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Encyclopedia > Mining
Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile.
Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile.

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam. Materials recovered by mining include bauxite, coal, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, iron, precious metals, lead, limestone, nickel, phosphate, oil shale, rock salt, tin, uranium and molybdenum. Any material that cannot be grown from agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory, is usually mined. Mining in a wider sense can also include extraction of petroleum, natural gas or even water. Mine can refer to a number of things: Mines are tunnels used in mining for extraction of resources. ... † See also Starling, Oxpecker The mynas are part of the family Sturndidae, along with the starlings and oxpeckers. ... Look up miner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2126x1369, 3674 KB) Description = Coppermine Chuquicamata, Chile Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2126x1369, 3674 KB) Description = Coppermine Chuquicamata, Chile Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... One of the larger pits in the base of the open cast mine Chuquicamata copper mine in 1984 Chuquicamata, or Chuqui, as it is commonly called, is the second largest open pit copper mine in the world. ... El Chino, located near Silver City, New Mexico, is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining, or opencast mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... In general, the economic value of something is how much a product or service is worth to someone relative to other things (often measured in money). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... In geology, a vein is a finite volume within a rock, having a distinct shape, filled with crystals of one or more minerals, which were precipitated from an (aqueous) fluid. ... This article is about the ore. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... This article is about the metal. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... Fossil water is groundwater having remained in an aquifer for thousands or more years. ...

Contents

History

Miners at the Tamarack Mine in Copper Country, Michigan, USA in 1905.
Miners at the Tamarack Mine in Copper Country, Michigan, USA in 1905.

The oldest known mine on archaeological record is the "Lion Cave" in Swaziland. At this site, which by radiocarbon dating the mine dates between 4,100 BC, paleolithic humans mined mineral hematite, which contained iron and was ground to produce the red pigment ochre. [1] [2] Mines of a similar age in Hungary and are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1661, 537 KB) Summary Miners pose with lunch pails in hand on a mine rock pile outside of the Tamarack mineshaft. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1661, 537 KB) Summary Miners pose with lunch pails in hand on a mine rock pile outside of the Tamarack mineshaft. ... The Copper Country is an area in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in the United States, including most of Keweenaw, Houghton, Baraga and Ontonagon counties. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ...


Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. [3] At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Later, between 2,613 and 2,494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghara in order "to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself." [4] Quarries for turqoise and copper were also found at "Wadi Hamamat, Tura, Aswan and various other Nubian sites" [5] on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna. Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... This article is about the mineral. ... Maadi (Arabic: el-Ma‛adi) is a suburb south of Cairo, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


In North America there are ancient, prehistoric copper mines along Lake Superior that formed from volcanic activity 1280 million years ago. [6] [7] "Indians availed themselves of this copper starting at least 5000 years ago," [8] and copper tools, arrowheads, and other artifacts that were part of an extensive native trade network have been discovered. In addition, obsidian, flint, and other minerals were mined, worked, and traded.[9] While the early French explorers that encountered the sites made no use of the metals due to the difficulties in transporting it, [10] the copper was eventually traded throughout the continent along major river routes. In Manitoba, Canada, there also are ancient quartz mines near Waddy Lake and surrounding regions. [11] North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... For the the Quebec municipality, see Lac-Supérieur. ... A cultural artifact is a human-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...


In the early colonial history of the Americas, "native gold and silver was quickly expropriated and sent back to Spain in fleets of gold- and silver-laden galleons." [12] Turquoise dated at 700 A.D. was mined in pre-Columbian America. In the Cerillos Mining District in New Mexico, estimates are that "about 15,000 tons of rock had been removed from Mt Chalchihuitl using stone tools before 1700." [13] [14] Duly noted, black gun powder in mining was first used in a mineshaft in Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia in 1627. [15] In 1762, the world's first mining academy was established in the same town. For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Banská Å tiavnica (German: , Hungarian: ) is a town in central Slovakia, in the middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano. ...


Mining in the United States became prevalent in the 19th century. As with the California Gold Rush in the mid 1800s, mining for minerals and precious metals alongside ranching and exploration for oil and gas fields was very important in the Westward Expansion to the Pacific coast. With the exploration of the West, mining camps were established and "expressed a distinctive spirit, an enduring legacy to the new nation;" Gold Rushers would experience the same problems as the Land Rushers of the transient West that preceded them. [16] Aided by railroads, many traveled West for work opportunities in mining. Western cities such as Denver and Sacramento originated as mining towns. The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... An oil and gas field is a field, or vast reservoir, that contains both oil and natural gas. ... Manifest Destiny, meaning obvious (or undeniable) fate was a belief originally held by Democratic Republicans, specifically Warhawks during the presidency of James Madison, that stated the United States had a divinely-inspired mission to expand itself and its system of government to the western frontier. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country State Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... Sacramento redirects here. ...


Procedure

Steps of process

  1. Prospecting or Exploration to find and then define the extent and value of ore where it is located ("ore body")
  2. Conduct resource estimation to mathematically estimate the size and grade of the deposit
  3. Conduct a pre-feasibility study to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit. This identifies, early on, whether further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted and identifies key risks and areas for further work.
  4. Conduct a feasibility study to evaluate the financial viability, technical and financial risks and robustness of the project and make a decision as whether to develop or walk away from a proposed mine project. This includes mine planning to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the metallurgy and ore recoverability, marketability and payability of the ore concentrates, engineering, milling and infrastructure costs, finance and equity requirements and a cradle to grave analysis of the possible mine, from the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation.
  5. Development to create access to an ore body and building of mine plant and equipment
  6. The operation of the mine in an active sense
  7. Reclamation to make land where a mine had been suitable for future use

Prospecting is the physical search for minerals, fossils, precious metals or mineral specimens, and is also known as fossicking. ... Mineral exploration is the process undertaken by companies, partnerships or corporations in the endeavour of finding ore (commercially viable concentrations of minerals) to mine. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Mineral resource classification involves organizing information on ores and other current or future economically important mineral deposits as a guidance for governmental and industrial planning. ... A feasibility study is a preliminary study undertaken to determine and document a projects viability. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former self, after some process (business, industry, natural disaster etc. ...

Techniques

A minecart toilet, used in Bisbee, Arizona.
A minecart toilet, used in Bisbee, Arizona.

Mining techniques can be divided into two basic excavation types: Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Bisbee is a city in Cochise County, Arizona, USA, 82 miles (132 km) southeast of Tucson. ... In civil engineering, earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed stone. ...

1. Surface mining
2. Sub-surface mining

In-situ leach is a particular mining technique that is used to mine minerals (potash, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and uranium oxide) which dissolve in water. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... El Chino, located near Silver City, New Mexico, is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining, or opencast mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ... For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral ore by first removing all of the soil and rock that lies on top of it. ... Miners operate a hydraulic sluice in San Francisquito Canyon, Los Angeles County. ... // Mountaintop removal coal mining at Kayford Mountain, West Virginia. ... Sub-surface mining or underground mining refers to a group of techniques used for the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth. ... Drift mining is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal, by cutting into the side of the earth, rather than tunneling straight downwards (see shaft mine). ... Slope mining according to [1]: Slope mining occurs when an inclined opening is used to tap the coal seam (or seams). ... Abandoned mine shafts in Marl, Germany. ... Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals such as those containing metals like gold, copper, zinc, nickel and lead or gems such as diamonds. ... Borehole Mining (BHM) is a remote operated method of extracting (mining) of mineral resources through boreholes by means of high pressure water jets. ... Room and pillar refers to a hard-rock mining system, often used in coal mining and underground quarrying, in which material is extracted across a horizontal plane while leaving pillars of untouched material to support the roof. ... Longwall mining is form of underground coal mining. ... Retreat mining refers to an underground mining technique that involves the excavation of material from a chamber while leaving some material behind in the form of pillars that support the roof and prevent cave-ins. ... In-situ leaching (ISL), also called in-situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining, is a process of recovering minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into the deposit. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) mixed with other potassium salts. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Glaubers salt, also sal mirabilis, is the name of sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4•10H2O. It is named after Johann Glauber, who discovered it in the 17th century. ... Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium. ...


Extractive metallurgy

The science of extractive metallurgy is a specialized area in the science of metallurgy that studies the extraction of valuable metals and minerals from their ores, especially through chemical or mechanical means. Mineral processing (or mineral dressing) is a specialized area in the science of metallurgy that studies the mechanical means of crushing, grinding, and washing that enable the separation (extractive metallurgy) of valuable metals or minerals from their gangue (waste material). Extractive metallurgy is the practice of extracting metal from ore, purifying it, and recycling it. ... Mineral processing, otherwise known as mineral dressing, is the practice of beneficiating valuable minerals from their ores. ... Tailings, also called gangue, are the rejected material from mining and screening operations. ...

See also: biomineralization

Biomineralisation (or biomineralization) is the process in which living organism produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues in living organisms. ...

Environmental effects

Environmental issues can include erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of groundwaters and surface water by chemicals from the mining process and products. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Devils Hole near Hawthorne, Florida, USA. A sinkhole, also known as a sink, shake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the surface topography caused by the removal of soil or bedrock, often both, by water. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ...


Modern mining companies in some countries are required to follow environmental and rehabilitation codes, ensuring the area mined is returned to close to its original state. In some countries with pristine environments, such as large parts of Australia, this is impossible despite the best intentions. Some mining methods have devastating environmental and public health effects.


Mining can have adverse effects on surrounding surface and ground water if protection measures are not exercised. The result can be unnaturally high concentrations of some chemical elements, notably arsenic and sulfuric acid, over a significantly large area of surface or subsurface. Coal mining releases approximately twenty toxic chemicals, of which 85% is said to be managed on site. Combined with the effects of water and the new 'channels' created for water to travel through, collect in, and contact with these chemicals, a situation is created in which massive contamination can occur. In well-regulated mines, hydrologists and geologists take careful measures to mitigate any type of water contamination that could be caused by mines. In modern American mining, operations must, under federal and state law, meet standards for protecting surface and ground waters from contamination, including acid mine drainage (AMD). To mitigate these problems water is continuously monitored at coal mines. The five principal technologies used to control water flow at mine sites are: diversion systems, containment ponds, groundwater pumping systems, subsurface drainage systems, and subsurface barriers. In the case of AMD, contaminated water is generally pumped to a treatment facility that neutralizes the contaminants. Acid mine drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines or coal mines. ...

Iron hydroxide precipitate stains a stream receiving acid drainage from surface coal mining.
Iron hydroxide precipitate stains a stream receiving acid drainage from surface coal mining.

Some examples of environmental problems associated with mining operations are: Download high resolution version (640x971, 334 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (640x971, 334 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Ashio Copper Mine, Ashio, Japan was the site of substantial pollution at end of the nineteenth century
Acid mine drainage, exemplified by the cases of the Berkeley Lake Mine, and the Wheal Jane Mine
Dissolution and transport of dissolved metals and heavy metals by run-off and ground waters, an example being the Britannia Mine, a former copper mine near Vancouver, British Columbia. Tar Creek, an abandoned mining area in Picher, Oklahoma that is now an Environmental Protection Agency superfund site. Water in the mine has leaked through into local groundwater, contaminating it with metals such as lead and cadmium.[17]
Long-term storage of tailings and dust, which can be easily blown off site by wind, an example being Scouriotissa, an abandoned copper mine in Cyprus.
Erosion of exposed hillsides, mine dumps, tailings dams and resultant siltation of drainages, creeks and rivers, the prime example being the giant Ok Tedi Mine in Papua New Guinea.
In areas of wilderness mining may cause habitat destruction and destruction or disturbance of ecosystems, and in areas of farming it may disturb or destroy productive grazing and cropping lands. In urbanised environments mining may produce noise pollution, dust pollution and visual pollution.

Although such issues have been associated with some mining operations in the past, modern mining practices have improved significantly and are subject to close environmental scrutiny. Modern mining practises aim to lessen environmental impacts from mining, and the ultimate aim is to return the local environment to as close to pristine as is possible. In many cases, the most significant environmental impact longer-term is visual, with pits and mine dumps prominent landscape features. The Ashio Copper Mine, Ashio, Tochigi prefecture, Japan which became very significant from the end of the nineteenth century to the mid twentieth century. ... Ashio (Japanese: 足尾町) is a town located in Kamitsuga District, Tochigi, Japan. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Acid mine drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines or coal mines. ... The Berkeley Pit in May 1984. ... Wheal Jane was a tin mine near Baldhu and Chacewater in West Cornwall. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Picher is a city located in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. ... EPA redirects here. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ... This article is about the metal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of the mine The Ok Tedi Mine is located near the headwaters of the Ok Tedi, a river in Papua New Guinea (PNG). ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ...


To ensure completion of reclamation (restoring mine land) most governments and regulatory authorities around the world require that mining companies post a bond to be held in escrow until productivity of reclaimed land has been convincingly demonstrated. Since 1978 the mining industry has reclaimed more than 2 million acres (8,000 km²) of land in the United States alone. This reclaimed land has renewed vegetation and wildlife in previous mining lands and can even be used for farming and ranching. Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ...


For further reading on reclamation of former mining sites, see Restoration ecology. Restoration ecology is the study of returning degraded ecosystems and landscapes to a reference state where ecological communities and processes are re-established. ...


Mining industry

Overview

While exploration and mining can sometimes be conducted by individual entrepreneurs or small business, most modern-day mines are large enterprises requiring large amounts of capital to establish. Consequently, the mining sector of the industry is dominated by large, often multinational, mostly publicly-listed companies. See Category:Mining companies for a list. However, what is referred to as the 'mining industry' is actually two sectors, one specializing in exploration for new resources, the other specializing in mining those resources. The exploration sector is typically made up of individuals and small mineral resource companies dependent on public investment. The mining sector is typically large and multi-national companies sustained by mineral production from their mining operations.


Employment

United States

Miners today do more than just dig tunnels in the Earth's subsurface. There are many different jobs, direct and indirect, in the mining industry, ranging from engineers and lab technicians to geologists and environmental specialists. Beyond employment directly linked to mine-site activity, the modern mining industry also employs many other professionals, including accountants, lawyers, sales representatives, public relations specialists, not to mention thousands of men and women involved who manufacture the machines and equipment necessary to mine minerals.


Employment in the mining industry offers highly competitive wages and benefits, especially in rural or remote areas. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), wages for coal miners are 30% higher than the wage earned by the average American. Employees possessing at least a bachelor's degree in mining or geological engineering can earn a median pay of over $80,000 annually. The Bureau of Labor Statistics was founded in 1884 by President Chester A. Arthur. ...


The US Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that 675,000 are employed in the natural resources and mining sector. Estimated employment by selected specific commodity (including mine, mill, smelter, and quarry workers) listed below is from US Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Surveys:

  • Crushed Stone - 79,700 workers
  • Copper - 7,000
  • Cement - 18,000
  • Sand and Gravel - 38,300
  • Gold - 7,600
  • Aluminum - 56,000
  • Iron Ore - 4,400
  • Platinum Group Metals - 1,600
  • Salt - 4,100
  • Phosphate Rock - 2,900

The mining industry has an experienced but aging workforce with a mean average age of 50 years and median of 46 years. Indeed, while the industry will require new employees to meet future demand, the largest dilemma currently facing mine operators is finding employees to fill vacancies left by a generation of miners, mine engineers, senior managers, technical experts and others who are set to retire between 2005 and 2015. However, the industry is struggling to meet that demand due to current low enrollment levels in mining education programs at American colleges and universities.


Mining is regulated under a comprehensive federal safety law (Federal Mine Safety and Health Act) that is administered by the Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Currently under federal law, and enforced by MSHA each U.S. miner must have an approved worker training program in health and safety issues, including at least 40 hours of basic safety training for new underground miners with no experience; 24 hours for new miners at surface mines with no experience; plus eight hours of annual refresher training for all miners.


Safety

United States

Safety has long been a controversial issue in the mining business especially with sub-surface mining. While mining today is substantially safer than it was in the previous decades, mining accidents are often very high profile, such as the Quecreek Mine Rescue saving 9 trapped Pennsylvania coal miners in 2002. A mining accident is a dangerous and often deadly accident that occurs in the process of mining minerals from underneath the surface of the planet. ... The Quecreek Mine Rescue took place when nine miners were trapped underground for over 78 hours, July 24–28, 2002. ...


Mining ventilation is often seen to be a safety concern for many miners and their families. Poor ventilation of the mines causes exposure to harmful gases, heat and dust inside sub-surface mines. These can cause harmful physiological effects, even death. The concentration of methane and other airborne contaminants underground can generally be controlled by dilution (ventilation), capture before entering the host air stream (methane drainage), or isolation (seals and stoppings).[18]


Methane gas is a common source of ignition for explosions in coal mines and can propagate into the more violent coal dust explosions. Explosions can be prevented or mitigated by eliminating ignition sources, minimizing methane concentrations and coal dust accumulations, generalized rock dusting, and by using passive and active barriers to suppress propagating explosions.[18] High temperatures and humidity may result in heat-related illnesses, including heat stroke which can be fatal. Dusts can cause lung problems, including silicosis, asbestosis and pneumoconiosis (also known as miners lung or black lung disease). Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... Pneumoconiosis, also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis, miners asthma, or black lung disease, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Black lung disease, also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), is caused by long exposure to coal dust. ...


A ventilation system is set up to course a stream of air through the working areas of the mine. The air circulation necessary for the effective ventilation of a mine is generated by one or more large mine fans, usually located above ground. In the United States, the main fans at coal mines are required to be above ground. Air flows in one direction only, making circuits through the mine such that each main work area receives a supply of fresh air.


Mining is regulated under the federal Mine Safety and Health Act by MSHA, which employs nearly one safety inspector for every four coal mines. Underground coal mines are thoroughly inspected at least four times annually by MSHA inspectors. In addition, miners can report violations, request additional inspections. Miners with such concerns for their work safety cannot be penalized with any threat to the loss of employment.



Immediately reportable accidents and injuries are:

  1. A death of an individual at a mine;
  2. An injury to an individual at a mine which has a reasonable potential to cause death;
  3. An entrapment of an individual for more than thirty minutes;
  4. An unplanned inundation of a mine by a liquid or gas;
  5. An unplanned ignition or explosion of gas or dust;
  6. An unplanned mine fire not extinguished within 30 minutes of discovery;
  7. An unplanned ignition or explosion of a blasting agent or an explosive;
  8. An unplanned roof fall at or above the anchorage zone in active workings where roof bolts are in use; or, an unplanned roof or rib fall in active workings that impairs ventilation or impedes passage;
  9. A coal or rock outburst that causes withdrawal of miners or which disrupts regular mining activity for more than one hour;
  10. An unstable condition at an impoundment, refuse pile, or culm bank which requires emergency action in order to prevent failure, or which causes individuals to evacuate an area; or, failure of an impoundment, refuse pile or culm bank;
  11. Damage to hoisting equipment in a shaft or slope which endangers an individual or which interferes with use of the equipment for more than thirty minutes; and
  12. An event at a mine which causes death or bodily injury to an individual not at the mine at the time the event occurs.


Additionally, the Mine Safety and Health Act authorizes the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to develop recommendations for mine health standards for the Mine Safety and Health Administration; administer a medical surveillance program for miners, including chest X-rays to detect pneumoconiosos (black lung disease) in coal miners; conduct on-site investigations in mines; and test and certify personal protective equipment and hazard-measurement instruments. [19] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...



Statistical analyses performed by the U.S. Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) show that between 1990 and 2004, the industry cut the rate of injuries (a measure comparing the rate of incidents to overall number of employees or hours worked) by more than half and fatalities by two-thirds following three prior decades of steady improvement. The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ... The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor which administers the provisions of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act) to enforce compliance with mandatory safety and health standards as a means to eliminate fatal accidents; to...


Machinery

Heavy machinery is needed in mining to break and remove rocks of diverse hardness and toughness. Bulldozers, drills, explosives and trucks are important for digging into the land, especially in surface mining.


Underground mining, like continuous mining, tends to be more technologically sophisticated because of the dangers and expense of subsurface tunneling.


Trams are used to transport miners, minerals and waste. This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ...


Mining machinery manufacturers include Joy Mining Machinery, Bucyrus International, Caterpillar, Komatsu, Volvo, Hitachi, Terex, Dresser Industries, Kawasaki, Eimco Elecon India Limited, and Liebherr. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Bucyrus International is a manufacturer of heavy equipment headquartered in South Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... Caterpillar Inc. ... Komatsu Limited ) or Komatsu Hanomag excavator in Germany Komatsu construction vehicle in New Orleans, Louisiana (USA) Komatsu (コマツ) (TYO: 6301) is a Japanese company that manufactures construction, mining, and military equipment, industry machinery such as press machines, lasers, and thermoelectric modules. ... Volvo Cars is the luxury car maker using the Volvo Trademark. ... Hitachi Construction Machinery (Europe) NV is a subsidiary of Hitachi Construction Machinery Group. ... Terex Corporation (NYSE: TEX) is a diversified global manufacturer of a broad range of heavy equipment for a variety of industries, including construction, infrastructure, quarrying, recycling, surface mining, shipping, transportation, refining, utility and maintenance. ... Dresser Industries was a multinational corporation headquartered in Dallas, Texas, which provides a wide range of technology, products, and services used for developing energy and natural resources. ... Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. ... The Liebherr Group is a German manufacturer established in 1949 by Hans Liebherr. ...

Alaskan Placer Mining Trommel and Excavator.

Placer mining is a type of surface mining, usually for gold, tin, and other metals, and gemstones. Ore, typically unconsolidated gravels, is fed into machinery that may consist of a hopper, shaking screen or trommel which frees the minerals from the gravels. The target minerals are then concentrated using sluices or jigs. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Miners operate a hydraulic sluice in San Francisquito Canyon, Los Angeles County. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A trommel (from the Dutch word for drum, trommel), is a screened cylinder used to separate materials by size - for example, separating different sizes of crushed stone. ... Sluice gates on the River Thames Combination of sluice gates and canal lock under bridge Grave A sluice is a water channel that is controlled at its head by a gate. ...


Abandoned mines

Danger sign at an old Arizona mine.
Danger sign at an old Arizona mine.

The number of abandoned mines in the United States remains an unknown, ranging "from the National Park Service's tally of 2,500 on its lands, to the Mineral Policy Center's assessment of 560,000 abandoned mines on public and privately owned lands." [20] [21] Many of these abandoned mines are associated with abandoned neighboring towns often referred to as ghost towns. Experts strongly warn against entering or exploring old or abandoned mines. Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... Abandoned mines are mines which are no longer producing or operational. ... Image File history File links Minedanger. ... Image File history File links Minedanger. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... For other uses, see Ghost town (disambiguation). ...


In the U.S., the estimation is that approximately 25% of the abandoned mine lands (AML) sites pose physical safety hazards. [22] Old mines are often dangerous and can contain deadly gases, snakes and other dangerous animals. Since weather may have eroded the earth/rock surrounding it, the entrance to an old mine in particular can be very dangerous. Old mine workings, caves, etc. are commonly hazardous simply due to the lack of oxygen in the air (a condition in mines known as blackdamp). Blackdamp is a deadly killer which provides no warning to any individual or group of individuals entering such an environment. For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Blackdamp is a mixture of gases formed when oxygen is removed from the atmosphere, so comprises mainly nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapour. ...


Every year, dozens are injured or killed in recreational accidents on mine property. It is only fair to note, however, that the majority of the deaths are unrelated to mine exploration. Drownings in open quarries and ATV accidents on abandoned mine properties are the main cause of accidental death. The U.S. Department of Labor notes that since 1999, "more than 200 people have died in recreational accidents at surface and underground active and abandoned operations across the country." [23] Due to these circumstances, MSHA (Mine Safety and Health Administration) launched the "Stay Out – Stay Alive" campaign, which is a national public awareness campaign aimed at warning and educating children and adults about the dangers of exploring and playing on active and abandoned mine sites. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor which administers the provisions of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act) to enforce compliance with mandatory safety and health standards as a means to eliminate fatal accidents; to...


In the U.S., the Abandoned Mine Land Initiative, launched by the Western Governor's Association and the National Mining Association is also an effort focusing on reporting the number of high-priority AML sites. [24] The initiative identifies, measures and reports on the progress of current reclamation cleanup programs on an annual basis. In the Americas region, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Chilean Copper Commission (COHILCO) co-hosted a workshop to address the problem of abandoned or "orphaned" mines. [25] Including a representative from the UN, ten countries were represented from North, Central and South America with an eleventh participant being Japan. The National Mining Association (NMA), is a trade organization that list itself as the voice of the mining industry in Washington, D.C.. NMA was formed in 1995, and has more than 325 corporate members. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ...


Records

Categories: South Africa stubs | North West Province | Provinces of South Africa ... East Rand Proprietary Mines (ERPM) is a 100-year-old underground mining operation on the Witwatersrand Basin at Boksburg, to the east of Johannesburg. ... Boksburg is a city on the East Rand of Gauteng, South Africa. ... TauTona is a gold mine in South Africa. ... Carletonville is a gold mining town in western Gauteng, South Africa. ... Pyhäsalmi Mine, the deepest mine in Europe[1] (having depth of 1444 meters[2]) is located at the Pyhäjärvi municipality in the south of Oulu province, Finland. ... Pyhäjärvi is a municipality in the south of Oulu province, Finland. ... Boulby Mine is a 200ha site run by Cleveland Potash, located just north of the village of Boulby, on the North East Coast of the North Yorkshire Moors in Cleveland, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Bingham Canyon Mine is an open-pit mine extracting a large porphyry copper deposit southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, in the Oquirrh Mountains. ... The Bingham Canyon mine is located near Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. It is owned by Rio Tinto through Kennecott Utah Copper which operates the mine, a concentrator and a smelter. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... One of the larger pits in the base of the open cast mine Chuquicamata copper mine in 1984 Chuquicamata, or Chuqui, as it is commonly called, is the second largest open pit copper mine in the world. ... One of the larger pits in the base of the open cast mine Chuquicamata copper mine in 1984 Chuquicamata, or Chuqui, as it is commonly called, is the second largest open pit copper mine in the world. ... Kola Superdeep Borehole, commemorated on the 1987 USSR stamp The Kola Superdeep Borehole (KSDB) was the result of a scientific drilling project of the former USSR. The project attempted to drill as deep as possible into the Earths crust. ... Scientific drilling is a way to probe down into the Earth, allowing scientists and students to obtain samples of sediments, crust, and upper mantle. ...

See also

Acid mine drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines or coal mines. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming. ... A coal mining proposal in the Central Coast, Australia, has generated debates in the community // Korea Resources Corporation (Kores), owned by Korean Government, has lodged application for an underground coal mine near Wyong, Australia, known as Wallarah 2 Coal Project (W2CP), beneath the drinking water catchment valleys of Dooralong and... Miner working in the Comstock Lode The Comstock Lode was the first major U.S. deposit of silver ore, discovered under what is now Virginia City, Nevada on the eastern slope of Mt. ... Deepsea mining is the process relating to the retrieval of minerals from the ocean floor. ... The General Mining Act of 1872 is a United States federal law which authorizes and governs prospecting and mining for economic minerals such as gold and silver on publicly owned lands. ... Georg Agricola the father of mineralogy De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals (Minerals)) is a book cataloging the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published in 1556. ... Deformation monitoring is the systematic measurement and tracking of the alteration in the shape or dimensions of an object as a result of the application of stress to it. ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Mineral Policy Institute is an Australian-based non-government organisation specialising in advocacy, campaigning and research to prevent environmentally and socially destructive mining, minerals and energy projects in Australia, Asia and the Pacific.[1] It was formed in 1995. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Philadelphia Smelter in Hailey, Idaho, 1884 Most of Idahos mining production, 1860-1969, has come from metals equating to $2. ... Mine rescue is the specialized job of rescuing miners and others who have become trapped or injured in underground mines, often coalmines. ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ... The National Mining Hall of Fame is a museum located in Leadville, Colorado, USA, dedicated to commemorating the work of miners and people the work with natural resources. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... Landfill mining and reclamation (LFMR) is a process whereby solid wastes which have previously been landfilled are excavated and processed. ... Ore grade is a measure that describes the concentration of a valuable natural material (such as metals or minerals) in its surrounding ore. ... The Office of Surface Mining (OSM) is a branch of the United States Department of the Interior. ... Slate mine Fell The Fell Exhibition Slate Mine is a former slate mine in Germany located about 20 km east from Trier (Germany) and about 60 km east from Luxembourg (city) (Luxembourg) next to the villages Fell and Thomm. ... Primary gold typically occurs in quartz veins. ...

References

Citations

  1. ^ Swaziland Natural Trust Commission, "Cultural Resources - Malolotja Archaeology, Lion Cavern," Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, [1].
  2. ^ Peace Parks Foundation, "Major Features: Cultural Importance." Republic of South Africa: Author. Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, [2].
  3. ^ Shaw, I. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 57-59.
  4. ^ Shaw, I. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 108.
  5. ^ Shaw, I. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 168.
  6. ^ Lankton, L. (1991). Cradle to Grave: Life, Work, and Death at the Lake Superior Copper Mines. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 5-6.
  7. ^ West, G.A. (1970). Copper: its mining and use by the aborigines of the Lake Superior region. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
  8. ^ Lankton, L. (1991). Cradle to Grave: Life, Work, and Death at the Lake Superior Copper Mines. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 5-6.
  9. ^ West, G.A. (1970). Copper: its mining and use by the aborigines of the Lake Superior region. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, pp. 119-120.
  10. ^ West, G.A. (1970). Copper: its mining and use by the aborigines of the Lake Superior region. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, p. 51.
  11. ^ Bruno, L. & Heaman, L.M. (2004). Structural controls on hypozonal oroganic gold mineralization in the La Rouge Domain, Trans-Hudson Orogen, Saskatchewan. The Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 41, Issue 12, pp. 1453-1471.
  12. ^ Vaden, H.E. & Prevost. G. (2002). Politics of Latin America: The Power Game. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 34.
  13. ^ Maynard, S.R., Lisenbee, A.L. & Rogers, J. (2002). Preliminary Geologic Map of the Picture Rock 7.5 - Minute Quadrangle Sante Fe County, Central New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Open-File Report DM-49.
  14. ^ The Cerrillos Hills Park Coalition, (2000). Cerrillos Hills Historic Park Vision Statement. Public documents: Author. Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, [3].
  15. ^ Heiss, A.G. & Oeggl, K. (2007). Analysis of the fuel wood used in Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age copper mining sites of the Schwaz and Brixlegg area (Tyrol, Austria). Vegetation history and Archeobiology, Published March 16, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
  16. ^ Boorstin, D.J. (1965). The Americans: The National Experience. New York: Vintage Books, pp. 78-81.
  17. ^ [4]
  18. ^ a b NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Ventilation. United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on 2007-10-29.
  19. ^ About NIOSH. United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  20. ^ Kertes, N., (March, 1996). US abandoned mine count still a mystery - General Accounting Office report. American Metal Market, Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, [5]
  21. ^ People, Land, and Water (March, 2007). KEEP OUT! Old Mines Are Dangerous. Office of Surface Mining: U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved Aug, 27, 2007, [6]
  22. ^ Greenley, M.N. (1999). National Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Lands. Presentation to the Society for Mining Metallurgy and Exploration: Author. Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, [7]
  23. ^ U.S. Department of Labor, (March, 2007). MSHA issues warning to children and adults to 'Stay Out and Stay Alive'. News Release: Author. Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, [8]
  24. ^ Western Governors Association and the National Mining Association, "Cleaning up Abandoned Mines: A Western Partnership." Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, [9]
  25. ^ Chilean Copper Commission (COHILCO) and United Nations Environment Program: Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, (June, 2001). Abandoned Mines: Problems, Issues and Policy Challenges for Decision Makers. Summary Report: Author. Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, [10]
  26. ^ a b Naidoo, Brindaveni. "TauTona to take ‘deepest mine’ accolade", Creamer Media's Mining Weekly Online, 2006-12-15. Retrieved on 2007-07-19. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mining
  • Ali, Saleem H. (2003). Mining, the Environment and Indigenous Development Conflicts. Tucson AZ: University of Arizona Press.
  • Bhattacharya Jayanta (2003) Principles of Mine Planning, Allied Publishers, New Delhi, India. 454 pages
  • Morrison, Tom (1992) Hardrock Gold: A Miner's Tale (ISBN 0-8061-2442-3)
  • Even-Zohar, Chaim (2007) From Mine to Mistress: Corporate Strategies and Government Policies in the International Diamond Industry (ISBN 0953733610)
  • Geobacter Project: Gold mines may owe their origins to bacteria (in PDF format)
  • Garrett, Dennis Alaska Placer Mining

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

External links

Look up mining in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC NEWS | England | Shropshire | Concerns raised over mining plans (215 words)
Concerns have been raised over plans to mine thousands of tonnes of coal near the Wrekin in Shropshire.
UK Coal has plans for open cast mining at New Works and Huntington, Little Wenlock, Telford.
The company wants to mine 900,000 tonnes of coal over 32 months, with 100 lorries a day transporting it.
Mining (4811 words)
In the case of longwall mining of coal, self-advancing roof supports, made of hydraulic jacks and metal plates, are moved ahead, allowing the ceiling in the mined area to cave in as the miners work back towards the tunnel entrance.
In surface mining, the layers of topsoil, or overburden, that were removed in order to reach the mineral are used to fill in the mine and reshape the land.
Like the metal mining industry, the nonmetallic mineral mining industry is influenced by the strength of the industries that use nonmetals in the manufacture of their products; these are industries in which employment is impacted by swings in the economy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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