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Encyclopedia > Minnesang

Minnesang was the tradition of lyric and song writing in Germany which flourished in the 12th century and continued into the 14th century. People who wrote and performed Minnesang are known as Minnesingers (Minnesänger). The name derives from the word minne, Middle High German for love which was their main subject, and an individual song was a minneliet. The Minnesänger were similar to the Provençal troubadours and northern French trouvères; they wrote love poetry in the courtly love tradition in Middle High German in the High Middle Ages. Download high resolution version (694x967, 240 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (694x967, 240 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Portrait of Walther von der Vogelweide. ... Folio 371r shows Johannes Hadlaub Folio 149v shows a portrait of Wolfram von Eschenbach The Manesse Codex or Grosse Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg Library, Cod. ... A song is a relatively short musical composition for the human voice (commonly accompanied by other musical instruments), which features words (lyrics). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... Occitan, known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (Occitan: occitan, lenga dòc) is a Romance language spoken in Occitania (i. ... A troubadour was a composer and performer of songs during the Middle Ages in Europe. ... Trouvère is the Northern French (langue doïl) version of troubador (langue doc), and refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadors but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ...

Contents

Social Status

In the absence of reliable biographical information, there has been debate about the social status of the Minnesanger. Some clearly belonged to the higher nobility - the 14th century Codex Manesse includes songs by dukes, counts, kings, and the Emperor Henry VI. Some Minnesänger, as indicated by the title Meister ("master"), were clearly educated commoners, such as Meister Konrad von Würzburg. It is thought that many were ministeriales, that is, members of a class of lower nobility, vassals of the great lords. Broadly speaking, the Minnesänger were writing and performing for their own social class at court, and should be thought of as courtiers rather than "professional" hired musicians. Friedrich von Husen, for example, was part of the entourage of Friedrich Barbarossa, and died on crusade. As a reward for his service, Walther von der Vogelweide was given a fief by the Emperor Frederick II. // Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Folio 371r shows Johannes Hadlaub Folio 149v shows a portrait of Wolfram von Eschenbach The Manesse Codex or Grosse Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg Library, Cod. ... Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165, Nijmegen – September 28, 1197, Messina) was king of Germany 1190-1197, and Holy Roman Emperor 1191-1197. ... Portrait of Konrad von Würzburg from the Codex Manesse (folio 383r). ... Ministerialis (plural ministeriales); a post-classical Latin word, used in English, meaning originally servitor, agent, in a broad range of senses. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Portrait of Walther von der Vogelweide. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death in 1250. ...


Several of the best known Minnesingers are also noted for their epic poetry, among them Henric van Veldeke, Wolfram von Eschenbach and Hartmann von Aue. Hendrik van Veldeke (Dutch) or Heinrich von Veldeke (German; b. ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ... Portrait of Hartmann von Aue from the Codex Manesse (folio 184v). ...


History

The earliest texts date from perhaps 1150, and the earliest named Minnesänger are Der von Kürenberg and Dietmar von Aist, clearly writing in a native German tradition in the third quarter of the 12th century. This is referred to as the Danubian tradition. Der von Kürenberg or Der Kürenberger (Kuerenberg, Kuerenberger, Middle of the 12th century) is the oldest poet to write in old German whose name is known. ... Dietmar von Aist (Codex Manesse), f. ...


From around 1170, German lyric poets came under the influence of the Provençal troubadours and the Northern French trouvères. This is most obvious in the adoption of the strophic form of the canzone, at its most basic a seven-line stophe with the rhyme scheme ab|ab|cxc, and a musical AAB structure, but capable of many variations. A troubadour was a composer and performer of songs during the Middle Ages in Europe. ... Trouvère is the Northern French (langue doïl) version of troubador (langue doc), and refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadors but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France. ... Literally song in Italian, a canzone (plural: canzoni) (cognate with English to chant) is an Italian or Provençal song or ballad. ...


A number of songs from this period match trouvère originals exactly in form, indicating that the German text could have been sung to an originally French tune, which is especially likely where there are significant commonalities of content. Such songs are termed contractures. For example, Friedrich von Hausen's "Ich denke underwilen" is regarded as a contracture of Guiot de Provins's "Ma joie premeraine". Contracture can refer to: Dupuytrens contracture Volkmanns contracture Capsular contracture This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Guiot de Provins (d. ...


By around 1190, the German poets began to break free of Franco-Provençal influence. This period is regarded as the period of Classical Minnesang with Albrecht von Johansdorf, Heinrich von Morungen, Reinmar von Hagenau developing new themes and forms, reaching its culmination in Walther von der Vogelweide, regarded both in the Middle Ages and in the present day as the greatest of the Minnesänger. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Heinrich von Morungen (lived around 1200) was a one of the most significant Minnesingers. ... Reinmar der Alte in the Codex Manesse (14th century). ... Portrait of Walther von der Vogelweide. ...


The later Minnesang, from around 1230, is marked by a partial turning away from the refined ethos of classical minnesang and by increasingly elaborate formal developments. The most notable of these later Minnesänger, Neidhart von Reuental introduces characters from lower social classes and often aims for humorous effects. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Melodies

Only a small number of Minnelied melodies have survived to the present day, mainly in manuscripts dating from the 15th century or later, which may present the songs in a form other than the original one. Additionally, it is often rather difficult to interpret the musical notation used to write them down. Although the contour of the melody can usually be made out, the rhythm of the song is frequently hard to fathom. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. ...


There are a number of recordings of Minnesang using the original melodies, as well as Rock groups such as Ougenweide performing songs with modern instruments.


Later developments

In the 15th century Minnesang developed into and gave way to the tradition of the Meistersingers. The two traditions are quite different, however (Minnesingers were mainly aristocrats, while Meistersingers were merchants, for example). A Meistersinger (German for master-singer) was a German lyric poet of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, who carried on and developed the traditions of the medieval Minnesingers. ...


At least two operas have been written about the Minnesang tradition: Richard Wagner's Tannhäuser and Richard Strauss' Guntram. The Teatro alla Scala in Milan. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Tannhäuser or Tannhäuser und der Sängerkrieg auf die Wartburg (Tannhäuser and the Singers Contest on the Wartburg) is an opera in three acts, music and text by Richard Wagner, based on the two Germanic legends of Tannhäuser and the song contest at Wartburg. ... Richard Strauss Richard Strauss (June 11, 1864 – September 8, 1949) was a German composer of the late Romantic era, particularly noted for his tone poems and operas. ... Guntram I(c. ...


Notable Minnesänger

Danubian Lyric

Dietmar von Aist (Codex Manesse), f. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Early Courtly Lyric

Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165, Nijmegen – September 28, 1197, Messina) was king of Germany 1190-1197, and Holy Roman Emperor 1191-1197. ... Van Veldeke monument in Hasselt. ... Hendrik van Veldeke (Dutch) or Heinrich von Veldeke (German; b. ...

Classical Minnesang

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gottfried von Strassburg, was one of the chief German poets of the middle ages. ... Portrait of Hartmann von Aue from the Codex Manesse (folio 184v). ... Heinrich von Morungen (lived around 1200) was a one of the most significant Minnesingers. ... Reinmar der Alte in the Codex Manesse (14th century). ... Süßkind, der Jude von Trimberg(Süßkind, the Judaist from Trimberg) (Manesse Codex, 14c. ... Imaginary picture of Walther von der Vogelweide. ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ...

Later Minnesang: 13th Century

Portrait of Konrad von Würzburg from the Codex Manesse (folio 383r). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Count Otto von Henneberg, known commonly as Otto von Botenlauben from 1206, (probably born in 1177 in Henneberg, died near Bad Kissingen before 1245) was a German minnesinger, crusader and founded a cloister. ... Reinmar von Zweter (Codex Manesse, 14th century). ... Ulrich von Liechtenstein (1200-1278) was a medieval nobleman, knight, politician and minnesinger. ...

Later Minnesang: 14th Century

Famous Minnelied

The following love poem, of unknown authorship, is found in a latin codex of the 12th century from the Tegernsee monastery. First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... Tegernsee is a lake and spa town in Bavaria, Germany. ...


Middle High German original

Dû bist mîn ich bin dîn.
des solt dû gewis sîn.
dû bist beslozzen
in mînem herzen.
verlorn ist das sluzzelîn.
dû muost immêr darinne sîn!

Modern German

Du bist mein, ich bin dein,
dessen sollst du gewiss sein.
Du bist verschlossen
in meinem Herzen,
Verloren ist das Schlüsselein-
du musst immer darin sein.

English

You are mine, I am yours
Of that you may be sure
Deep within my heart
You're safely locked away
But I have lost the key
And there you'll ever stay

External links

  • Des Minnesangs Frühling (University of Virginia, Electronic Text Center)

Editions

The standard collections are

  • 12th and early 13th Century Minnesang (up to Reinmar von Hagenau):
    • H.Moser, H.Tervooren, Des Minnesangs Frühling.
      • Vol. I: Texts, 38th edn (Hirzel, 1988) ISBN 3-7776-0448-8
      • Vol II: Editorial Principles, Melodies, Manuscripts, Notes, 36th edn (Hirzel, 1977) ISBN 3-7776-0331-7
      • Vol III: Commentaries (Hirzel, 2000) ISBN 3-7776-0368-6
  • 13th Century Minnesang after Walther von der Vogelweide:
    • Carl v. Kraus, G.Kornrumpf, Deutsche Liederdichter des 13. Jahrhunderts (Niemeyer 1978) ISBN 3-484-10284-5.
  • 14th and 15th centuries:
    • Thomas Cramer, Die kleineren Liederdichter des 14. und 15. Jhs., 4 Vols (Fink 1979-1985)

There are separate editions of Walther's works, and of a number of the most prolific Minnesänger. There are many published selections with Modern German translation.


References

  • Olive Sayce, The medieval German lyric, 1150-1300: the development of its themes and forms in their European context (Oxford University Press 1982) ISBN 0-19-815772-X
  • Ronald J. Taylor, The Art of the Minnesinger. Songs of the thirteenth century transribed and edited with textual and musical commentaries, 2 vols (University of Wales Press, 1968)

See also

Medieval rock Medieval Rock (literal transl. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Musical Forms - Minnesang (333 words)
The extant melodies are preserved in manuscripts from the 14th and 15th centuries, and cannot necessarily be applied to earlier verses.
The Minnesang is generally categorized according to content, the basic types being the Minnelied (the man's expression of love), the Frauenlied (the woman's song), the Wechsel (in which the lovers 'exchange' their views), the Tagelied (like the Provençal Alba, the parting of the lovers at dawn), the Tanzlied (dancesong) and the Kreuzlied (crusading song).
In the 14th century, the rising importance of the towns and the bourgeoisie shifted the emphasis from the courtly idealism to songs in a more spiritual and didactic tone, but the influence of the Minnesang is still discernible in the works of the Monk of Salzburg (circa 1400) and Oswald von Wolkenstein (died 1445).
Minnesang | wissen.de (360 words)
Beeinflusst wurde der Minnesang von der Vagantendichtung und der provençalischen Liebeslyrik (Troubadours).
Der Minnesang ist in einer großen Zahl literarischer Formen (Minneklage, Tagelied, Tanzlied) erhalten.
Walther von der Vogelweide stellte dieses Programm zugunsten der niederen Minne in Frage, in der die Frau dem werbenden Manne wiederum gleichgestellt wird.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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