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Encyclopedia > Minimalism

Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. As a specific movement in the arts it is identified with developments in post-World War II Western Art, most strongly with American visual arts in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with this movement include Donald Judd, Carl Andre and Richard Serra. It is rooted in the reductive aspects of Modernism, and is often interpreted as a reaction against Abstract Expressionism and a bridge to Postmodern art practices. The term minimalism may refer to: Minimalism, in art and design Computing minimalism Minimalism (judicial), the United States judicial philosophy Transformational grammar, a linguistic term Minimalist music, a musical term. ... Many times, the term art is used to refer to the visual arts. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Untitled (Core Piece), 1969 Untitled sculpture from 1990 Donald Clarence Judd (June 3, 1928 - February 12, 1994) was a minimalist artist (a term he stridently disavowed) whose work sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and the space created by it, ultimately achieving a rigorously democratic presentation without compositional... Carl Andre (born September 16, 1935) American minimalist artist. ... Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born November 29, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...


The term has expanded to encompass a movement in music which features repetition and iteration, as in the compositions of Steve Reich, Philip Glass, John Adams, and Terry Riley. (See also Post-Minimalism). Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ... Postminimalism is a term utilised in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop upon the work of Minimalism. ...


The term "minimalist" is often applied colloquially to designate anything which is spare or stripped to its essentials. It has also been used to describe the plays of Samuel Beckett, the films of Robert Bresson, the stories of Raymond Carver, and even the automobile designs of Colin Chapman. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Robert Bresson (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1901 – December 18, 1999) was a French film director known for his spiritual, ascetic style. ... Raymond Clevie Carver, Jr. ... Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman (19 May 1928 - 16 December 1982)[1] was an influential British designer, inventor, and builder in the automotive industry. ...

Contents

Musical minimalism

Main article: Minimalist music

The Other Side This article is about a musical style. ... Image File history File links Michael_Nyman-Gattaca-The_Other_Side. ...

From the Gattaca soundtrack by Michael Nyman
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

In art music of the last 35 years, the term minimalism is sometimes applied to music which displays some or all of the following features: repetition (often of short musical phrases, with minimal variations over long periods of time, ostinati) or stasis (often in the form of drones and long tones); emphasis on consonant harmony; a steady pulse; hypnotic effect; sometimes use of phase shifting where sound waves gradually move out of sync with each other. Minimalist music can sometimes sound similar to different forms of electronic music (e.g. Basic Channel), as well as the texture-based compositions of composers such as Gyorgy Ligeti; it is often the case that the end result is similar, but the approach is not. Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction drama film written and directed by Andrew Niccol, starring Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman and Jude Law with supporting roles played by Loren Dean, Gore Vidal and Alan Arkin. ... This article is about the composer/musician Michael Nyman. ... This article is about the broad genre of classical music in the Western musical tradition. ... Basic Channel is a minimal techno duo of Moritz Von Oswald and Mark Ernestus that originated in Berlin, Germany in 1993. ... György Ligeti (born May 28, 1923) is a Hungarian composer (now living in, and a citizen of, Austria), widely seen as one of the great composers of instrumental music of the 20th century. ...


The term minimalism, endowed independently by composer-critics Michael Nyman and Tom Johnson, has been controversial, but was in wide use by the mid-1970s. The application of a visual art term to music has been protested; however, not only do minimalist sculpture and music share a certain spare simplicity of means and an aversion to ornamental detail, but many of the early minimalist concerts happened in connection with exhibits of minimalist art by Sol LeWitt and others. Several composers associated with minimalism have disavowed the term, notably Philip Glass, who has reportedly said, "That word should be stamped out!!"[1] This article is about the composer/musician Michael Nyman. ... American composer and critic Tom Johnson (born November 18, 1939), is one of the few composers to self-identify as minimalist, in fact, he may have coined the term while serving as the new music critic for the Village Voice. ... Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ...


A recent form of minimalistic music, Minimal techno, a sub-genre of Techno music, is characterized by a stripped-down, glitchy sound, simple 4/4 beats (usually around 120-135 BPM), repetition of short loops, and subtle changes. Minimal techno, a minimalist sub-genre of Techno music, is characterized by a stripped-down, glitchy sound, simple 4/4 beats (usually around 120-135 BPM), repetition of short loops, and subtle changes. ...


Minimalist design

The term minimalism is also used to describe a trend in design and architecture where in the subject is reduced to its necessary elements. Minimalist design has been highly influenced by Japanese traditional design and architecture. In addition, the work of De Stijl artists is a major source of reference for this kind of work. De Stijl expanded the ideas that could be expressed by using basic elements such as lines and planes organized in very particular manners. Barcelona Pavilion File links The following pages link to this file: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Barcelona Pavilion Categories: GFDL images ... Barcelona Pavilion File links The following pages link to this file: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Barcelona Pavilion Categories: GFDL images ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... The reconstructed Barcelona Pavilion The Barcelona Pavilion, designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was the German Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition in Barcelona. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... This article is about building architecture. ...


Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe adopted the motto "Less is more" to describe his aesthetic tactic of arranging the numerous necessary components of a building to create an impression of extreme simplicity, by enlisting every element and detail to serve multiple visual and functional purposes (such as designing a floor to also serve as the radiator, or a massive fireplace to also house the bathroom). Designer Buckminster Fuller adopted the engineer's goal of "Doing more with less", but his concerns were oriented towards technology and engineering rather than aesthetics. A similar sentiment was industrial designer Dieter Rams' motto, "Less but better", adapted from van der Rohe. The idea that "less is more" in modern minimalist architecture was first said by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The structure uses relatively simple elegant designs. The structure's beauty is also determined by playing with lighting, using the basic geometric shapes as outlines, using tasteful non-fussy bright color combinations, usually natural textures and colors, and clean and fine finishes. The structure would usually have industrial and space age style utilities (lamps, stoves, stairs, etcetera), neat and straight components (like walls or stairs) that appear to be machined with machines, flat or nearly flat roofs, pleasing negative spaces, and large windows. This and science fiction may have contributed to the late twentieth century futuristic architecture design, and modern home decor. Modern minimalist home architecture with its unnecessary internal walls removed may have led to the popularity of the open plan kitchen and living room style. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983)[1] was an American visionary, designer, architect, poet, author, and inventor. ... Dieter Rams (born May 20 1932 in Wiesbaden) is a German industrial designer closely associated with the consumer products company Braun. ...



Another modern master who exemplifies reductivist ideas is Luis Barragan. In minimalism, the architectural designers pay special attention to the connection between perfect planes, elegant lighting, and careful consideration of the void spaces left by the removal of three-dimensional shapes from an architectural design. The more attractive looking minimalist home designs are not truly minimalist, because these use more expensive building materials and finishes, and are relatively larger. Luis Barragán (1902-1988), one of the most important Mexican architects of the 20th century. ...


Contemporary architects working in this tradition include John Pawson, Eduardo Souto de Moura, Alvaro Siza, Tadao Ando, Alberto Campo Baeza,Yoshio Taniguchi, Peter Zumthor, Vincent Van Duysen, Claudio Silvestrin, Michael Gabellini, and Richard Gluckman.[2] John Pawson is a contemporary British architect and designer associated with minimalism. ... Eduardo Elisio Machado Souto de Moura (b. ... Álvaro Siza (Álvaro Joaquim de Meio Siza Vieira, born 25 June 1933 in Matosinhos), is a contemporary Portuguese architect. ... The famous Church of the Light in Ibaraki-shi, Osaka, Japan The Westin Awaji Island designed by Ando Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Art, Kobe, Japan Image:Ando. ... Alberto Campo Baeza is a person involved in architecture. ... MoMA, New York. ... Peter Zumthor (born 26 April 1943) is a Swiss architect. ...


Minimalism in visual art

Minimalism in visual art, sometimes referred to as "literalist art"[3] and "ABC Art"[4] emerged in New York in the 1960s. It is regarded as a reaction against the painterly forms of Abstract Expressionism as well as the discourse, institutions and ideologies that supported it. As artist and critic Thomas Lawson noted in his 1977 catalog essay Last Exit: Painting, minimalism did not reject Clement Greenberg's claims about Modernist Painting's reduction to surface and materials so much as take his claims literally. Minimalism was the result, even though the term "minimalism" was not generally embraced by the artists associated with it, and many practitioners of art designated minimalist by critics did not identify it as a movement as such. Thomas Lawson may refer to: Thomas Lawson, fullback for the Nebraska Cornhuskers. ...


In contrast to the Abstract Expressionists, Minimalists were influenced by composer John Cage, poet William Carlos Williams, and architect Frederick Law Olmsted. They very explicitly stated that their art was not self-expression, in opposition to the previous decade's Abstract Expressionists. In general, Minimalism's features included: geometric, often cubic forms purged of all metaphor, equality of parts, repetition, neutral surfaces, and industrial materials. For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... {{Infobox Person | name = | image = FLOlmstead. ...


Robert Morris, an influential theorist and artist, wrote a three part essay, "Notes on Sculpture 1-3," originally published across three issues of Artforum in 1966. In these essays, Morris attempted to define a conceptual framework and formal elements for himself and one that would embrace the practices of his contemporaries. These essays paid great attention to the idea of the gestalt- "parts... bound together in such a way that they create a maximum resistance to perceptual separation." Morris later described an art represented by a "marked lateral spread and no regularized units or symmetrical intervals..." in "Notes on Sculpture 4: Beyond Objects," originally published in Artforum, 1969, continuing to say that "indeterminacy of arrangement of parts is a literal aspect of the physical existence of the thing.” The general shift in theory of which this essay is an expression suggests the transitions into what would later be referred to as Post-Minimalism.


One of the first artists specifically associated with Minimalism was the painter, Frank Stella, whose early "stripe" paintings were highlighted in the 1959 show, "16 Americans", organized by Dorothy Miller at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The width of the stripes in Frank Stellas's stripe paintings were determined by the dimensions of the lumber, visible as the depth of the painting when viewed from the side, used to construct the supportive chassis upon which the canvas was stretched. The decisions about structures on the front surface of the canvas were therefore not entirely subjective, but pre-conditioned by a "given" feature of the physical construction of the support. In the show catalog, Carl Andre noted, "Art excludes the unnecessary. Frank Stella has found it necessary to paint stripes. There is nothing else in his painting." These reductive works were in sharp contrast to the energy-filled and apparently highly subjective and emotionally-charged paintings of Willem De Kooning or Franz Kline and, in terms of precedent among the previous generation of abstract expressionists, leaned more toward less gestural, often somber coloristic field paintings of Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko. Although Stella received immediate attention from the MOMA show, artists like Ralph Humphrey and Robert Ryman had begun to explore monochromatic formats by the late 50's. Frank Stella La scienza della pigrizia (The Science of Laziness) 1984, oil, enamel and alkyd paint on canvas, etched magnesium, aluminum and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art Washington DC Frank Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ... Franz Klines Painting Number 2, 1954 Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 - May 13, 1962) was an American painter mainly associated with the Abstract Expressionist group which was centered, geographically, around New York, and temporally, in the 1940s and 1950s; but not limited to that setting. ... Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Mark Rothkos painting 1957 # 20 (1957) Mark Rothko born Marcus Rothkowitz (September 25, 1903–February 25, 1970) was a Russian-born American painter and printmaker who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he rejected not only the label but even being an abstract painter. ... Robert Ryman (b. ...


Because of a tendency in Minimalism to exclude the pictorial, illusionistic and fictive in favor of the literal, there was a movement away from painterly and toward sculptural concerns. Donald Judd had started as a painter, and ended as a creator of objects. His seminal essay, "Specific Objects" (published in Arts Yearbook 8, 1965), was a touchstone of theory for the formation of Minimalist aesthetics. In this essay, Judd found a starting point for a new territory for American art, and a simultaneous rejection of residual inherited European artistic values. He pointed to evidence of this development in the works of an array of artists active in New York at the time, including Jasper Johns, Dan Flavin and Lee Bontecou. Of "preliminary" importance for Judd was the work of George Ortman[1], who had concretized and distilled painting's forms into blunt, tough, philosophically charged geometries. These Specific Objects inhabited a space not then comfortably classifiable as either painting or sculpture. That the categorical identity of such objects was itself in question, and that they avoided easy association with well-worn and over-familiar conventions, was a part of their value for Judd.


In a much more broad and general sense, one might, in fact, find European roots of Minimalism in the geometric abstractions painters in the Bauhaus, in the works of Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the movement DeStijl, in Russian Constructivists and in the work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuşi. Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... For information about British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Tatlin Tower. ... Constantin Brancusi Constantin Brancusi (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957, originally Constantin BrâncuÅŸi IPA: ), was a Romanian sculptor, born in HobiÅ£a, Gorj, near Târgu Jiu, where he placed his sculptural ensemble with The Table of Silence, The Gate of the Kiss and The Endless Column. ...


This movement was heavily criticised by high modernist formalist art critics and historians. Some anxious critics thought Minimalist art represented a misunderstanding of the modern dialectic of painting and sculpture as defined by critic Clement Greenberg, arguably the dominant American critic of painting in the period leading up to the 1960s. The most notable critique of Minimalism was produced by Michael Fried, a Greenbergian critic, who objected to the work on the basis of its "theatricality". In Art and Objecthood (published in Artforum in June 1967) he declared that the Minimalist work of art, particularly Minimalist sculpture, was based on an engagement with the physicality of the spectator. He argued that work like Robert Morris's transformed the act of viewing into a type of spectacle, in which the artifice of the act observation and the viewer's participation in the work were unveiled. Fried saw this displacement of the viewer's experience from an aesthetic engagement within, to an event outside of the artwork as a failure of Minimal art. Fried's opinionated essay was immediately challenged by artist Robert Smithson in a letter to the editor in the October issue of Artforum. Smithson stated the following: "What Fried fears most is the consciousness of what he is doing--namely being himself theatrical." Michael Fried is an influential Modernist art critic and art historian. ...


Other Minimalist artists include: Richard Allen, Walter Darby Bannard, Larry Bell, Ronald Bladen, Mel Bochner, Norman Carlberg, Erwin Hauer, Sol LeWitt, Brice Marden, Agnes Martin, Jo Baer, John McCracken, Paul Mogensen, David Novros, Ad Reinhardt, Richard Serra, Tony Smith, Robert Smithson, and Anne Truitt A Minimalist, Abstract, Systems, Fundamental and Geometric painter Allen worked prolifically from 1960 to 1999. ... Walter Darby Bannard (born September 23, 1934, New Haven, CT) is an American abstract painter. ... Larry Bell, 2006. ... One of two Bochner installations at the Kraus Campo on the campus of Carnegie Mellon, designed by landscape architect Michael Van Valkenburgh. ... Norman Carlberg (full name Norman Kenneth Carlberg) American sculptor, was born in 1928 in Roseau, Minnesota. ... Erwin Hauer (b. ... Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ... Brice Marden (born October 15, 1938), is an American abstract painter. ... Agnes Martin (March 22, 1912 – December 16, 2004) was a Canadian-American painter, often referred to as a minimalist; Martin considered herself an abstract expressionist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John McCracken (b. ... Adolph Dietmar Friedrich Reinhardt (Ad Reinhardt) (December 24, 1913 – August 30, 1967) was a painter, writer, and pioneer of conceptual and minimal art. ... Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born November 29, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... Tony Smith (September 23, 1912 – December 26, 1980) was an American sculptor, visual artist, and a noted theorist on art. ... Smithsons Spiral Jetty set in Great Salt Lake, Utah. ... Anne Truitt (1921-2004) was a major American artist of the mid-20th century; she is associated with both minimalism and Color Field artists like Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland. ...


Ad Reinhardt, actually an artist of the Abstract Expressionist generation, but one whose reductive all-black paintings seemed to anticipate minimalism, had this to say about the value of a reductive approach to art: 'The more stuff in it, the busier the work of art, the worse it is. More is less. Less is more. The eye is a menace to clear sight. The laying bare of oneself is obscene. Art begins with the getting rid of nature.'


Also notable are the Postminimalist artists, including Eva Hesse, Martin Puryear, Joel Shapiro and Hannah Wilke. Postminimalism is a term used in music referring to music influenced by so called minimalism or minimal music. ... Eva Hesse (January 11, 1936 - May 29, 1970), was a German-born American sculptor, known for her pioneering work in materials such as latex, fiberglass, and plastics. ... Puryears Box and Pole, 1977 Puryears Sanctuary, 1982 Martin Puryear (born May 23, 1941) is an African-American sculptor. ... Joel Elias Shapiro (b. ... Hannah Wilke (1940-1993; born Arlene Hannah Butter in New York City) was an American painter, sculptor and photographer associated with Conceptual Art and Post-Minimalism. ...


Literary minimalism

Literary minimalism is characterized by an economy with words and a focus on surface description. Minimalist authors eschew adverbs and prefer allowing context to dictate meaning. Readers are expected to take an active role in the creation of a story, to "choose sides" based on oblique hints and innuendo, rather than reacting to directions from the author. The characters in minimalist stories and novels tend to be unexceptional; they may be pool supply salespeople or second tier athletic coaches rather than famous detectives or the fabulously wealthy. Generally, the short stories are "slice of life" stories. A slice of life story is a category for a story that portrays a cut-out sequence of events in a characters life. ...


Some 1940s-era crime fiction of writers such as James M. Cain and Jim Thompson adopted a stripped-down, matter-of-fact prose style to considerable effect; some classifiy this prose style as minimalism. James Mallahan Cain (July 1, 1892 – October 27, 1977) was an American journalist and novelist. ... James Myers Thompson (September 27, 1906, Anadarko, Oklahoma Territory–April 7, 1977, Los Angeles, California) was an American writer of short stories, screenplays and novels, largely of the pulp fiction kind. ...


Another strand of literary minimalism arose in response to the meta-fiction trend of the 1960s and early 1970s (John Barth, Robert Coover, and William H. Gass). These writers were also spare with prose and kept a psychological distance from their subject matter. Metafiction is a kind of fiction which self-consciously addresses the devices of fiction. ... John Simmons Barth (born May 27, 1930) is an American novelist and short-story writer, known for the postmodernist and metafictive quality of his work. ... Robert Coover (born February 4, 1932) is an American author and professor in the Literary Arts program at Brown University. ... William H. Gass (born July 30, 1924) is an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, critic and former philosophy professor. ...


Minimalist authors, or those who are identified with minimalism during certain periods of their writing careers, include the following: Raymond Carver, Chuck Palahniuk, Bret Easton Ellis, Ernest Hemingway, Amy Hempel, Bobbie Ann Mason, Tobias Wolff, Grace Paley, Sandra Cisneros, Mary Robison, Frederick Barthelme, Richard Ford and Alicia Erian. Raymond Clevie Carver, Jr. ... Charles Michael Chuck Palahniuk (pronounced )[1] (born February 21, 1962) is an American satirical novelist and freelance journalist of Ukrainian ancestry born in Pasco, Washington. ... Bret Easton Ellis (born March 7, 1935 in Los Angeles, California) is an American author. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Amy Hempel (born December 14, 1951 in Chicago, Illinois, USA) is a short story writer, journalist and university professor at Bennington College living in New York. ... Bobbie Ann Mason (born 1940) is a modern American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and literary critic. ... Tobias Jonathan Ansell Wolff (born June 19, 1945, in Birmingham, Alabama) is a writer of fiction and nonfiction. ... Grace Paley (December 11, 1922 - August 22, 2007) was an American short story writer, poet, and political activist whose work won a number of awards. ... Sandra Cisneros (born December 20, 1954 in Chicago) is an American author and poet best known for her novel The House on Mango Street. ... Fredrick Barthelme (October 10, 1943 -) is an American author of short fiction and novels and a professor at the University of Southern Mississippi. ... Richard Ford (born February 16, 1944) is an American novelist and short story writer. ...


American poets such as William Carlos Williams, early Ezra Pound, Robert Creeley, Robert Grenier, and Aram Saroyan are sometimes identified with their minimalist style. William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ... Portrait taken in 1972 Robert Creeley (May 21, 1926 - March 30, 2005) was an American poet and author of more than sixty books. ... Robert Grenier (1941– ) is a contemporary American poet who is often associated with the Language School. ... Aram Saroyan (born 1943) is an American poet, novelist, biographer, memoirist and playwright. ...


The Irish author Samuel Beckett is also known for his minimalist plays and prose. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ...


Notes

  1. ^ PhilipGlass.com � Music in Twelve Parts
  2. ^ Holm, Ivar (2006). Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial design: How attitudes, orientations, and underlying assumptions shape the built environment. Oslo School of Architecture and Design. ISBN 8254701741.
  3. ^ Fried, M. "Art and Objecthood", Artforum, 1967
  4. ^ Rose, B. "ABC Art", Art in America, 1965.

See also

Worse is better, also called the New Jersey style, is the name of a computer software design approach (or design philosophy) in which simplicity of both interface and implementation is more important than any other system attribute (including correctness, consistency, and completeness). ... Modular constructivism is a style of sculpture that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s and was associated especially with Erwin Hauer and Norman Carlberg. ... Look up formalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... Shaped canvas paintings are done on canvas in a shape other than the traditional rectangle. ... Minimal techno, a minimalist sub-genre of Techno music, is characterized by a stripped-down, glitchy sound, simple 4/4 beats (usually around 120-135 BPM), repetition of short loops, and subtle changes. ... Among the artists to whom the term minimalist was originally applied are: Carl Andre (Born 1935) American Sculptor Dan Flavin (1933-1996) American Installation Artist Donald Judd (1928-1994) American Sculptor Sol LeWitt (Born 1928) American Installation Artist Robert Morris (Born 1931) American Richard Serra (Born 1939) American Sculptor Frank... The logo on the Stuckism International web site Stuckism is an art movement that was founded in 1999 in Britain by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting in opposition to conceptual art. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Modernism in musicis characterized by a desire for or belief in progressand science, surrealism, anti-romanticism, politicaladvocacy, general intellectualism, and/or a breaking with tradition or common practice. ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... Mountebanks ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Modern dance is often performed in bare feet. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Also see articles: History of painting, Western painting Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history, by Pierre Mignard, 17th century. ... International Gothic is a subset of Gothic art developed in Burgundy, Bohemia and northern Italy in the late 1300s and early 1400s. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Camille Pissarro, Haying at Eragny, 1889, Private Collection Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910, to describe the development of European art since Manet. ... Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by the French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1887[1] to characterise the late-19th century art movement led by Georges Seurat and Paul Signac, who first exhibited their work in 1884 at the exhibition of the Société des Artistes... Chromoluminarism is a technique used by Neo-impressionists such Georges Seurat (1859-1891). ... Detail from Seurats La Parade (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in pointillism. ... The Yellow Christ (Le Christ jaune) 1889, oil on canvas Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York Cloisonnism is a style of post-Impressionist painting with bold forms separated by dark contours. ... Nabis (or Les Nabis; the prophets, from the Hebrew term for prophet) was a group of young post-impressionist avant-garde Parisian artists of the 1890s that influenced the fine arts and graphic arts in France at the turn of the 20th century. ... Synthetism is a style of painting that developed out of Cloisonnism. ... Thomas Coles View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, or The Oxbow, 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... 20th Century Art begins with Impressionism through to contemporary art. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Kazimir Malevich, Black square 1915 Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses color and form in a non-representational way. ... The Neue Künstlervereinigung München, abbreviated NKVM, (German:Munich New Artists Association) formed in 1909 in Munich. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark Henri Matisse, La Danse (second version), 1909 Hermitage Museum, St. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... For information about British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... De Stijl redirects here. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... This term is not to be confused with supremacism. ... Max Ernst. ... Color Field painting is an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... The Spiral Jetty from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Video art is a type of art which relies on moving pictures and is comprised of video and/or audio data. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Adolf Wölflis Irren-Anstalt Band-Hain, 1910 The term Outsider Art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for Art Brut (which literally translates as Raw Art or Rough Art), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created... Cover Art by Mark Ryden Cover Art by Joe Coleman Todd Schorr, Futility in the Face of a Hostile World, 2003. ... New media art (also known as media art) is a generic term used to describe art related to, or created with, a technology invented or made widely available since the mid-20th Century. ... The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991). ... The logo on the Stuckism International web site Stuckism is an art movement that was founded in 1999 in Britain by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting in opposition to conceptual art. ... As defined in the glossary of Nicolas Bourriauds book Relational Aesthetics, Relational (Art) is: a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

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ArtLex on Minimalism (1004 words)
It is sometimes called ABC art, minimal art, reductivism, and rejective art.
Halley's style and period of Minimalism is generally known as Neo-Geo.
"Minimal art was the first art form to come out of the universities rather than the artists' ghetto.
Minimalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1258 words)
Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features.
The term minimalism is also used to describe a trend in design and architecture wherein the subject is reduced to its necessary elements.
Another strand of literary minimalism arose in response to the meta-fiction trend of the 1960s and early 1970s (John Barth, Coover, and William H. Gass).
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