kannada and in English) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Country Netherlands Province North Brabant Area 88. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia (north of the Arctic circle) with a seaport on the Kola Gulf, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Nottingham is a city (and county town of Nottinghamshire) in the East Midlands of England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Location of Novosibirsk in Russia and the Oblast Coordinates: Oblast Novosibirsk  - Mayor Vladimir Gorodetskiy Area    - City 447. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... This April 2007 does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Location of Bakersfield, California Coordinates: Country United States State California County Kern County Founded 1869 Government  - Mayor Harvey Hall Area  - City  114. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,088,000   5196. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Minsk
  • Your Personal Minsk Guide
  • Minsk guide
  • WikiSatellite view of Minsk at WikiMapia
  • Pictures of Minsk
  • Minsk City Executive Committee
  • Belarus Minsk Pictures
  • Photos on Radzima.org
  • Minsk telephone directory
  • Paris-Minsk non governmental organization

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