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Encyclopedia > Ministry of Public Security of Poland

Ministry of Public Security of Poland (Polish: Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego or MBP) was the organ established and controlled by Soviet Union officers to provide collaborationist government in Poland with secret police, intelligence and counter-espionage services from 1945 to 1954. Its main goal was the disruption of anti-soviet independent structures of Polish Secret State and warfare against soldiers of Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) and Freedom and Independence (WiN). In that field MPB is known as Urząd Bezpieczeństwa or UB (Office of Security). Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Counter-intelligence ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Zrzeszenie Wolność i NiezawisÅ‚ość WiN (Freedom and Independence) was Polish underground anticommunist organisation founded September 2, 1945 and active to 1952. ...

Contents

History

The PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944

In July 1944 in Moscow temporary Polish puppet government was established with the name of Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego). or PKWN. In PKWN structure organization, there were thirteen departments called Resorty. One of them was Department of Public Security (Resort Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego) or RBP, headed by long time polish communist Stanisław Radkiewicz. On December 31, 1944, the PKWN was joined by several members of the Polish government in exile, among them Stanisław Mikolajczyk. It was then transformed into Provisional Government of Republic of Poland (Polish: Rząd Tymczasowy Republiki Polskiej, or RTRP, also all departments were renamed as ministries, Department of Public Security became Ministry of Public Security (Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego) or MBP, in the field well known as UB (Urząd Bezpieczeństwa). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (607x910, 155 KB) Source: pl:Grafika:Pkwn. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (607x910, 155 KB) Source: pl:Grafika:Pkwn. ... The Manifesto The Manifesto of the Polish Committee of National Liberation (PKWN) was a political programme of the communist-led and Soviet-backed authorities of Poland created in 1944 in opposition to the legitimate Polish government. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Moscow (Moskva) (Russian: , romanised: Moskva, IPA: see also other names) is the capital of Russia and the countrys economic, financial, educational, and transportation centre. ... A propaganda photo of a citizen reading the PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was the provisional Polish government. ... The PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN) was a provisional Polish communist government that was created by the Soviet Union. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... RzÄ…d Tymczasowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (RTRP, Provisional Government of Republic of Poland) has been created by Krajowa Rada Narodowa on the night of 31 December in place of the previous governmental body, the Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego. ...


MBP tasks and numbers

From the end of 1940s to 1954 Ministry of Public Security (MBP) beside Ministry of Defense, was one of the biggest and strongest administrations in post war communist Poland.
MBP was responsible for - internal and foreign Intelligence, Counter-Intelligence, anti-state activity in and outside the country, government protection, confidential government communications, civilian communications, supervision of the local governments, militsiya, correctional facilities and fire rescue, border and internal security. In July 1947 MBP took control over Military Intelligence, which was the 2nd Section of General Staff of the Polish People's Army, Military Intelligence joined together with the civilian intelligence branch becoming Department VII of Ministry of Public Security. In June 1950, Ministry of Defense again took control over Military Intelligence.
In 1950s Ministry of Public Security employed around 32,000 people. MBP also had control over 41,000 soldiers and officers of the Internal Security Corp, (Korpus Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego) or KBW, 57,000 officers in Civil Militsiya (Milicja Obywatelska) or MO, 32,000 officers and soldiers of the Border guard (Wojska Ochrony Pogranicza) or WOP, 10,000 prison officers (Straż Więzienna) or SW. and 125,000 members of Volunteer Reserves of the Citizens Militia (Ochotnicza Rezerwa Milicji Obywatelskiej) or ORMO. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A member of a Russian special purpose police team (OMSN), equipped with a 9A91 submachine gun. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Korpus BezpieczeÅ„stwa WewnÄ™trznego (KBW, Internal Security Corps), special military unit established in 1945 to assure internal order, and fight against independent underground (the remnants of Polish Home Army), Ukrainian armed organizations (UIA), and German ones. ... Korpus BezpieczeÅ„stwa WewnÄ™trznego (KBW, Internal Security Corps), special military unit established in 1945 to assure internal order, and fight with independent underground (the remnants of Polish Home Army), Ukrainian armed organizations (UIA), and German ones. ... Militsiya (Russian: мили́ция; Ukrainian: міліція; Romanian: MiliÅ£ia; literally Militia) was the generic name for the police in the Soviet Union and a few other Communist countries. ... Look up Mo, MO in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Organization

From January 1945 and on, Ministry of Public Security structure organization was changed constantly as the MBP was expanding. It was divided into departments, each department was divided into sections and entrusted with different tasks.
In January 1945 when MBP was just established on a base of Department of Public Security or RBP, the biggest and the most important department in MBP organization was Department one (I), responsible for Counter-espionage and anti-state activities, and headed by Roman Romkowski, real name Natan Grinszpan-Kikiel born in 1907.
Department I was divided on Section: each responsible with different tasks - Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Counter-intelligence ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

  1. Fighting German espionage and Nazi underground remaining in Poland
  2. Fighting reactionary underground
  3. Fighting political banditry
  4. Protection of the national economy
  5. Protection of legal political parties from outside (underground) penetration.
  6. Prison
  7. Observation
  8. Investigations

Except departments and sections which were created for RBP (Resort Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego) organization, then in Junuary 1945 become part of MBP, two new departments were created. September 6, 1945, from existing structure of Department II there additional departments were created, they were - Department IV commanded by Aleksander Wolski-Dyszko, Department V commanded by Julia Brystygier, and Department VI headed by Teodor Duda.
In July 1946, further changes were proform. MBP was divided into eight (8) departments. Five of which dealt with operational cases, they where - Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Dep 1Counter-espionage
Dep 2 — Technical operations and technology
Dep 3 — Fighting underground resistance
Dep 4 — Protection of economy
Dep 5 — Counteraction of hostile penetration and church influences

In July 1947 Military Intelligence when under MBP control, and MBP's 2nd Independent Section then responsible for intelligence, was joined with 2nd Section of General Staff of the Polish People's Army, becoming Department VII of Ministry of Public Security. June next year, strictly special Secret Office was established, for internal counter-intelligence, Special Office was to follow and control employees and staff of MBP. March 2, 1949, Special Bureau was established, renamed in 1951 Department X. Dep X, task was to follow and conduct investigations into upper and highest Polish communist party, government members and their friends. Counter-intelligence ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the 1918-1938 Communist Party of Poland. ...

In 1951, MBP's organization was -
Minister of Public Security - Stanisław Radkiewicz
1st vice-minister — Roman Romkowski
2nd vice-minister — Mieczysław Mietkowski
3rd vice-minister — Konrad Świetlik
4th vice-minister — Wacław Lewikowski
  • Department ICounter-intelligence - headed by col. Stefan Antosiewicz
  • Department IIOperative Technology and records - headed by col. Leon Rubinstein
  • Department IIIFighting bandits - headed by col. Józef Czaplicki
  • Department IVProtection of economy - headed by col. Józef Kratko
  • Department VReligious political and social organizations - headed by col. Julia Brystigerowa
  • Department VIPrisons - headed by col. Władysław Pisło
  • Department VIIIntelligence - headed by col. Witold Sieniewicz
  • Department of Investigations — headed by col. Józef Różański
  • Department for Training — headed by mjr. Zdzisław Szymaczak
  • Department of Staff — headed by col. Mikołaj Orechwa
  • Department for Government Protection — headed by col. Faustym Grzybowski
  • Department of Transport — headed by col. Czesław Radzicki
  • Department of Communications — headed by col. Feliks Suczek
  • Special Bureau — headed by col. Anatol Fejgin
  • Bureau for control — headed by ?
  • Bureau of foreign passports — headed by ?
  • Bureau of Budget and Finances — headed by ?
  • Bureau A (Observation of suspicious element) [suspect] — headed by ?
  • Bureau B (Central archives) — headed by ?
Ministry of Public Security organization for 1953, (Organizacja Ministerstwa Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego na rok 1953, M Malinowski)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

MBP in field

Ministry of Public Security field organization

All over Poland Ministry of Public Security had offices. There was one or more MBP office in each Province (or - Wojewodship, województwo), they were called Provincial Office of Public Security (Wojewódzki Urząd Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego, or WUBP). Each WUBP had 308 MBP officers and employees. Beside WUBP there were so called City Office of Public Security (Miejski Urząd Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego, or MUBP), it had 148 MPB officers and employees, District Office of Public Security (Powiatowy Urząd Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego or PUBP), witch 51 officers and employees, and Communal Office of Public Security (Gminny Urząd Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego, or GUBP), it was stationed in local militsiya precincts (MO), and it had 3 security (MBP) officers.
In 1953, in the field there were 17 Provincial Offices of Public Security (WUBP), 2 City Offices of Public Security on law of WUBP (which operated as a Provincial Office of Public Security). There were 268 District Offices of Public Security (PUBP) and 5 City Offices of Public Security (MUBP), which operated as District Office of Public Security (PUBP). All employed 33 200 permanent officers, of which 7 500 were in Warsaw headquarters. According to professor Andrzej Paczkowski in 1953, there was one MBP (or-UB) officer to 800 citizens. Never in the 45 year old history, of People's Republic of Poland, were its civil special services formations so large in numbers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Look up Mo, MO in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981...


Soviet control and Political repressions

Ivan Serov, first main soviet advisor to MBP

Political and military dependence of People's Republic of Poland (or PRL) on the Soviet Union, was visible on every step of life in post-war Poland. It had particular meaning in command and administrative structure of Armed forces and special services organs, Intelligence Counter-intelligence and Internal security, civilian - Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego (Ministry of Public Security (MBP) and military - Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska Polskiego (Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army).
Control of these special services organs which besides the Armed forces were the main guarantee of stability of the new communist system in post-war Poland and other countries like Czechoslovakia which fell under soviet influence near the end of World War II thanks to the Allies: USA and Great Britain. Moscow acted by using so called advisors. These were well trained and highly experienced Soviet intelligence and Counter-intelligence officers, from services such as NKGB, NKVD, GRU and SMERSH, then in later years MGB, MVD and finally KGB. The first main soviet advisor to the Ministry of Public Security (MBP), was then general major Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov. He was well experienced and an old officer of soviet security organs. In 1939 he assumed the position of deputy commander, later commander of soviet militsiya within the structure of the NKVD. Next he was nominated chief of Secret Political Department (SPO) of the GUGB/NKVD, before becoming People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1941-1945, he was the First Deputy People's Commissar of the State Security and later - Deputy People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR. When he become main advisor to the MBP in March 1945, as a general, Ivanov had carried out apprehension of 16 polish underground leaders. (See -Trial of the Sixteen). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... US 1979 and 2002 Reissue Cover Also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Główny ZarzÄ…d Informacji Wojska Polskiego (GZI WP) - Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, was a name of a first military Police and counterespionage organ in communist Poland after the World War 2. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moscow (Moskva) (Russian: , romanised: Moskva, IPA: see also other names) is the capital of Russia and the countrys economic, financial, educational, and transportation centre. ... Soviet redirects here. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... The Peoples Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасн&#1086... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... For other uses, see GRU (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The word MGB has several different meanings: MGB (USSR) was a predecessor of the KGB (secret police). ... The acronym MVD can stand for: Mitral valve disease, or Mitral regurgitation. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov (Иван Александрович Серов in Russian) (8. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A member of a Russian special purpose police team (OMSN), equipped with a 9A91 submachine gun. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... The Main Directorate of State Security (Russian: Glavnoe Upravlenie Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti) was the name of the Soviet secret police from July 1934 to April 1943. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with: :Sovnarkom. ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...

Main Soviet advisor to the Ministry of Public Security 1945 - 1954
  • 1945-1946 — Nikolai Selvanovsky (gen.mjr)
  • 1950-1953 — Mikhail Bezborodov (col)
  • 1953 — Nikolai Kovalshuk (gen.lejnt)

Ministry of Public Security was, and still is, very famous for it role it has played in repressions against it own nation. It played an important role in the so called: Trial of the Sixteen. As a young Polish Security apparatus, built and supervised by soviet advisors, the most important task was to penetrate and destroy structures of the Home Army (Armia Krajowa) or-AK. Home Army Structures had been penetrated and exposed by soviet NKGB, NKVD agents, with assistance from polish communist members of People's Guard (Gwardia Ludowa) or GL, later named Armia Ludowa, during German occupation of Poland. So when Red Army entered Polish territory, Soviet special services already knew who were members of Polish underground. The only remaining task was to arrest these members, with they did by using Polish special services like Ministry of Public Security and in the case of the military, using organs such as Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska Polskiego - Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army.
What German special services (Gestapo and Sicherheitsdienst, or SD), could not do to the Polish underground Army during the occupation of Poland 1939-1945, soviet NKGB/NKVD with assistance from polish communist and MBP or GZI WP, did it in two, or three years, by destroying the Home Army (AK) and killing and locking up AK members in prisons or deporting them to Siberian Gulag's, soviet concentration camps. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov (Иван Александрович Серов in Russian) (8. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term sometimes is also applied to First Moscow Trial during the Great Purges in USSR The Trial of the Sixteen (Polish: Proces szesnastu) was a staged trial of 16 leaders of the Polish Secret State held by the Soviet Union in Moscow in 1945. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... The Peoples Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасн&#1086... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Gwardia Ludowa (Peoples Guard, abbreviated GL) was a communist armed organisation in Poland, organised by the Soviet created Polish Workers Party. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Główny ZarzÄ…d Informacji Wojska Polskiego (GZI WP) - Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, was a name of a first military Police and counterespionage organ in communist Poland after the World War 2. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... SD or sd is an acronym that may mean: Sales and Distribution, business San Diego, a U.S. city SanDisk, US-based multinational corporation which designs and markets flash memory card products SafeDisc, a CD/DVD copy protection solution by Macrovision Corporation Scooby Doo a brown dog Secure Digital, flash... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Peoples Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасн&#1086... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting all of northern Asia. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


Operations

Światło Defection

Józef Światło

In November 1953, First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party Bolesław Bierut asked Politbiuro member Jakub Berman to send MBP Lieutenant Colonel Józef Światło on an important mission to East Berlin. Światło, deputy head of MBP Department X, together with Colonel Anatol Fejgin, were asked to consult with Stasi chief Erich Mielke about eliminating Wanda Brońska. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP; in Polish, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR), was the governing political party in communist_ruled Poland from its creation (through a fusion of the communist Polish Workers Party and the left wing of the Polish Socialist Party) in December 1948 until the regimes electoral... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Biernacki, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. Bierut was born near Lublin, the son of a... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... Jakub Berman (born December 26, 1901, in Warsaw, Poland - died April 10, 1984), was a Polish communist politician of Jewish origin. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Józef ÅšwiatÅ‚o Józef ÅšwiatÅ‚o (1915-1975) was a high-ranking official of Ministry of Public Security of Poland (deputy director of 10th Department). ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... Erich Fritz Emil Mielke (December 28, 1907 - May 21, 2000 in Berlin), was a German Communist. ...


The two officers traveled to Berlin and spoke with Mielke. On December 5, 1953, the day after meeting the Stasi chief, Światło defected to the U.S. military mission in West Berlin. The next day, American military authorities transported Światło to Frankfurt and by Christmas Światło had been flown to Washington D.C, where he underwent an extensive debriefing. December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


Światło’s defection was widely publicized in the United States and Europe by the American authorities, as well as in Poland via Radio Free Europe, embarrassing the Communist authorities in Warsaw. Światło had intimate knowledge of the internal politics of the Polish government, especially the activities of the various secret services. Over the course of the following months, American newspapers and Radio Free Europe reported extensively on political repression in Poland based on Światło revelations, including the torture of prisoners under interrogation and politically motivated executions. Światło also detailed struggles inside the Polish United Workers' Party. Cover of Radio Liberty booklet The Most Important Job in the World Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP; in Polish, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR), was the governing political party in communist_ruled Poland from its creation (through a fusion of the communist Polish Workers Party and the left wing of the Polish Socialist Party) in December 1948 until the regimes electoral...


Among other activities, Światło had been ordered to falsify evidence that was used to incriminate communist politician Władysław Gomułka, who would become first secretary of the Polish United Worker's Party in 1956, and personally arrested him. He had also arrested and created evidence against Marian Spychalski, the future Minister of National Defence, who was at the time a leading politician and high ranking military officer. WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marian Spychalski (1906-1980) was a Polish Communist politician who served as Polish Head of State from 1968 to 1970. ... List of Ministers of National Defense of the Republic of Poland (). Current minister is Aleksander SzczygÅ‚o. ...


1954 Reorganization

The highly publicized defection of Colonel Światło, not to mention the general hatred of the Ministry of Public Security among Poles, lead to changes in late 1954. In December of that year, the Polish Council of State and the Council of Ministers moved to replace the ministry with two separate administrations, the Committee for Public Security (Komitet do Spraw Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego or KDSBP), headed by Władysław Dworakowski, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych or MSW), headed by Władysław Wicha as minister of Internal Affairs. The number of employees of the Committee for Public Security, set up to replace the dissolved ministry, was cut by 30% in central headquarters and by 40-50% in local structures. The huge network of secret informers was also substantially reduced and the most implicated functionaries of the Ministry of Public Security were arrested. Surveillance and repressive activities were reduced; in the majority of factories, special cells of public security, set up to spy on workers, were secretly closed. The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the 1947s Small Constitution. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration (Polish: ) is an administration structure contrilling main administration and security branches of the Polish government. ...


The Committee for Public Security took responsibility for intelligence and counter-espionage, government security and the secret police. From September 3, 1955 to 28 of November 1956 it also controlled the Polish Army’s Main Directorate of Information (Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska), which ran the Military Police and counter espionage service. The Ministry of Internal Affairs was responsible for the supervision of local governments, the Milicja Obywatelska police force, correctional facilities, fire and rescue forces, and the border guard. In 1956 the Committee was dissolved, most of its functions merged into Ministry of Internal Affairs; the secret police was renamed to the 'Security Service' (Służba Bezpieczeństwa). Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Counter-intelligence ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Główny ZarzÄ…d Informacji Wojska Polskiego (GZI WP) - Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, was a name of a first military Police and counterespionage organ in communist Poland after the World War 2. ... The MP Command providing security coverage at the Padang in Singapore during the National Day Parade in 2000. ... Militsiya (Russian: мили́ция; Ukrainian: міліція; Romanian: MiliÅ£ia; literally Militia) was the generic name for the police in the Soviet Union and a few other Communist countries. ... SÅ‚użba BezpieczeÅ„stwa (or SB) Ministerstwa Spraw WewnÄ™trznych, of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - was the name of communist internal intelligence agency and secret police, established in the Peoples Republic of Poland in 1956, SB was the main organ in Poland responsible for political repression, until...


Victims

Tajna Armia Polska, TAP (Secret Polish Army) was a resistance movement founded in November 1939 in German-occupied Poland, which was active in the areas of the Warsaw, Podlasie, Kielce and Lublin Voivodships. ... Witold Pilecki (May 13, 1901 – May 25, 1948; pronounced [vitɔld pileʦki]; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold) was a soldier of the Second Polish Republic, founder of the resistance movement Secret Polish Army (Tajna Armia Polska) and member of the Home... Kedyw (acronym for Kierownictwo Dywersji, Polish Directorate of Sabotage and Diversion; probably also a play on the Turkish khedive, which translates into Polish as kedyw): a Polish World War II Armia Krajowa organization that specialized in active and passive sabotage, propaganda and armed action against German forces and collaborators. ... Emil August Fieldorf (1895-1953) was a Polish Brigadier-General. ... Zygmunt Szendzielarz Zygmunt Szendzielarz aka Łupaszko (February 12, 1910 in Stryj - February 8, 1951 in Warsaw) was a Polish commander of the 5th Vilnian Home Army Brigade. ... Cichociemni in England in 1943 Cichociemni (Polish for Silentdark) were a secret unit of the Polish Army in exile created to maintain contact with occupied Poland during World War II. // Initially the name was informal and used only by the soldiers who volunteered to be dropped over Poland. ... Jan Rodowicz codename: Anoda (b. ... Cichociemni in England in 1943 Cichociemni (Polish for Silentdark) were a secret unit of the Polish Army in exile created to maintain contact with occupied Poland during World War II. // Initially the name was informal and used only by the soldiers who volunteered to be dropped over Poland. ... BolesÅ‚aw Kontrym (born August 27, 1898 died January 2 or 20, 1953)), also known by his codenames: Å»mudzin, BiaÅ‚y, Bielski, and/or Cichocki, was a Polish army officer, cichociemny, soldier of the Armia Krajowa, organizer of the secret police force, and participant in the Warsaw Uprising. ...

Known MBP personnel

  • Jakub Berman Joseph Stalin's right hand in Poland between 1944 and 1953.
  • Julia Brystygier Nicknamed bloody Luna, born on November 25 1902. colonel in MBP, head of Department V.
  • Józef Czaplicki
  • Anatol Fejgin
  • Adam Humer
  • Julian Konar
  • Grzegorz Korczyński Born on June 17, 1915, Polish communist army general, MBP officer later (1956) head of Military Intelligence, took part in so called Polish 1968 political crisis. Also commanded Polish army troops, during workers demonstration in 1970, which ended in the death of many workers.
  • Mieczysław Mietkowski Polish general, PZPR member. From 1936 to 1939 he fought in Spanish Civil War. Later become NKVD agent, after war, vice-minister of Public Security. Real name Mojżesz Bobrowicki.
  • Salomon Morel, commandant of the Stalinist-era labor camp in Poland. He escaped to Israel in 1992 - he is accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity.
  • Henryk Pałka
  • Julian Polan-Haraschin chairperson of the military tribunal in Cracow.
  • Józef Różański real name Josef Goldberg - head of the Department of Investigations.
  • Roman Romkowski real name Natan Grinszpan-Kikiel.
  • Stanisław Radkiewicz
  • Leon Rubinstein head of the Department II - Operative Technology and records
  • Józef Światło, real name Izaak Fleichfarb - Lieutenant Colonel
  • Helena Wolinska-Brus former Stalinist military prosecutor from Poland

Jakub Berman (born December 26, 1901, in Warsaw, Poland - died April 10, 1984), was a Polish communist politician of Jewish origin. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Banners from March 1968. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The following is a list of Polish generals, that is the people who held the rank of general, as well as those who acted as de facto generals by commanding a division or brigade. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP; in Polish, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR), was the governing political party in communist-ruled Poland from its creation (through a fusion of the communist Polish Workers Party and the left wing of the Polish Socialist Party) in December 1948 until the regimes... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Salomon Morel, passport photo taken in 1993 Salomon (also Solomon or Shlomo) Morel (born November 15, 1919 in Garbów, Poland, died February 2007 in Tel Aviv, Israel) was a Polish Jew, who, between February and November 1945, was a member of Communist State Security, known in Polish as Urz... Józef Światło Józef Światło (1915-1975) was a high-ranking official of Ministry of Public Security of Poland (deputy director of 10th Department). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  • Leszek Pawlikowicz - Tajny Front Zimnej Wojny: Uciekinierzy z polskich służb specjalnych 1956-1964, Oficyna Wydawnicza RYTM 2004 [wydanie 1]
  • Henryk Piecuch - Akcje Specjalne: Od Bieruta do Ochaba, (Seria: Tajna Historia Polski) Agencja Wydawnicza CB Warszawa 1996 - [Special Operations: from Bierut to Ochab, - Secret History of Poland series, Warsaw 1996]
  • Nigel West - Trzecia Tajemnica: Kulisy zamachu na Papieża, wyd. [[Sensacje XX Wieku]] - [Nigel West - The Third Secret]
  • Metody Pracy Operacyjnej Aparatu Bezpieczństwa wobec kościołów i związków zawodowych 1945-1989, IPN Warszawa 2004 (Methods of operative work of Security organs against churches and trade unions 1945-1989, Warsaw 2004 IPN - [IPN] - Institute of National Remembrance])
  • Normam Polmar, Thomas Allen - Księga Szpiegów, Wydawnictwo Magnum Warszawa 2000 - [Spy Book]
  • Zbigniew Błażyński - Mówi Józef Światło: Za kulisami bezpieki i partii 1940-1955, Warszawa 2003

Rupert William Simon Allason is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... IPN may refer to: Independent Practitioners Network Instytut Pamięci Narodowej (Institute of National Remembrance) Instituto Politécnico Nacional International Policy Network InterPlaNetary internet InterPlanetary Network, a group of spacecraft equipped with gamma-ray burst detectors. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The list below includes the aldermen of Chicago in order by ward. ... Józef Światło Józef Światło (1915-1975) was a high-ranking official of Ministry of Public Security of Poland (deputy director of 10th Department). ...

See also

Służba Bezpieczeństwa (or SB) Ministerstwa Spraw Wewnętrznych, of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - was the name of communist internal intelligence agency and secret police, established in the Peoples Republic of Poland in 1956, SB was the main organ in Poland responsible for political repression, until... Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska Polskiego (GZI WP) - Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, was a name of a first military Police and counterespionage organ in communist Poland after the World War 2. ... This article covers the history of Polands intelligence services. ... This article covers the history of Polish Intelligence Services. ... Montelupich prison, Monte located in Kraków, which was used by the Gestapo throughout World War II. Prisoners in Montelupich included political prisoners, members of the SS and Security Service (SD) who had been convicted and given prison terms, British and Soviet spies and parachutists, victims of Gestapo street raids...

External links

  • List of persons condemned by Military Courts to the capital punishment (1946 - 1955)

 
 

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