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Encyclopedia > Mingo

The Mingo are an Iroquois group of Native Americans that migrated west to the Ohio Country in the mid-eighteenth century. Anglo-Americans called these migrants mingos, a corruption of mingwe, an Algonquian word meaning "stealthy" or "treacherous".[1] Mingos have also been known as "Ohio Iroquois" and "Ohio Seneca". Mingo is the name of a Native American tribe and the tribes language. ... Languages Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora, English, French Religions Christianity, Longhouse religion The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power; the Five Nations; the Six Nations; or the People of the Long house) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... See Anglo-America for the term denoting mixed English and American influence or heritage or those parts of (or groups within) America which have a tie to or which are influenced by England or simply English-speaking America. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Seneca Tribe, or Onodowohgah (People of the Hill Top), traditionally lived in New York State between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake. ...


History

Statue of Logan, the famous Mingo headman, in Logan, West Virginia.
Statue of Logan, the famous Mingo headman, in Logan, West Virginia.

The people who became known as "Mingos" migrated to the Ohio Country in the mid-eighteenth century, part of an influx of Native Americans to a region that had been sparsely populated for decades. There was a well-known confederation of Iroquois Indian bands drawn from throughout the Northeast that included the Mingo (from the upper Ohio River), Conestoga, Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Tuscarora, and Onondaga (driven into Ohio by early colonists) and the Seneca of Sandusky (who had lived in New York at the outset of the American Revolution). After the war, the Cayuga moved to Ohio, where they were granted a reservation along the Sandusky River. They were joined there by the Shawnee of Ohio and the rest of the confederacy. Their villages were increasingly an amalgamation of Seneca, Wyandot, Shawnee, Susquehannock, and Delaware immigrants. Although the Iroquois nominally claimed sovereignty over the Ohio country natives, these people increasingly acted independently of them. "Of all the tribes in the valley, the Mingoes were probably the most peaceably disposed, having been partially Christianized by Moravian missionaries, although they were quite capable of brave and warlike tendencies when aroused. The Mingoes were affiliated to the Delawares and the Iroquois but separated themselves before 1750 and settled along the Juniata. Becoming more warlike as time passed, they were frequently hostile to the settlers in the Juniata Valley. They and their cousins, the Delawares, later crossed the Alleghenies into Ohio where they lived for a time, and finally moved to Kansas and lived on the Neosho River, eventually they moved to the Indian lands of Oklahoma."[1] Download high resolution version (300x633, 212 KB)Chief Logan Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 02:46, Dec 24, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (300x633, 212 KB)Chief Logan Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 02:46, Dec 24, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Chief Logan statue, Logan, West Virginia Chief Logan (c. ... Logan is a city located in Logan County, West Virginia. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... For other uses, see Seneca. ... The Wyandot, or Wendat, is an indigenous people of North America, originally from what is now Southern Ontario, Quebec, Canada and Southeast Michigan. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Susquehannock The Susquehannock people were natives of areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries from the southern part of what is now New York, through Pennsylvania, to the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


When Pontiac's Rebellion broke out in 1763, many Mingos joined with other tribes in the ultimately unsuccessful attempt to drive the British out of the Ohio Country, even though the Iroquois were closely allied to the British. The Mingo/Seneca Chief Guyasuta was one of the leaders in that war. Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a... Guyasuta (c. ...


One of the most famous Mingo leaders was Chief Logan, who had good relations with his fellow white settlers. Logan was not actually a chief, but a village leader. In 1774, as tensions between whites and Indians were on the rise due to a series of violent encounters, Logan's family was brutally murdered by a band of white outlaws. Local chiefs counseled restraint, but acknowledged Logan's right to revenge. Logan exacted his vengeance in a series of raids with only about a dozen followers, not all of whom were Mingos. His vengeance satisfied, he did not even participate in the resulting Lord Dunmore's War, and was probably not at the climactic Battle of Point Pleasant. Rather than participate in the peace conference, he issued Logan's Lament, a speech which was widely printed and is one of the most well-known examples of American Indian oratory. Chief Logan statue, Logan, West Virginia Chief Logan (c. ... Dunmores War (or Lord Dunmores War) was the result of several collisions that took place in the spring of 1774, on the Ohio River above the mouth of the Little Kanawha River, between Native American peoples (particularly Shawnee, Miami, and Wyandot) and parties of Anglo_American settlers who were... The Battle of Point Pleasant was an action in Lord Dunmores War between Virginia militia and the Indians fought on October 10, 1774 near modern Point Pleasant, West Virginia. ... From Thomas Jeffersons notes Chief Logans speech known as Logans Lament I appeal to any white man to say, if ever he entered Logans cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat; if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. ...


By 1830, the Mingos were flourishing in western Ohio improving their farms and establishing schools. After the passage of the Indian Removal Act of that same year, however, the Mingos were pressured to sell their lands and emigrate to Kansas in 1832. In Kansas, the Mingos joined other Seneca and Cayuga bands and the tribes shared the Neosho Reservation there. The tribes moved yet again in 1869 after the American Civil War to present-day Ottawa County, Oklahoma. In 1881, a band of Cayuga from Canada joined the Seneca Tribe in Indian Territory. In 1902, shortly before Oklahoma became a state, 372 members of the joint tribe received land allotments. In 1937, the tribe officially designated themselves the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma. Today, the tribe numbers over five thousand members and continues to maintain cultural and religious ties to the Six Nations of the Iroquois. The Indian Removal Act part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Ottawa County is a county located in the state of Oklahoma. ... The Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma is a sovereign nation, enjoying the same tribal sovereignty as all recognized Indian tribes in the United States. ...


Language

The Mingo language (native name: Unyææshæötká') is a Northern Iroquoian language of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. It is a polysynthetic language with extremely complex verb usage, closely related to Seneca, Onondaga, and Cayuga. There has been increasing interest in recent years, especially among Mingo descendants, in revitalizing the language. Iroquoian languages The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... The Seneca are a Native American people, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. ... Onondaga is the name of some places in North America: Onondaga, Michigan Onondaga, New York Onondaga, Ontario Onondaga County, New York Onondaga Lake Onondaga Reservation, New York Onondaga Township, Michigan Other meanings: Onondaga Native American Iroquois First Nations group Onandaga Cave State Park in Leasburg, Missouri Onondaga Camp Minden,Ontario... Cayuga is the name or part of the name of some places: Canada Cayuga, Ontario United States of America Cayuga, Indiana Cayuga, New York Cayuga County, New York Cayuga Lake is one of the Finger Lakes in New York. ...


Mingo Junction, Ohio is named for the tribe. Downtown Mingo Junction in September 2006. ...


Mingo County, West Virginia is also named for the tribe. Mingo County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ...


References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia of North American Indians, p. 380.
  • Hoxie, Frederick E., editor. Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1996, pp. 380–381. ISBN 0-395-66921-9.
  • McConnell, Michael N. A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724–1774. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8032-3142-3.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mingo (622 words)
The first Mingo retained her former name; the second was named for a fish of the Caribbean with rough leathery skin.
Mingo did a noteworthy job as lifeguard as she rescued 16 Liberator fliers shot down off Balikpapan, Borneo, six from rubber boats in Makassar Strait and the other 10 from the beach of Celebes Island.
Mingo took station at the South China Sea again for her seventh and last war patrol from 6 February to 10 April.
McElwain: Use of Mingo Language in Last Half of Twentieth Century (2977 words)
Mingo is a northern Iroquoian language of people politically distinct from the League Iroquois originally inhabiting the Ohio drainage in western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, and northern West Virginia.
Mingos have historically chosen the path of community self-definition without representation within the framework of indigenous houses on the continent.
An exception to keeping Mingo in the home in the 19th century was its use as a means of communication with the people of the Seneca Nation of Indians who split off from the Iroquois League before the middle of the century.
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