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Encyclopedia > Ministry of Petroleum of Iran
Iran

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Politics and government of
Iran
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The Iranian constitution prohibits the granting of petroleum rights on a concessionary basis or direct equity stake. However, the 1987 Petroleum Law permits the establishment of contracts between the Ministry of Petroleum, state companies and "local and foreign national persons and legal entities." Buyback contracts, for instance, are arrangements in which the contractor funds all investments, receives remuneration from the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) in the form of an allocated production share, then transfers operation of the field to NIOC after a set number of years, at which time the contract is completed. The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... Ayatollah Ali Meshkini is an Iranian cleric and politician. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: ولی فقیه or رهبر, Rahbar, literally leader) was created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as the highest ranking political authority of the nation (see Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine)). Other Persian terms include the Valiye-Faqih (sometimes shortened to Faqih) or the Jurisprudent... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... Haddad-Adel Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل in Persian) born in 1945 in Tehran, Iran, is the chairman of the Iranian Parliament. ... Supreme National Security Council is a body within the Islamic Republic of Iran the secretary whereof is Ali Larijani. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ahmad Jannati (born in Esfahan in 1926) (Persian: ‎ ​) is an Iranian ayatollah and political figure. ... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System [1](Persian: مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام), is an unelected[2] establishment in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran created on 6 February 1988[3]. Its purpose is to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians, and also to serve as a... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani kharkosteh (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most... City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran. ... Iranian soldiers The military forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran include three regular armed forces; the Army, Navy, Air Force, and a fourth armed force, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution. ... The new Defence Minister, Mostafa Mohammad Najjar, 49, is a veteran of the Revolutionary Guards since the establishment of the body in 1980, where he served as in charge of the Middle East Department, with Palestine, Lebanon and the Persian Gulf as places of particular attention. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... Ayatollah Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi (آیت‌الله سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی) (Born 1948 in Najaf, Iraq) is an Iranian politician and Shia cleric. ... The Ministry of Intelligence and National Security (وزارت اطلاعات), is the primary intelligence agency of Iran. ... Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Ejeie is the current head of the Ministry of Intelligence in Iran, also known as SVAMA and was appointed by the current president of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, on August 24, 2005. ... Bank Markazi, Tehran, Iran Bank Markazi Iran or Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran (Persian: بانک مرکزی جمهوری اسلامی ايران) is the Central bank of Iran. ... Ebrahim Sheibani is an Iranian economist currently governing the Central Bank of Iran. ... Kazem vaziri Mahane is the current minister of petroleum in Iran. ... The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is an oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran. ... Politics of Iran Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Iran ... The Iranian Assembly of Experts election of 2006 is planned to take place on December 15, 2006. ... The Iranian City and Village Councils election of 2006 is planned to take place on December 15, 2006. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... The provinces of Iran are divided into counties or shahrestānhā (Persian: شهرستان, singular shahrestān), and each shahrestan is subdivided into districts or bakhshānhā (Persian: بخش, singular bakhsh). ... Political parties in Iran lists political parties in Iran. ... // Darvazeh-e-Bagh-e-Melli: The main gates to Irans Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tehran. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is an oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran. ...


NIOC controls huge deposits of crude oil from which over 130.798 billion barrels can be exploited in the form of primary and secondary recoveries.


The huge reserves of natural gas put Iran in the second place, in terms of the natural gas reserve quantity, among other countries, only next to the Russian Federation, with an estimate of proven reserve quantity close to 23 bcm. There are, at present, eight refineries —with a potential capacity of 950,000 barrels per day and one refinery complex in the country with a total refining capacity of over 1,5 mb/d (in Tehran, Tabriz, Isfahan, Abadan, Kermanshah, Shiraz, Bandar Abbas, Arak and Lavan Island) and a storage capacity of 8 milliard litre. Abundance of basic material, like natural gas, in the country provide favorable conditions for development and expansion of petrochemical plants. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Arvand river between Abadan (left) and khorramshahr (right). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran | Coastal cities ... Arak may refer to: Arak, a city in centeral Iran Arak, an alcoholic beverage made from grapes and anise This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Lavan is an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf. ... Look up storage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Thus National Iranian Petrochemical Company (NIPC) has succeeded in the recent years in producing a wide range of petrochemicals and increasing its production, in terms of quantity, to a new level. The National Iranian Petrochemical Company (NIPC), a subsidiary to the Iranian Petroleum Ministry, is owned by the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


During 2005, Iran produced about 4.24 million bbl/d of total liquids. Of this, 3.94 million bbl/d is crude oil, roughly 5 percent of world crude production. Iran's current sustainable crude oil production capacity is estimated at 3.8 million bbl/d, which is around 310,000 bbl/d below Iran's latest (July 1, 2005) OPEC production quota of 4.110 million bbl/d. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ...

PROVEN OIL RESERVES
Country Billions of Barrels
Saudi Arabia 262.7
Canada 178.9
Iran 133.3
Iraq 112.5
United Arab Emirates 97.8
Kuwait 96.5
Venezuela 75.6
TOP OIL PRODUCERS
Country Millions of Barrels
Saudi Arabia 9.5
Russia 9.2
United States 7.6
Iran 4.0
China 3.5
European Union 3.4
Mexico 3.4

Contents

Barrel can refer to: Barrels for storage. ... Barrel can refer to: Barrels for storage. ...

Major Developments

Iran holds 10% of the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. It is OPEC's second largest exporter and the world's fourth oil producer.

Since the 1979 revolution in Iran, the country has been under constant US unilateral sanctions. “The first U.S. sanctions against Iran were formalized in November of 1979, and during the hostage crisis, many sanctions were leveled against the Iranian government. By 1987 the import of Iranian goods into the United States had been banned. In 1995, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12957 [1], banning U.S. investment in Iran's energy sector, followed a few weeks later by Executive Order 12959 [2] of May 9, 1995, eliminating all trade and investment and virtually all interaction between the United States and Iran.” Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (966x966, 559 KB) Summary Map of Major Iranian Energy Projects and Pipelines Source: US Department of Energy URL: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (966x966, 559 KB) Summary Map of Major Iranian Energy Projects and Pipelines Source: US Department of Energy URL: http://www. ... OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Order: 42nd President Term of Office: January 20, 1993–January 20, 2001 Preceded by: George H. W. Bush Succeeded by: George W. Bush Date of birth: August 19, 1946 Place of birth: Hope, Arkansas Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Hillary Rodham Clinton Political party: Democratic Vice... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite the sanctions Iran continued to attract foreign investment and technical cooperation for its energy sector. Countries such as France, Japan, Italy, Norway, UK, Brazil, Malaysia, Spain, Holland, China, Russia, and others took advantage of absence of the American competition and tried to fill the gap. However, the threat of American retaliation kept the investment way below the desired levels. It only allowed Iran to continue to keep its oil export at its OPEC determined quota level. Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with 6. ... OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ...


In 2001 Iran’s already sizable oil reserves were bolstered by the discovery of a large new offshore field near Abadan at the head of the Persian Gulf. However, oil recovery percentages in existing fields lagged in the early 2000s. The largest natural gas field is South Pars, discovered in 1988 in southern Iran and under intensive development in the early 2000s. Arvand river between Abadan (left) and khorramshahr (right). ...


According to the Oil and Gas Journal, as of January 1, 2006, Iran held 132.5 billion barrels of proven oil reserves. This figure, which includes recent discoveries in the Kushk and Hosseineih fields of Khuzestan province, means Iran holds roughly 10 percent of the world's total proven reserves. The vast majority of Iran's crude oil reserves are located in giant onshore fields in the south-western Khuzestan region near the Iraqi border. Overall, Iran has 40 producing fields – 27 onshore and 13 offshore. Iran's crude oil is generally medium in sulfur and in the 28°-35°API range.” For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... API may refer to: In computing, application programming interface In petroleum industry, American Petroleum Institute In education, Academic Performance Index This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Iran currently produces about 4 million barrels of oil per day, of which only 2.5 million barrels are exported with the remaining 1.5 million barrel being consumed internally. According to the latest report (26 Dec 2006) by the National Academy of Sciences of the United States (NAS), if the current increase in local Iranian oil consumption continues and the current decline in oil production is not stopped, then by 2015 Iran’s oil export will decline to zero. [4] According to this and other reports Iran needs to invest about $2.5 billion a year just to stand still. Iran is not running out of oil, but needs money to maintain old fields and bring in the new fields online. President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... 2015 (MMXV) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2006, China signed oil and gas contracts worth over $100 billion with Iran. China is heavily involved in developing the huge Yadavaran oil field. “If completed, the deal will allow China to buy 150,000 barrels of Iranian crude a day at market rates for 25 years as well as 250 million tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Under an initial agreement signed by the Sinopec Group in October 2004, China could pay Iran as much as $100 billion for the stake and the purchases of oil and gas over 25 years.” [5] Yadavaran Field is an oil field located in Khuzestan, Iran. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been cooled until it becomes liquid, and it is stored in tanks. ... Sinopec, the China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (Chinese: 中国石化, HKEX: 386; NYSE: SNP; LSE: SNP), is one of the major petroleum companies in China. ... Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Russia is also very interested to create a gas cartel, similar to OPEC[3]. Recently a senior Russian parliamentarian called for creation of a producers’ cartel to “stand-up” to the consumers’ cartel. "It is necessary to form a gas alliance, which could be joined by Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus," the head of the Russian parliament's energy committee Valery Yazev said, RIA-Novosti reported. "Tomorrow, with the removal of the problem of Iran's nuclear program, I would also see Iran in this alliance," Mr Yazev said, speaking at a meeting of the Russian Gas Union industry group, which he also heads. [6] OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ...


The amount of foreign investments made in Iran's oil industry showed a 9.1 percent growth in the last Iranian calendar year (ended March 19, 2007). Over dlrs 14.2 billion worth of foreign investments was made in the oil industry in the period 2006-2007 with the National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company (NIORDC) attracting most of the amount.[4] The Iranian calendar (Persian: ‎) also known as Persian calendar or the Jalāli Calendar is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan. ... National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company (NIORDC) is part of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran and its subordinate companies have been established to separate oil upstream activities from downstream activities. ...


Oil subsidies

Iran has one of the cheapest gas prices in the world (33 cts per gallon/8 cts per liter) while mineral water sells for 13 cents a liter, because the government subsidies many basic commodities, including gasoline, totalling more than 30 billion dollars (7 billion dollar worth of gasoline imports as of 2006). Coincidently, Iran has also one of the highest gas consumption per capita in the world because of contraband with neighboring countries and public waste. The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... The word commodity has a different meaning in business than in Marxian political economy. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Contraband consists of items of which possession may be illegal, depending on the variety and the country or the age or sex of the possessor. ... WASTE is a peer-to-peer and friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features instant messaging, chat rooms & file browsing/sharing capabilities. ...


Waste & Pollution

Furthermore, experts agree that oil is a pollutant and that its usage should be made as efficient as possible and not wasted, because encouraged/incentived through subsidies. The same holds true for electricity (power wastage hit $1.1 billion in 2006), water, wheat[5], pharmaceuticals and other commodities like cement and steel and for the same set of reasons. Consequently, Iran has become a net importer of gasoline (1/3 of Iran's daily 70 million litres of gasoline consumption is imported)[6]. Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes... Environmental issue in Iran Especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents contribute to poor air quality. ... Efficiency is the capability of acting or producing effectively with a minimum of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort. ... For the record label, see Incentive Records. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... The word commodity has a different meaning in business than in Marxian political economy. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... An importer is a person or company that imports products into a country and sells them there. ...


These subsidies also create an environment in which manufacturers become complacent and not only do not conserve energy in their production activities, but also do not try to build energy efficient appliances and machines; simply because their consumers do not pay attention to the product's energy consumption. Based on energy consumption, Iranian made cars, freezers, refrigerators, etc. will not be able to compete with the similar sized Japanese, American or European products.[7] In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or with times 100 given in percent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A freezer is a home appliance, usually found above the refrigerator that keeps foods frozen. ... “Freezer” redirects here. ... Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... This article is about the continent. ...


Contraband & Massive Theft of Public Property

Also contributing to the problem greatly, arbitrage opportunities, resulting from the difference between Iran's subsidized price and the market price abroad, through smuggling with other countries, has considerably aggravated the shortage of gasoline in Iran, diminished its exports of crude oil, and illegally drained/stolen huge financial resources (counted in billion dollars per year) from the government coffers (treasury, people's money that is) into private bank accounts abroad[8]. No arrests have been made public to this day by the judiciary regarding the identity of the peoples responsible for this massive theft of the public property. In economics and finance, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a price differential between two or more markets: a combination of matching deals are struck that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices. ... Market price is an economic concept with commonplace familiarity; it is the price that a good or service is offered at, or will fetch, in the marketplace; it is of interest mainly in the study of microeconomics. ... A skirmish with smugglers from Finland at the Russian border, 1853, by Vasily Hudiakov. ... Swiss banks are world-renowned for their stability, privacy and protection of clients. ... The Chicago Police Department arrests a man An arrest is the action of police or other authority, or even in some circumstances a private civilian, to apprehend and take under guard a person who is suspected of committing a crime. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... Everyday instance of theft: the bike which fits on this wheel has disappeared. ... Public property is land which is owned by a local government, and is accessible to everybody. ...


Besides, studies have shown repeatedly that subsidies for gasoline mostly benefit the higher income strata of the population because they are the ones who can afford to drive cars [9]. Therefore, it is advisable to ban gasoline subsidies altogether and transfer the subsidy amounts directly to the entire population equally or to the population who needs it. A census is currently under way but, strangely, statistics regarding income levels have been discarded in the questionnaire. This precious information regarding who needs help in Iran can still be collected while the government distributes "justice shares", which are shares of state-owned enterprises being privatized given to low income Iranians, because they will have to justify (prove) their low income levels to the authorities at that time. A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... A graph of a Normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Public ownership (also called government ownership or state ownership) is government ownership of any asset, industry, or corporation at any level, national, regional or local (municipal). ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... Poverty is the state of being without, often associated with need, hardship and lack of resources across a wide range of circumstance. ...


Proposed solutions

On January 24, 2007, Iranian President Ahmadinejad called high petrol consumption as "the main problem facing national economy", but at the same time, told the press that after making necessary preparations such as a development of public transportation system the government will free up petrol prices after five years (only).[10] 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... Mohammad Khatami, Irans president, 1997-2005. ... , sometimes also transcribed into English as Mahmud, Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad (Persian: ; born October 28, 1956), is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Major routes and railways of Iran Iran has an extensive paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities. ...

  • In response to this situation, the Government of Iran has also envisaged to implement a two-tier payment system for the purchase of gasoline through the use of smart cards, whereby each car is allotted 2.5-3 liters a day at the subsidized price of 8.7 cents per liter (domestic price), with consumption beyond that at 60-65 cents per liter (imported price), starting on May 1st, 2007. Iran has also plans to ration fuel after May 2007.[11]
  • It must be noted that even if the government does not plan to traget low-income Iranians for the subsidies, experts agree that in the worst case senario (the present situation that is), it would make more sense to distribute the same total amount of subsidies budgeted (if not more) to the entire population equally and directly through cash payments instead of implementing a two-tier payment system that can be technically defrauded, so as to avoid the cost incured by the government because of contraband, waste and over-consumption among the other things cited above [12]. This is the easiest and most efficient solution because inflation would increase by the same amount or much less than the purchasing power of the Iranian consumers, because of the cash transfer from the government tp the Iranian people as described above (from previously budgeted subsidies). This, above the transfer from the thieves to the Iranian people (from the proceeds of the smuggling activity). This, to say it is not even a problem that the measure would be unpopular for the rulers, if things are explained properly to the population (quite the opposite). These subsidies are, de-facto, a massive and illegal transfer of wealth - counted in billions of dollars per year - from the people of Iran to a ruling class/mafia, but disguised as "economic help/assistance" to the Iranian people and this is the only real reason why they are kept in place.[13]

The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... A smartcard or smart card is a tiny secure cryptoprocessor embedded within a credit card-sized or smaller (like the GSM SIM) card. ... Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services: it restricts how much people are allowed to buy or consume. ... May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... In economics, purchasing power refers to the amount of goods and services a given amount of money -- or, more generally, liquid assets -- can buy. ... The Mafia (also referred to as Cosa Nostra or the Mob), is a criminal secret society which first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ...

Subcompanies

Most operations of the petroleum industry are undertaken and conducted, at present, by four main companies as follows:

The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is an oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran. ... The National Iranian Gas Company was established in 1965 as one of the four principal Co. ... The National Iranian Petrochemical Company (NIPC), a subsidiary to the Iranian Petroleum Ministry, is owned by the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company (NIORDC) is part of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran and its subordinate companies have been established to separate oil upstream activities from downstream activities. ...

References

  1. ^ http://treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/programs/iran/iran.shtml
  2. ^ http://treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/programs/iran/iran.shtml
  3. ^ http://online.wsj.com/article_email/SB117571518133560013-lMyQjAxMDE3NzA1NDcwMTQ1Wj.html
  4. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/07/apr/1337.html
  5. ^ Iran-Daily: "Power Wastage Hits $1.1b"
  6. ^ US Department of Energy - Oil Sector in Iran
  7. ^ "Ahmadinejad's Achilles Heel: The Iranian Economy"
  8. ^ Iran-daily: $1b Returned to Treasury
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Times, Tehran (January 25, 2007). Iran trying to prevent another UN resolution: president. Tehran Times. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ http://tehrantimes.com/Description.asp?Da=2/22/2007&Cat=14&Num=001
  13. ^ [3]

January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... Tehran Times is a Tehran-based English daily newspaper, established in 1979. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Iran holds 10% of the worlds proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... Asalouyeh (Persian: عسلویه) also transcribed Assalouyeh and Assaluyeh, and sometimes prefixed by bandar, meaning port) is a town in southern Iran, in Bushehr Province. ... The Korpezhe-Kurt Kui Pipeline is a 200 km long natural gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Iran. ... The Iran-Armenia Gas Pipeline is a 140 km pipeline from Iran to Armenia. ... The Iran-India gas pipeline dubbed the Peace pipeline is a proposed 2,775 km gas pipeline project to deliver gas from Iran to Pakistan and India. ... Historical map of the area (1892) Map Of Strait of Hormuz Satellite image The Strait of Hormuz (Arabic: ‎, Persian: ‎) is a narrow, strategically important stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ... Kharg Island from space, April 1993 Kharag Island (Persian: جزیره خارک, jazireyeh kha-rag, also sometimes written as Khark Island) is a continental island in the Persian Gulf belonging to Iran. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Iran is planning to open a stock exchange, under names variously referred to in English as Iran Petroleum Exchange, International Oil Bourse or Iranian Oil Bourse, for the express purpose of trading oil, petrochemicals and gas in various non-dollar currencies, including euros. ... The economy of Iran has been improving steadily over the past two decades but a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%. According to experts, annual economic growth above five per... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ... Environmental issue in Iran Especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents contribute to poor air quality. ... Major routes and railways of Iran Iran has an extensive paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities. ... This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been put forward by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. ...

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