FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Minimalist music
Postmodernism series

Previous: Modernism The term minimalism may refer to: Minimalism, in art and design Computing minimalism Minimalism (judicial), the United States judicial philosophy Transformational grammar, a linguistic term Minimalist music, a musical term. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...

Age of Postmodernity
Postmodern philosophy
Postmodern architecture
Postmodern art
Postmodernist film
Postmodern literature
Postmodern music
Postmodern theatre
Critical theory
Globalization
Minimalism in Art
Minimalism in Music
Consumerism

Minimalist music is an originally American genre of experimental or Downtown music named in the 1960s based mostly in consonant harmony, steady pulse (if not immobile drones), stasis and slow transformation, and often reiteration of musical phrases or smaller units such as figures, motifs, and cells. Starting in the early 1960s as a scruffy underground scene in San Francisco alternative spaces and New York lofts, minimalism spread to become the most popular experimental music style of the late 20th century. The movement originally involved dozens of composers, although only four - Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, and, less visibly if more seminally, La Monte Young - emerged to become publicly associated with it in America. In Europe, its chief exponents were Louis Andriessen, Karel Goeyvaerts, Michael Nyman, Gavin Bryars, Steve Martland, Henryk Górecki, Arvo Pärt, and John Tavener. Its emphasis on accessibility, periodic rhythm, consonance, and pleasant and often even pretty sonorities drew millions of fans, especially among pop-music lovers, who had turned away from modern music, while simultaneously enraging many classical and academic musicians who saw it as a cheap throwback to a kind of mindless simplicity.[citation needed] The term minimalist music is derived from the concept of minimalism, which was earlier applied to the visual arts. For some of the music, especially that which transforms itself according to strict rules, the term process music has also been used. Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... Postmodern art (sometimes called po-mo) is a term used to describe art which is thought to be after or in contradiction to some aspect of modernism. ... Postmodernist film describes the ideas of postmodernism in film. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Postmodern music is both a musical style and a musical condition. ... Postmodern theatre is a recent phenomenon in world theatre, coming as it does out of the postmodern philosophy that originated in Europe in the 1960s. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... “Consumerist” redirects here. ... For experimental rock music, see experimental rock. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... In music a phrase (Greek φράση, sentence, expression, see also strophe) is a section of music that is relatively self contained and coherent over a medium time scale. ... In music, a figure is a recurring fragment or succession of notes that may be used to construct the accompaniment. ... In music, a motif is a perceivable or salient reoccurring fragment or succession of notes that may used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies, themes. ... In music a cell is similar to a figure or motif. ... Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... La Monte Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American composer whose eccentric and often hard-to-find works have been included among the most important post World War II avant-garde or experimental music. ... Louis Andriessen (born June 6, 1939) is a Dutch composer, son of the composer Hendrik Andriessen (1892-1981) and brother of composer Jurriaan Andriessen (1925-1996). ... Karel Goeyvaerts (Antwerp Jun 8, 1923 - February 3, 1993, Antwerp) was a composer. ... Michael Nyman (born March 23, 1944) is a British minimalist composer, pianist, librettist and musicologist, perhaps best known for the many scores he wrote during his lengthy collaboration with the British filmmaker Peter Greenaway. ... Richard Gavin Bryars (born 1943) is an English composer and double bassist. ... Steve Martland (b. ... Henryk Górecki. ... Arvo Pärt (born September 11, 1935 in Paide), (IPA: ˈɑr̺vÉ” ˈpær̺t) is an Estonian composer, often identified with the school of minimalism and more specifically, that of mystic minimalism or sacred minimalism. He is considered a pioneer of this style, along with contemporaries Henryk Górecki... John Tavener should not be confused with the sixteenth-century composer John Taverner. ... Modernism in musicis characterized by a desire for or belief in progressand science, surrealism, anti-romanticism, politicaladvocacy, general intellectualism, and/or a breaking with tradition or common practice. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Process music or systems music is music which arises from a process, and more specifically, music which makes that process audible. ...

Contents

Brief history

The Other Side
From the Gattaca soundtrack by Michael Nyman
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

The word "minimalism" was first used in relation to music in 1968 by Michael Nyman in a review of Cornelius Cardew's piece The Great Digest. Nyman later expanded his definition of minimalism in music in his 1974 book Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. Tom Johnson, one of the few composers to self-identify as minimalist, also claims to have been first to use the word as new music critic for The Village Voice. He describes "minimalism" (1989, 5): Image File history File links Michael_Nyman-Gattaca-The_Other_Side. ... Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction drama film written and directed by Andrew Niccol, starring Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman and Jude Law with supporting roles played by Loren Dean, Gore Vidal and Alan Arkin. ... Michael Nyman (born March 23, 1944) is a British minimalist composer, pianist, librettist and musicologist, perhaps best known for the many scores he wrote during his lengthy collaboration with the British filmmaker Peter Greenaway. ... Michael Nyman (born March 23, 1944) is a British minimalist composer, pianist, librettist and musicologist, perhaps best known for the many scores he wrote during his lengthy collaboration with the British filmmaker Peter Greenaway. ... Cornelius Cardew (May 7, 1936 – London, December 13, 1981) was an English avant-garde composer, and founder (with Howard Skempton and Michael Parsons) of the Scratch Orchestra, an experimental performing ensemble. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... American composer and critic Tom Johnson (born November 18, 1939), is one of the few composers to self-identify as minimalist, in fact, he may have coined the term while serving as the new music critic for the Village Voice. ... This article is about a New York newspaper. ...

The idea of minimalism is much larger than most people realize. It includes, by definition, any music that works with limited or minimal materials: pieces that use only a few notes, pieces that use only a few words of text, or pieces written for very limited instruments, such as antique cymbals, bicycle wheels, or whisky glasses. It includes pieces that sustain one basic electronic rumble for a long time. It includes pieces made exclusively from recordings of rivers and streams. It includes pieces that move in endless circles. It includes pieces that set up an unmoving wall of saxophone sound. It includes pieces that take a very long time to move gradually from one kind of music to another kind. It includes pieces that permit all possible pitches, as long as they fall between C and D. It includes pieces that slow the tempo down to two or three notes per minute.

Many people, especially popular music fans, find minimalist music less difficult music to listen to than serialism and other avant-garde classical music.[citation needed] For some, especially romantic and earlier music fans, it is easy music to find annoying, due to the repetition, perceived lack of complexity, or rigidity of process music.[citation needed] The most prominent minimalist composers are John Adams, Louis Andriessen, Philip Glass, Michael Nyman, Steve Reich, and Terry Riley; while the less well known La Monte Young is generally credited as the "father" of minimalism.[citation needed] Female composers such as Pauline Oliveros, Eliane Radigue, Maryanne Amacher and Laurie Spiegel have been said to have been as innovative as the "big four" minimalist composers.[citation needed] The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Process music or systems music is music which arises from a process, and more specifically, music which makes that process audible. ... For the Alaska-based postminimalist composer, see John Luther Adams. ... Louis Andriessen (born June 6, 1939) is a Dutch composer, son of the composer Hendrik Andriessen (1892-1981) and brother of composer Jurriaan Andriessen (1925-1996). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Michael Nyman (born March 23, 1944) is a British minimalist composer, pianist, librettist and musicologist, perhaps best known for the many scores he wrote during his lengthy collaboration with the British filmmaker Peter Greenaway. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ... La Monte Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American composer whose eccentric and often hard-to-find works have been included among the most important post World War II avant-garde or experimental music. ... Pauline Oliveros (born 1932 in Houston, Texas) is an accordionist and composer who currently resides in Kingston, New York. ... Eliane Radigue (born 1932) is a French electronic music composer whose work, since the early 1970s, has been almost exclusivly created a single synthesizer, the ARP 2500 modular system and tape. ... Maryanne Amacher (born 1943) is an American composer of sound installations. ... American composer Laurie Spiegel was born in Chicago on September 20, 1945. ...

Music by Philip Glass
From Naqoyqatsi by Philip Glass
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

There is much variety in the music called minimal, from instrumentation to structure to technique.[citation needed] The early compositions of Glass and Reich tended to be very austere, with little embellishment on the principal theme, and written for small instrumental ensembles (of which the composers were members), made up, in Glass's case, of organs, winds—particularly saxophones—and vocalists, in Reich's case with more emphasis on mallet and percussion instruments. (These works are scored for any combination of such instruments: one piece by Reich, the aptly named Six Pianos, is scored just so.) Adams' works have most often been written for more traditional classical forces: orchestra, string quartet, even solo piano. (Though all four major minimalists have written symphonies and quartets, etc., none have written them so exclusively as Adams.[citation needed]) His works tend also to be much more approachable for the classical ear[citation needed]; there is a minimalist core to his work, but there is also a more traditional philosophy and stylistic diversity behind his compositions, and a phrase in an Adams work is less likely to stay unchanged and in the same instrument(s) for a long time than in would be in another minimalist's work. Some of Adams' orchestral works have been described as "maximalist",[citation needed] although this is not a word that would be widely recognized by reviewers as having a consistent meaning. (Serialist Charles Wuorinen, for example, self-identifies as a maximalist.[citation needed]) Image File history File links Philip_Glass-Naqoyqatsi. ... Naqoyqatsi: ÉÀ ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in... In music, a theme is the initial or primary melody. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... For the Alaska-based postminimalist composer, see John Luther Adams. ... Maximalism is a term used in literature, art, multimedia and graphical design, and music to apply to post-minimalist movements or works, named in analogy with minimalism. ... Charles Wuorinen (born June 9, 1938 in New York City) is an American composer. ...


Relevance of minimalist music's relation to the eponymous art and sculpture movement is often disputed, but they both share a predilection for simple, obvious forms, strict geometry, and the avoidance of expressive decoration.[citation needed] The music of Reich and Glass drew early sponsorship from art galleries and museums, presented in conjunction with visual-art minimalists like Sol LeWitt.[citation needed] Nevertheless, most of the minimalist composers have disavowed the term, most vociferously Glass, who has reportedly said, "That word should be stamped out!"[citation needed] Young allows himself to be called "the father of minimalism,"[citation needed] and otherwise perhaps only Tom Johnson has proudly self-applied the term.[citation needed] Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ... Tom Johnson may refer to: Tom Johnson (journalist), former president of Cable News Network (CNN) Tom Johnson (composer) (born 1939), minimalist composer Tom Johnson (musician) (born 1978), composer/arranger, trombonist, audio engineer/producer Tom Johnson (hockey player) (born 1928) Tom L. Johnson (1854–1911), Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio; Congressman Tom...


The use of phase techniques and intense repetition may, in some cases, be seen as a broadening of the harmonic pallett through microtones (as in the music of Young, Riley, Oliveros and others), related to European spectral composers such as Scelsi and Dumitrescu.[citation needed] American and Japanese noise musicians often refer to this end of minimalism as an antecedent.[citation needed] Spectral music (or spectralism) is a musical genre or movement originating in France in the 1970s and characterized by the use of computer analysis of sound wave components as the basis for composition. ... Giacinto Scelsi or [a horizontal line beneath a circle] (January 8, 1905 in La Spezia, Italy - August 9, 1988 in Rome, Italy) was a Italian composer whose religious beliefs partially led to his microtonal music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Early development

Musical minimalism had its origins in both conceptualism and twelve-tone music. The first identifiably minimalist work is the 1958 String Trio by La Monte Young.[citation needed] The piece is written using twelve-tone technique, but the notes are extended to tremendous length; the first note is sustained (at notated tempo) for four minutes and 33 seconds. Young had been influenced not only by the verbal-direction-based conceptual works of John Cage, but by his Idaho upbringing, which inspired an affection for the wind howling through the chinks in the log cabin in which he was raised.[citation needed] Subsequent to the String Trio, he began making other musical works based on long drones and harmonics played above them, culminating in his improvisation group The Theater of Eternal Music.[citation needed] Conceptualism is a doctrine in philosophy intermediate between nominalism and realism, that universals exist only within the mind and have no external or substantial reality. ... Twelve-tone technique is a system of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... La Monte Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American composer whose eccentric and often hard-to-find works have been included among the most important post World War II avant-garde or experimental music. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ...


Other composers picked up on Young's idea, including the short-lived Terry Jennings, who in 1960 wrote a 28-minute string quartet containing only 43 notes.Template:Facvt Also in 1960, Terry Riley wrote a string quartet in pure, uninflected C major; this was the work that brought to minimalism the idea of motionless tonality.[citation needed] In 1963 Riley made two electronic works using tape delay, Mescalin Mix and The Gift, which injected into minimalism the idea of repetition. As he later said, Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ...

I think I was noticing that things didn’t sound the same when you heard them more than once. And the more you heard them, the more different they did sound. Even though something was staying the same, it was changing.... In those days the first psychedelic experiences were starting to happen in America, and that was changing our concept of how time passes....[citation needed]

Next, Riley's 1964 masterpiece In C made persuasively engaging textures from repeated phrases in performance. The work, scored for any group of instruments and fun and relatively easy to bring to performance, has been widely imitated.[citation needed] Steve Reich was one of the performers at the première of In C,[citation needed] and in 1965 and '66 he produced three works—It's Gonna Rain and Come Out for tape, and Piano Phase for live performers—that introduced the idea of phase-shifting, i.e., allowing two nearly identical phrases or sound samples at slightly differing lengths or speeds to repeat and slowly go out of phase with each other. Starting in 1968 with 1 + 1, Philip Glass wrote a series of works that incorporated additive process (form based on sequences such as 1, 1 2, 1 2 3, 1 2 3 4) into the repertoire of minimalist techniques; these works included Two Pages, Music in Fifths, Music in Contrary Motion, and others. By this point, the minimalist style was in full swing. In C is an aleatoric musical piece composed by Terry Riley in 1964 for any number of people, although a group of about 35 is desired if possible but smaller or larger groups will work[1]. As its title suggests, it is in the key of C, the simplest key... Its gonna rain is a musical composition written by Steve Reich in 1965 and approximately 17 minutes and 50 seconds in length. ... Come Out is a 1966 piece by American composer Steve Reich. ... Piano Phase is a piece of music written in 1967 by the minimalist composer Steve Reich for two pianos. ...


Obituaries for the movement started being issued at least by 1975, and have been pronounced periodically ever since.[citation needed] It has been argued that the classic phase of minimalism extended to the late 1970s, with works like Glass's Einstein on the Beach (1976) and Reich's Eight Lines and Music for 18 Musicians.[citation needed] After 1980, they (the style's two most visible proponents) began writing orchestra music and moving in directions that were no longer so structuralist.[citation needed] However, minimalism developed, evolved, and diffracted into, and was absorbed into, a number of related styles, including postminimalism, totalism, techno, electronica, and others.[citation needed] Einstein on the Beach is an opera scored and written by Philip Glass and designed and directed by Robert Wilson. ... Music for 18 Musicians is a seminal work of musical minimalism composed by Steve Reich during 1974-1976. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Electronic music. ...


Minimalist style in music

Kyle Gann has identified 9 traits common in minimalist music, none of them present in all pertinent examples, but together defining the historical outlines of the style:[1] Kyle Gann (born November 21 1955) is a composer and music critic born in Dallas, Texas. ...

  1. Static harmony (a tendency to stay on one chord, or to move back and forth among a small repertoire of chords);
  2. Repetition of brief motives (the most widely recognized minimalist stereotype, though absent from Young's sine-tone installations, Tony Conrad's violin improvisations, Jon Gibson's permutational pieces, Phill Niblock's drone works, and other seminal examples of the style)
  3. Algorithmic, linear, geometric, or gradual processes (such as pattern augmentation by 1, 1+2, 1+2+3, 1+2+3+4 and so on, systematic permutation of the type Jon Gibson used, or the phase-shifting or repeating loops of Reich's 1960s works)
  4. A steady beat (often motoric, but sometimes simply restricted to a small repertoire of durations)
  5. Static instrumentation (everyone playing all the time, an ensemble concept in which everyone participates equally)
  6. "Metamusic" (unplanned acoustic details that arise or are perceived as a side effect of strictly carried-out processes, as in Reich's Drumming and Octet)
  7. Pure tuning, or just intonation (common in the early minimalism of Young, Conrad, Niblock, and Riley but abandoned in the more public Reich/Glass practice)
  8. Influence of non-Western musics or cultures (Young, Riley, and Glass were inspired by Indian classical music, Reich studied African drumming)
  9. Perhaps most important, audible structure

Some of these traits have precedents in the history of European music—Richard Wagner, for instance, opened his opera Das Rheingold with several minutes of static tonality on an E-flat chord, with a linear crescendo of figurations. In music, just intonation, also called rational intonation, is any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by ratios of whole numbers. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ...


Consonant harmony is a feature much noted: it means the use of intervals which in a tonal context would be considered to be "stable", that is the form to which other chords are resolved by voice leading. In minimalism this function of stability is ignored. The adjective tonal can refer to: tonality in music a tonal language the opposite of Nagual, in the specific context of Carlos Castaneda, the tonal is what makes the world. ... In music, voice leading is the continuity between pitches or notes played successively in time. ...


Another trait of the minimalist movement established at an early point in time is the use of phase in consonant context to provide variety. A famous example is Terry Riley's In C which gives musicians fragments of music which they are to play at their own pace until they stop. The resulting texture varies with the different choices that performers make.


This means that the "texture" of much minimalist music is based on canonic imitation, exact repetitions of the same material, offset in time. Famous pieces that use this technique are the number section of Glass' Einstein on the Beach and Adams' Shaker Loops. Einstein on the Beach is an opera scored and written by Philip Glass and designed and directed by Robert Wilson. ... Written in 1978 by the American composer John Adams, Shaker Loops was originally written for string septet. ...


Over time mimimalist composers adopted more and more chromatic material for repetition, for example Philip Glass' Symphony No. 2, and the operas of John Adams. There was also an increasing movement to incorporate found sounds, tape, electric or electronic sources of music. Minimalism in classical music often cross fertilizes with popular experimental music, such as the work of Brian Eno and Mike Oldfield, as well as electronica and house, where DJs layer different recordings on top of each other without regard for their source. Brian Eno (pronounced ) (born Brian Peter George St. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Electronic music. ... House music refers to a collection of styles of electronic dance music, the earliest forms beginning in the early- to mid- 1980s. ...


The development of minimalist music proceeds as a movement which was consciously aware of its being a post-serialist movement in music, drawing from the use of silence and layering in Cage, but seeking a more melodic basis for its materials. Many of the individual traits of minimalist music occur in serial works of the same period, for example the use of layering in Berio's Sinfonia, or the long suspended tones of Morton Feldman. Morton Feldman (January 12, 1926 – September 3, 1987) was an American composer, born in New York City. ...


These traits were also the feature of composers who rejected 20th century chromatic harmony for other reasons, often liturgical or religious. These composers often went back to Medieval and early Renaissance harmony and practice more deliberately, producing works which had more formally worked out canonic imitation in a modal rather than tonal context. An early exponent here was the once popular American Alan Hovhaness (in his works of the 1940s and 50s), but more recently Arvo Pärt is one who has gained a wide following and had numerous recordings and performances of his work. In music, a scale is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... Alan Hovhaness with an Indonesian rebab Alan Hovhaness (March 8, 1911 – June 21, 2000) was an American composer of Armenian and Scottish descent. ... Arvo Pärt (born September 11, 1935 in Paide), (IPA: ˈɑr̺vÉ” ˈpær̺t) is an Estonian composer, often identified with the school of minimalism and more specifically, that of mystic minimalism or sacred minimalism. He is considered a pioneer of this style, along with contemporaries Henryk Górecki...


Minimalism is sometimes associated with an ideology that justifies the moving away from the greater complexity of modernism by arguing from the point of view of postmodernism. Specifically, postmodernism states that progress in music is illusory, and therefore there is no need to have ever more advanced and complex systems of composing, that the purpose of minimalist music is repose, rather than "western" style development, and that minimalism embodies more "eastern" values of meditation, trance and concentration. Philip Glass specifically argues that there has been a disintegration of the concept of "high" and "low" music, and that music of this movement is important because it allows incorporation of, and dialog with, popular styles in a way that previous music did not. These arguments are far from universal among listeners, composers and performers of minimalist music, but are commonly cited in the struggles for performance, attention and acceptance of minimalist music. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...


Minimalist music is frequently used in movie scores and other media to provide a backdrop or mood for a particular scene or opening, or as an episode in a score. It has been adopted for sections of work by composers from other styles, including the late work of Lukas Foss. Lukas Foss (born Lukas Fuchs, August 15, 1922 in Berlin, Germany) is an American composer and conductor. ...


There is a branch of British minimalism called systems music in which the note-to-note procedure is determined numerically. The term was used informally as a term for all minimalism in the 1980s (due to Michael Nyman's popularity). Systems musicis a particularly British type of Minimalist music in which the note-to-note procedure is determined numerically (Christopher Hobbs). ...


Critical reception of minimalism

Minimalist music has been controversial from its inception, and criticisms have been levelled from two other viewpoints specifically.


The first set of criticisms are from proponents of musical modernism who regard minimalism as a betrayal of progress, a banalization of modernity and backsliding into kitsch. They argue that minimalism represents a surrender of "high" art to the values of "popular" art.[citation needed] These critiques mirror other "late modern" critiques of postmodernity. Namely, there is no such thing, merely a backsliding counter-enlightenment impulse that seeks the lowest common denominator rather than pursuing the more rigorous, and important, project of advancing human knowledge and good.[citation needed] Kitsch is a term of German origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ...


The second set of criticisms is often levelled by those who are adherents of what may be called more "traditional" forms of Western classical music, particularly as they had evolved through the 19th century. They criticise minimalism for being repetitive, boring, without movement, and shallow.[citation needed] There have been frequent jokes whose punchline involves repeating the name of a minimalist composer over and over again, with Philip Glass being a common target. In their view, this music goes nowhere, and lacks intrinsic interest.[citation needed]Ian MacDonald (MacDonald 2003) sums up a common, classical-music traditionalist view that minimalism is the passionless, sexless and emotionally blank soundtrack of the Machine Age, its utopian selfishness no more than an expression of human passivity in the face of mass-production and The Bomb. A pulse-rhythm is an artificial substitute for the energy of conviction and its 'effects' due not to any effort from artist or audience, but to a negative process of deliberate self-denial. As a music without focus or hierarchy, it is also without goal or struggle, as inert as the pre-planned corporate lifestyle for which it is the perfect accompaniment. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Ian MacCormick (October 3, 1948 – August 20, 2003), who wrote under the pseudonym Ian MacDonald, was a British music critic and author, best known for his detailed history of The Beatles. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production or series production) is the production of large amounts of standardized products on production lines. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ...


On the other hand, Kyle Gann has argued that minimalism represented a predictable return to simplicity after the development of an earlier style had run its course to an extreme and unsurpassable complexity.[2] Parallels include the advent of the simple Baroque continuo style following elaborate Renaissance polyphony and the simple early classical symphony following Bach’s monumental advances in Baroque counterpoint. In addition, critics have often overstated the simplicity of even early minimalism. Michael Nyman has pointed out that much of the charm of Steve Reich’s early music had to do with perceptual phenomena that were not actually played, but resulted from subtleties in the phase-shifting process.[3] He quotes Reich to the effect that although Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ...

everyone hears what is gradually happening in a musical process there are still enough mysteries to satisfy all. These mysteries are the impersonal, unintended, psycho-acoustic by-products of the intended process.[citation needed]

Something similar could be said of the musics of Phill Niblock and Tony Conrad, whose minimalism does not at all fit the Glass/Reich stereotype of diatonic scale and steady pulse.[citation needed] Gann has further argued that the development of music represented by serialism was a one-sided development that focused on analytical elements and structural innovations often easier to identify in the score than to hear. In this respect, minimalism offered a complementary return to more subtle acoustical and perceptual phenomena.[citation needed] In Gann's further analysis, during the 1980s minimalism evolved into less strict, more complex styles such as postminimalism and totalism, breaking out of the strongly framed repetition and stasis of early minimalism, and enriching it with a confluence of other rhythmic and structural influences.[4] Phill Niblock, c. ... Tony Conrad (born Anthony S. Conrad in 1940) is an American avant-garde video artist, experimental filmmaker, musician/composer, sound artist, teacher and writer. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Minimalist composers

Minimalist composers include:

Other more current minimalists include: Louis Andriessen (born June 6, 1939) is a Dutch composer, son of the composer Hendrik Andriessen (1892-1981) and brother of composer Jurriaan Andriessen (1925-1996). ... David Behrman (born 1937) is a USA composer and the producer of Columbia Records Music of Our Time series. ... Barbara Benary is an American composer and ethnomusicologist specializing in Indonesian and Indian music. ... David Borden was born on December 25, 1938 in Boston, MA. He is an American composer of minimalist music. ... Mother Mallards Portable Masterpiece Company, formed in 1969 by David Borden, was the worlds first synthesizer ensemble, predating groups like Tontos Expanding Head Band and Tangerine Dream. ... Richard Gavin Bryars (born 1943) is an English composer and double bassist. ... Tony Conrad (born Anthony S. Conrad in 1940) is an American avant-garde video artist, experimental filmmaker, musician/composer, sound artist, teacher and writer. ... Julius Eastman (October 27, 1940-May 28, 1990) was a gay African-American composer of minimalist tendencies. ... Jon Gibson (b. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Karel Goeyvaerts (Antwerp Jun 8, 1923 - February 3, 1993, Antwerp) was a composer. ... See also Christopher Hobbs (Herbalist) Christopher Hobbs (September, 1950 – Hillingdon, nr London) is an English experimental composer, best known as a pioneer of British Systems music. ... Douglas (Harry) Leedy, born March 3rd, 1938 in Portland, Oregon is an American composer. ... Richard Maxfield (February 2, 1927 - 1969) was a composer of instrumental, electro-acoustic, and electronic. ... Angus MacLise (March 4, 1938 - June 21, 1979) was a percussionist, composer, mystic, shaman, poet, occultist and calligrapher. ... Robert Moran (b. ... Phill Niblock, c. ... Michael Nyman (born March 23, 1944) is a British minimalist composer, pianist, librettist and musicologist, perhaps best known for the many scores he wrote during his lengthy collaboration with the British filmmaker Peter Greenaway. ... Pauline Oliveros (born 1932 in Houston, Texas) is an accordionist and composer who currently resides in Kingston, New York. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... Charlemagne Palestine (born August 15, 1945 as Charles Martin in Brooklyn, New York, USA) is a minimalist composer and visual artist. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ... Howard Skempton (b. ... The MIDI standard was first proposed by Dave Smith in 1981 in a paper to the Audio Engineering Society. ... Ann Southam (born in Winnipeg on 4 February 1937) is a Canadian composer. ... Yoshi Wada (b. ... John White may refer to: John White (d. ... La Monte Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American composer whose eccentric and often hard-to-find works have been included among the most important post World War II avant-garde or experimental music. ...

A number of composers showing a distinctly religious influence have been labeled the "mystic minimalists", or "holy minimalists": Nigel Westlake (born 6 September 1958) is an Australian composer, performer and conductor. ... Robert Davidson is an Australian composer. ... Wim Mertens Wim Mertens (b. ... Peter Hannan (January 14, 1952 – September 12, 2006) was a television producer, writer, singer-songwriter. ... Arvo Pärt (born September 11, 1935 in Paide), (IPA: ˈɑr̺vÉ” ˈpær̺t) is an Estonian composer, often identified with the school of minimalism and more specifically, that of mystic minimalism or sacred minimalism. He is considered a pioneer of this style, along with contemporaries Henryk Górecki... Erkki Salmenhaara (b. ... Yann Tiersen (born June 23, 1970) is a French New Age/Avant-Garde Musician and composer known for his versatility, minimalist compositions, and virtuosity as a multi-instrumentalist. ... Peter Michael Hamel (born in Munich, 15 July 1947) is a German composer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Matthias Maute (born 1963) is a recorder player. ... Hans Otte (b. ... Ernstalbrecht Stiebler (b. ... Harald Weiss (surname also spelled Weiß) (b. ... Zoltán Jeney (b. ... László Melis (b. ... László Sáry (b. ... László Vidovszky (b. ... Fulvio Caldini (b. ... Ludovico Einaudi Ludovico Einaudi (Born in Turin, 1955) is a modern-day italian composer and pianist particularly noted for the use of developing melodious phrases in his piano compositions. ... Giovanni Sollima (b. ... Jo Kondo (b. ... Yoshi Wada (b. ... Armands Strazds (born March 10, 1970 in Riga, Latvia) is a Latvian composer, producer and software developer. ... Simeon ten Holt (b. ... Ernesto Rodrigues Ernesto Rodrigues (born in Lisbon, August 29, 1959) is a Portuguese composer, violinist, violist and electronic musician. ... Vladimir ToÅ¡ić (also spelled Vladimir Tosic) (b. ... Joe Cutler (b. ... Bob Dickinson (b. ... Steve Martland (b. ... Andrew Poppy (b. ... rhythmology - aka Malcolm Rycraft - is a composer of rhythmic, keyboard-based, electronic music. ... For the Alaska-based postminimalist composer, see John Luther Adams. ... John Luther Adams (born 1953) is a composer whose music embodies the landscapes of Alaska, his home since 1978. ... Glenn Branca (born October 6, 1948 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania) is an avant-garde composer and guitarist. ... Harold Budd (born May 24, 1936) is an American ambient/avant-garde composer. ... Rhys Chatham (b. ... Philip (Lionel) Corner (April 10, 1933—) is a composer as well as trombonist, vocalist, and pianist. ... Kurt Doles (born August 2, 1973), American composer and bass clarinetist. ... Arnold Dreyblatt (b. ... Daniel Goode (b. ... American composer and critic Tom Johnson (born November 18, 1939), is one of the few composers to self-identify as minimalist, in fact, he may have coined the term while serving as the new music critic for the Village Voice. ... Ingram Marshall in his Hamden, CT studio. ... Meredith Monk (born November 20, 1942, in Lima, Peru[1]) is an American composer, performer, director, vocalist, film-maker, and choreographer. ... Tim Risher (b. ... Frederic Anthony Rzewski (born April 13, 1938) is an American composer and virtuoso pianist. ... Wayne Siegel (b. ... Holy minimalism, mystic minimalism, or sacred minimalism is a term used to refer to a number of twentieth century composers of Western classical music, whose works are distinguished by a minimalist compositional aesthetic and a distinctly religious or mystical subject focus. ...

Other composers whose works have been described as precedents to minimalism include: Henryk Górecki. ... Alan Hovhaness with an Indonesian rebab Alan Hovhaness (March 8, 1911 – June 21, 2000) was an American composer of Armenian and Scottish descent. ... Hans Otte (b. ... Arvo Pärt (born September 11, 1935 in Paide), (IPA: ˈɑr̺vÉ” ˈpær̺t) is an Estonian composer, often identified with the school of minimalism and more specifically, that of mystic minimalism or sacred minimalism. He is considered a pioneer of this style, along with contemporaries Henryk Górecki... John Tavener should not be confused with the sixteenth-century composer John Taverner. ... Pēteris Vasks (born April 16, 1946) is a Latvian composer. ... Giya Kancheli (Georgian: გია ყანჩელი), born August 10, 1935 in Tbilisi, is a Georgian composer resident in Belgium. ...

  • Jakob van Domselaer, whose early-20th century experiments in translating the theories of Piet Mondrian's De Stijl movement into music represent an early precedent to minimalist music.
  • Alexander Mosolov, whose orchestral composition Iron Foundry (1923) is made up of mechanical and repetitive patterns
  • George Antheil, whose 1924 Ballet Mecanique is characterized by much use of motoric and repetitive patterns, as well as an instrumentation made up of multiple player pianos and mallet percussion
  • Erik Satie, seen as a precursor of minimalism as in much of his music, for example his score for Francis Picabia's 1924 film Entr'acte which consists of phrases, many borrowed from bawdy popular songs, ordered seemingly arbitrarily and repetitiously, providing a rhythmic counterpoint to the film.
  • Colin McPhee, whose Tabuh-Tabuhan for two pianos and orchestra (1936) features the use of motoric, repetitive, pentatonic patterns drawn from the music of Bali (and featuring a large section of tuned percussion)
  • Carl Orff, who, particularly in his later theater works Antigone (1940-49) and Oedipus der Tyrann (1957-58), utilized instrumentations (six pianos and multiple xylophones, in imitation of gamelan music) and musical patterns (motoric, repetitive, triadic) reminiscent of the later music of Steve Reich and Philip Glass
  • Yves Klein, whose 1947 Monotone Symphony consisted of a single sustained chord, predating similar works by La Monte Young by several years.
  • Morton Feldman, whose works prominently feature some sort of repetition as well as a sparseness
  • Alvin Lucier, whose acoustical experiments demand a stripped-down musical surface to bring out details in the phenomena

Jakob van Domselaer (1890-1960), a Dutch composer, was born in the town of Nijkerk on April 15, 1890. ... Piet Mondrian in his studio in 1941 photographed by Arnold Newman Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Pete Mon-dree-on, IPA: ) (b. ... De Stijl redirects here. ... Alexander Vasilievich Mosolov (29 July/11 August 1900, Kiev — 11 July 1973, Moscow), was a significant Russian avant-garde composer of the early Soviet era. ... George Antheil (June 8, 1900 – February 12, 1959) was an American composer and pianist of German and Lutheran descent, born in Trenton, New Jersey. ... Selfportrait of Erik Satie. ... Francis Picabia in his studio. ... Colin McPhee photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Colin McPhee (February 15, 1900 in Montreal or Toronto, Canada - January 7, 1964 in Los Angeles, CA) was a Canadian composer and musicologist. ... Carl Orff Carl Orff (July 10, 1895 – March 29, 1982) was a 20th-century German composer, most famous for Carmina Burana (1937). ... Antigone (Antigonae in German), written by Carl Orff, was first presented in 1949 in Salzburg, Austria. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Morton Feldman (January 12, 1926 – September 3, 1987) was an American composer, born in New York City. ... Alvin Lucier Alvin Lucier (born May 14, 1931) is an American composer of music and sound installations exploring acoustic phenomena, especially resonance, as well as a former member of the Sonic Arts Union along with Robert Ashley, David Behrman, and Gordon Mumma. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kyle Gann, "Minimal Music, Maximal Impact: Thankless Attempts at a Definition of Minimalism"
  2. ^ Kyle Gann, ‘’American Music in the Twentieth Century’’, pp. 184-5
  3. ^ Michael Nyman, ‘’Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond’’, pp. 133-4
  4. ^ Kyle Gann, "Minimal Music, Maximal Impact: Minimalism's Immediate Legacy: Postminimalism"

See also

John Adams Phrygian Gates Shaker Loops David Borden The Continuing Story of Counterpoint (1976-1987) Gavin Bryars Jesus Blood Never Failed Me Yet (1971) Philip Glass Strung Out (1967) Music in the Shape of a Square (1967) Two Pages (1968) Music in Contrary Motion (1969) Music in Fifths (1969) Music... Postminimalism is a term utilised in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop upon the work of Minimalism. ... Process music or systems music is music which arises from a process, and more specifically, music which makes that process audible. ... Repetitive music is music which features a relatively high degree of repetition in its creation or reception. ...

Sources

  • Bernard, Jonathan W. 1993. "The Minimalist Aesthetic in the Plastic Arts and in Music". Perspectives of New Music 31, no. 1 (Winter): 86–132.
  • Bernard, Jonathan W. 2003. "Minimalism, Postminimalism, and the Resurgence of Tonality in Recent American Music". American Music 21, no. 1 (Spring): 112–33.
  • Cope, David (1997). Techniques of the Contemporary Composer, p. 216. New York, New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0028647378.
  • Fink, Robert (2005). Repeating Ourselves: American Minimal Music as Cultural Practice. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520240367. ISBN 0520245504.
  • Gann, Kyle (1997). American Music in the Twentieth Century. Schirmer. ISBN 002864655X.
  • Gann, Kyle (1987). "Let X = X: Minimalism vs. Serialism." Village Voice (24 February): 76.
  • Gann, Kyle (2006). Music Downtown: Writings from the Village Voice. University of California Press. ISBN 0520229827.
  • Gotte, Ulli (2000). Minimal Music: Geschichte, Asthetik, Umfeld. Taschenbucher zur Musikwissenschaft, 138. Wilhelmshaven: Noetzel. ISBN 3795907772.
  • Johnson, Timothy A. 1994. "Minimalism: Aesthetic, Style, or Technique? " Musical Quarterly 78, no. 4 (Winter): 742–73.
  • Johnson, Tom (1989). The Voice of New Music: New York City 1972-1982 – A Collection of Articles Originally Published by the Village Voice. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Het Apollohuis. ISBN 90-71638-09-X.
  • Linke, Ulrich (1997). Minimal Music: Dimensionen eines Begriffs. Folkwang-Texte Bd. 13. Essen, Germany: Die blaue Eule. ISBN 3892068119.
  • Lovisa, Fabian R. (1996). Minimal-music: Entwicklung, Komponisten, Werke. Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • MacDonald, Ian. (2003) "The People's Music". Pimlico Publishing, London. UK ISBN 1844130932.
  • Mertens, Wim. 1983. American Minimal Music: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass. Translated by J. Hautekiet; preface by Michael Nyman. London: Kahn & Averill; New York: Alexander Broude. (Translation of Amerikaanse repetitieve muziek.) ISBN 0900707763
  • Nyman, Michael, Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond, 1974, Studio Vista ISBN 0289701821; reprinted 1999 by Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521653835.
  • Potter, Keith (2000). Four Musical Minimalists: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass. Music in the Twentieth Century series. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052148250X.
  • Schwarz, K. Robert (1996). Minimalists. 20th Century Composers series. London: Phaidon. ISBN 0714833819.
  • Strickland, Edward (2000). Minimalism: Origins. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Corrected and somewhat revised version of the original 1993 hardback edition. ISBN 0253213886.
  • Sweeney-Turner, Steve (1995). "Weariness and Slackening in the Miserably Proliferating Field of Posts." Musical Times 136, no. 1833 (November): 599–601.

The Village Voice is a New York City-based weekly newspaper featuring investigative articles, analysis of current affairs and culture, arts reviews and events listings for New York City. ... Michael Nyman (born March 23, 1944) is a British minimalist composer, pianist, librettist and musicologist, perhaps best known for the many scores he wrote during his lengthy collaboration with the British filmmaker Peter Greenaway. ...

Further reading

  • Mertens, Wim (1980/1983/1988). American Minimal Music, trans. J. Hautekiet. ISBN 0-912483-15-6. "Still stands as the single extended culture-critical treatment of American minimalism" (Fink 2005, p.5).

External links

  • Art and Music Since 1945: Introduction to Minimal Music by N.G.
  • Minimal Music, Maximal Impact, by Kyle Gann © 2001 NewMusicBox, Including a more comprehensive list of early minimalists
  • Art of the States: minimalist minimalist works by American composers

  Results from FactBites:
 
NewMusicBox (1309 words)
I was writing music of unremitting dissonance, crashing sevenths and ninths all over the place, simultaneous layers of activity, tone rows and chance processes all washing around in one big incomprehensible soup.
It was kind of painfully obvious that we were writing music not to be heard and loved, but only to be analyzed by future music students like ourselves.
Accept it or not, minimalism's impact on American music has been powerful, and will continue to be so for many decades.
minimalist music: Information from Answers.com (2120 words)
The term minimalist music is derived from the concept of minimalism, which was earlier applied to the visual arts.
The development of minimalist music proceeds as a movement which was consciously aware of its being a post-serialist movement in music, drawing from the use of silence and layering in Cage, but seeking a more melodic basis for its materials.
Minimalist music is frequently used in movie scores and other media to provide a backdrop or mood for a particular scene or opening, or as an episode in a score.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m