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Encyclopedia > Minoan eruption
Satellite image of Thera

The Bronze Age Minoan eruption of Thera (or Santorini) is considered to be one of the largest volcanic eruptions on Earth during the period of written human history.[1] The eruption would likely have caused significant climatic changes in the eastern Mediterranean region, Aegean Sea and possibly the entire world.[2] Since Santorini or Thera has erupted frequently, this eruption is usually referenced as the "Minoan eruption" because of its effect on the Minoan civilization of Crete. Radiometric dating of the eruption appears to be approximately 100 years earlier than estimates based upon archeological studies of eastern Mediterranean cultures, which may eventually lead to realignment of the chronology of those cultures. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)Santorini island, Greece - Landsat photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)Santorini island, Greece - Landsat photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Santorini (Greek Σαντορίνη, IPA: ) is a small, circular group of volcanic islands located in southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from Greeces mainland. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Minoans were a civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...

Contents

Physical effects of the eruption

The violent eruption was centered on a small island just north of the existing island of Nea Kameni in the centre of a collapsed caldera, the roughly circular remnant of a previous volcanic eruption. The caldera itself was formed several hundred thousand years prior to the Minoan eruption by the collapse of the volcano which had resulted from the emptying of the magma chamber during the eruption. It has been filled several times by ignimbrite, or the ash flowing down the volcano's sides during the eruption. This process had been repeated numerous times until approximately 23,000 years ago when the volcano went dormant.[3] The northern part of the caldera was refilled by the volcano and then collapsed again during the Minoan eruption. Immediately prior to the eruption, the caldera formed a nearly continuous ring with the only entrance lying between the tiny island of Aspronisi and Thera. The eruption destroyed the sections of the ring between Aspronisi and Therasia, and between Therasia and Thera, creating two new channels.[3] The Santorini caldera, with Nea Kameni in the center Nea Kameni is a small uninhabited Greek island of volcanic origin located in the Bay of Santorini It was first formed in 16th century through volcanic eruptions, and was enlarged the same way. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ... Ignimbrite is a volcanic pyroclastic rock, often of dacitic or rhyolitic composition. ... Towering over the city of Naples, Vesuvius is dormant but certainly not extinct .A dormant volcano is one which is not currently erupting, but is believed to still be capable of erupting. ... Therasia, also known as Thirasia (Greek: Θηρασία), is a small Greek island west of Santorini in the Cyclades. ...


Currently, on Santorini, there is a 60 m. (197 ft.) thick deposit of white tephra, or volcanic air-fall material, thrown from the eruption that overlies the soil marking the ground level prior to the eruption. The layer is divided into three distinct bands indicating the different phases of the eruption.[4] Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ...


Since no bodies have been found at the Akrotiri site, it is assumed that there were early indications of vulcanism which would induce the local population to leave the area. The thinness of the first ash layer and the likelihood of its being eroded by winter rains indicate that the volcano may have given the local population several months warning of impending volcanic activity and not years as previously believed.[5] Further archeological excavations at the site may eventually result in finding bodies similar to those found at Pompeii that were buried by the ash of the catastrophic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. See also Akrotiri (disambiguation). ... Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... AD79 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ...


The Minoan eruption probably resulted in a plume 30-35 km (18-22 miles) in height, extending into the stratosphere, characteristic of a plinian eruption. In addition, magma came into contact with the shallow marine embayment, resulting in a violent phreatic eruption. The event also generated a 35-150 m. (115-495 ft.) high tsunami that devastated the north coast of Crete, 110 km (68 miles) away. The tsunami impacted coastal towns such as Amnisos, where building walls were knocked out of alignment. On the island of Anaphi, 27 km (17 miles) to the east, ash layers 3 m. (10 feet) deep have been found, as well as pumice layers on slopes 250 m. (825 ft.) above sea level. Elsewhere in the Mediterranean there are pumice deposits which could have been caused by the Thera eruption.[6] Ash layers in cores drilled from the seabed and from lakes in Turkey, however, show that the heaviest ashfall was towards the east and northeast of Santorini. However, ash found in Crete is now known to have been from a precursory phase of the eruption, some weeks or months before the main eruptive phases, and would have had little impact on the island.[7] Santorini ash deposits were at one time claimed to have been found in the Nile delta, but this is now known to be a misidentification.[8] Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... Phreatic eruption at the summit of Mount St. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Amnisos (also Amnissos, House of the Lilies) is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan villa on Crete. ... // Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ...


Recent archaeological research by a team of international scientists in 2006 has revealed that the Santorini event was much larger than the estimated 39 cubic km of Dense-Rock Equivalent (DRE), or total volume of material erupted from the volcano, published in 1991.[9]. With an estimated DRE in excess of 60 cubic km,[1] the volume of ejecta was up to four times what was thrown into the stratosphere by Krakatau in 1883, a well-recorded event, placing the Volcanic Explosivity Index of the Thera eruption at approximately 6. The Thera volcanic events and subsequent ashfall probably sterilized the island, similar to what had occurred on Krakatau. Only the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption of 1815 released more material into the atmosphere during historic times.[10] One of the widely accepted measures of the size of a historical eruption is the volume of lava ejected as pumice and volcanic ash, known as tephra during an explosive phase or the volume of lava extruded during an effusive phase of a volcanic eruption. ... In volcanology, ejecta consists of particles that came out of a volcanic vent, traveled though the air or under water, and fell back on the ground surface or on the ocean floor. ... An early 19th century image of Krakatoa. ... For other meanings of Ve, see Ve (disambiguation). ... Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ...


Dating the volcanic eruption

The Minoan eruption provides a fixed point for aligning the entire chronology of the 2nd millennium BC in the Aegean, because evidence of the eruption occurs throughout the region. Despite this, the exact date of its occurance is unknown. Current estimates based on radiocarbon dating indicate that the eruption occurred between 1630 and 1600 BC[11]. This range, however, conflicts with the previous estimate based on archaeological studies, utilizing Conventional Egyptian chronology, which is approximately 1550 BC[12]. Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years[1]. Raw, i. ... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1680s BC 1670s BC 1660s BC 1650s BC 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC Events and trends 1633 BC - Egypt: End of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties of Egypt, start of... (Redirected from 1600 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC Decades: 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC Events and trends Egypt: End of Fourteenth Dynasty The creation of one of... This is a Conventional Egyptian chronology. ... (Redirected from 1550 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC Events and Trends The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, came...


Several archaeological chronologies exist for the Late Bronze Age, each based on a point of origin for a given material culture (ie, materials from Crete, mainland Greece, Cyprus, and Canaan which were shipped to locations throughout the eastern Mediterranean). If the Thera eruption could be dated and then associated with a given layer of Cretan (or other) culture, chronologists could use the date of that layer to date the eruption itself. Since Thera's culture at the time of destruction was similar to the "Late Minoan IA (LMIA)" culture on Crete, LMIA is the baseline to establish chronology elsewhere. The eruption also aligns with Late Cycladic I (LCI) and Late Helladic I (LHI) cultures, but predates "Peloponnesian LHI".[13] Archeological digs on Akrotiri have also yielded fragments of nine Syro-Palestinian "Middle Bronze II (MBII)" gypsum vessels.[14] For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The Minoans were a civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea. ...


At one time, it was believed that data from Greenland ice cores and dendrochronology (tree-ring dating), would be useful in ascertaining the exact date of the eruption. A large eruption, identified in ice cores and dated to 1644 BC (+/- 20 years) was suspected to be Santorini. Tree-ring data showed that a large event interfering with normal tree growth in America occurred in 1629-1628 BC.[15] Previously, it was assumed that the ice core and tree-ring data were related. However, volcanic ash retrieved from an ice core demonstrated that this was not from Santorini, leading to the conclusion that the eruption may have occurred on another date.[7] The late Holocene eruption of the Mount Aniakchak, a volcano in Alaska, is proposed as the most likely source of the glass in the GRIP ice core.[16] Ice Core sample taken from drill. ... The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. ... Map showing volcanoes of Alaska Peninsula. ...


In 2006, two research papers were published arguing that new radiocarbon analysis dated the eruption between 1627 and 1600 BC. Samples of wood, bone, and seed collected from various locations in the Aegean, including Santorini, Crete, Rhodes and Turkey, were analyzed at three separate labs in Oxford, Vienna, and Heidelberg in order to minimise the chance of a radiocarbon dating error. Results of the analysis indicated a broad dating for the Thera event between 1660 to 1613 BC.[17] For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


The date of the eruption of Thera was recently narrowed to between 1627-1600 BC, with a 95% probability of accuracy, after researchers analyzed material from an Olive tree that was found buried beneath a lava flow from the volcano.[18] Because the tree grew on the island, the results may have been affected by volcanic outgassing, which would have skewed the accuracy of the radiometric studies. Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian...


As a result of the inconsistencies in radiocarbon dating, archeologists believe that the earlier date for the eruption is contradicted by findings in Egyptian and Theran excavations. For example, some archeologists have found buried Egyptian and Cypriot pottery on Thera that is dated to later period than the radiometric dates for the eruption. Archeologist Peter Warren states, "there are no current grounds for thinking that the Egyptian historical chronology could be out by more than a few years. This chronology has been constructed by hundreds of expert Egyptologists over many decades." The exact date of the eruption remains controversial; if radiocarbon dating is accurate, there would be significant chronological realignment of several Eastern Mediterranean cultures. [19][20]


Historical impact

Minoan civilization

Tsunamis casued by pyroclastic flows and caldera collapse may have had an effect on the navy, merchant vessels and ports of the Minoans on the north side of Crete. As the Minoans were a sea power and depended on their naval and merchant ships for their livelihood, the Thera eruption must have impacted the Minoans to some degree. Whether these effects were enough to trigger the downfall of the Minoans is under intense debate. Early conclusions held that the ash falling on the eastern half of Crete may have choked off plant life, causing starvation. It was alleged that 7-11 cm of ash fell on Kato Zakro, while 0.5 cm fell on Knossos. However, after more thorough field examinations were carried out, this theory has lost credibility, as no more than 5 mm of ash had fallen anywhere on Crete.[21][7][2] Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... The Minoans were a civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea. ...


Earlier historians and archaeologists assumed that the effect on Minoa was more substantial because of the depth of pumice found on the sea floor. Recently, though, it has been established that the pumice resulted from a lateral crack in the volcano below sea level.[22] Also, significant Minoan remains have been found above the Late Minoan I era Thera ash layer, implying that the Thera eruption did not cause the immediate downfall of the Minoans. The Mycenaean conquest of the Minoans occurred in Late Minoan II period, not many years after the eruption, and many archaeologists speculate that the eruption induced a crisis in Minoan civilization, which allowed the Mycenaeans to conquer them. The Minoans were a civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea. ...


Chinese records

Some scientists correlate a volcanic winter from the Minoan eruption with Chinese records documenting the collapse of the Xia dynasty in China. According to the Bamboo Annals, the collapse of the dynasty and the rise of the Shang dynasty, approximately dated to 1618 BC, was accompanied by "'yellow fog, a dim sun, then three suns, frost in July, famine, and the withering of all five cereals".[12][2] The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsia-chao), ca. ... The Bamboo Annals (Zhushu jinian) is a chronicle of ancient China. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... (Redirected from 1618 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1660s BC 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC - 1610s BC - 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC Events and trends Significant people Categories: 1610s BC ...


Impact on Egyptian history

There are no surviving Egyptian records of the eruption, and the absence of such records is sometimes attributed to the general disorder in Egypt around the Second Intermediate Period. There do, however, appear to be connections between the Thera eruption and the calamities of the Admonitions of Ipuwer, a text from Lower Egypt during the Middle Kingdom or Second Intermediate Period.[23] The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All[1] is an ancient Egyptian poem preserved in a single papyrus, Leiden Papyrus I 344, which is housed in the National Archeological Museum in Leiden, Netherlands. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises of 2 phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ...


Heavy rainstorms which devastated much of Egypt, and were described on the Tempest Stele of Ahmose I, have been attributed to short term climatic changes caused by the Theran eruption[24][25][26] This theory is not supported by current archaeological evidence which show no pumice layers at Avaris or elsewhere in Lower Egypt during the reigns of Ahmose I and Thutmosis III. While it has been argued that the damage from this storm may have been caused by an earthquake following the Thera Eruption, it has also been suggested that the damage was caused during a war with the Hyksos, and the storm reference is merely a metaphor for chaos, upon which the Pharaoh was attempting to impose order.[27] The Tempest Stele was erected by Ahmose I early in the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, circa 1550 BCE. The stele describes great storms striking Egypt during this time. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife... Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (? - 1426 BC), was Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heqa khasewet, foreign rulers; Greek , ) were an Asiatic, likely Semitic people who invaded the eastern Nile Delta, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. ...


There is a consensus that Egypt, being far away from areas of significant seismic activity, would not be significantly affected by an earthquake in the Aegean. Furthermore, other documents, such as Hatshepsut's Speos Armedios, depict similar storms, but are clearly speaking figuratively, not literally.[27] It is thus considered likely that this stele is just another such reference to the Pharaoh overcoming the powers of chaos and darkness. Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issues Neferure Father Thutmose I...


Greek traditions

The eruption of Thera and volcanic fallout may have inspired myths of the Titanomachy in Hesiod's Theogony. The background of the Titanomachy is known to derive from the Kumarbi cycle, a Bronze Age Hurrian epic from the Lake Van region. However, the Titanomachy itself could have picked up elements of western Anatolian folk memory as the tale spread westward. Hesiod's lines have been compared with volcanic activity, citing Zeus' thunderbolts as volcanic lightning, the boiling earth and sea as a breach of the magma chamber, immense flame and heat as evidence of phreatic explosions, among many other descriptions. [28] In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy, or War of the Titans (Greek: Τιτανομαχία), was the eleven-year series of battles fought between the two races of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, fighting from Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of the ancient Greeks, ca 700 BC. // Hesiods Theogony a large-scale synthesis of a vast variety of local Greek traditions concerning the gods, organized as a narrative that tells how they came to be and how... The Hurrian father of the gods. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ...


Biblical traditions

It has been proposed that one or more of ten plagues may be attributed to the eruption of Thera, although the presumed dates of the events of Exodus, approximately 1450 BCE is almost 150 years after the radiometric date of the eruption.[29] According to the Bible, Egypt was beset by such misfortunes as the transforming of their water supply to blood, the infestations of frogs, gnats, and flies, darkness, and violent hail. These effects are compatible with the catastrophic eruption of a volcano in different ways. While the "blood" may have been red tide which is poisonous to human beings, the frogs could have been displaced by the eruption, and their eventual death would have given rise to large numbers of scavenging insects. The darkness could have been the resulting volcanic winter, and the hail the large chunks of ejecta spewn from the volcano. The tsunami that resulted from the Thera eruption is also speculated to have caused the parting of the sea that allowed the Israelites, under Moses, safe passage of the Red Sea, possibly devastating the Egyptian army with the returning wave. Exodus mentions that the Israelites were guided by a "pillar of smoke" during the day and a "pillar of fire" at night, which many scholars have speculated could be references to volcanic activity. However, unambiguous dating of bristlecone pines and other dating methodologies places the Thera eruption at a date significantly different from the supposed dates of the Exodus from Egypt.[30][31][2] The Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: מכות מצרים, Makot Mitzrayim), the Biblical Plagues or the Ten Plagues (עשר המכות, Eser Ha-Makot) are the ten calamities inflicted upon Egypt by God in the Biblical story recounted the book of Exodus, chapters 7 - 12, in order to convince Pharaoh (possibly Ramesses II, making the pharaoh of... A red tide off the coast of La Jolla, California. ... Possible Exodus Routes. ...


Association with Atlantis

Spyridon Marinatos first proposed that the cataclysmic volcanic event at Santorini may have lead to the fall of the Minoan Civilization centered on Crete.[32] This same event is sometimes regarded as the likely source or inspiration for Plato's story of Atlantis. Detractors of the theory say that Santorini and Crete combined would not be the size of Plato's Atlantis, and the date of the Minoan collapse does not match Plato's dates for the fall of Atlantis. The error in date and size could be caused by a mistranscription of the Ancient Egyptian or Mycenaean Linear B symbol for "hundred" as "thousand". There would be little confusion in the visual appearance of hieroglyphic symbols of Egyptian numeric values; but if the Atlantis story does derive from Egypt, it was at some point been translated into Greek, which Galanopoulos suggests is the point of confusion.[33][23] Spyridon Nikolaou Marinatos (November 4, 1901 - October 1, 1974) was one of the premier Greek archaeologists of the 20th century, whose most notable discovery was the site of the Minoan port city on the island of Thera destroyed and preserved by the massive volcanic eruption, ca 1650-1600 BCE, spawning... The Minoans were a civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ...


References

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  33. ^ Mavor, James (1997). Voyage to Atlantis: The Discovery of a Legendary Land. Park Street Press. ISBN 978-0892816347. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (141st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... John Godolphin Bennett, (8th June 1897 - 13th December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ...

Further reading

  • Balter, M (2006). 'New carbon dates support revised history of ancient Mediterranean', Science, vol. 312, pp. 508-509.
  • Forsyth, PY (1997). Thera in the Bronze Age, New York: Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 0-8204-4889-3
  • Greene, MT (1992). Natural Knowledge in Preclassical Antiquity, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

External links

  • Santorini Decade Volcano — Santorini's geology and volcanic history, the Minoan eruption and the legend of Atlantis.
  • The Thera (Santorini) Volcanic Eruption and the Absolute Chronology of the Aegean Bronze Age - A WWW companion site to: Sturt W. Manning, A Test of Time: the volcano of Thera and the chronology and history of the Aegean and east Mediterranean in the mid second millennium BC.
  • Date of the largest volcanic eruption in the Bronze Age finally pinpointed Århus University press release about the olive tree of Friedrich et al. (scientific article but also reader friendly)
  • VolcanoWorld Information about the eruption with photographs
  • Thera 2006 Expedition – exploration of the submarine deposits and morphology of Santorini volcano


 
 

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