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Encyclopedia > Ming dynasty
大明
Great Ming
Flag
1368 – 1644 Flag
Location of Ming Dynasty
Ming China under the Yongle Emperor
Capital Nanjing
(1368-1421)
Beijing
(1421-1644)
Language(s) Chinese
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor
 - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor
History
 - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368
 - Fall of Beijing 1644
 - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662
Population
 - 1393 est. 72,700,000 
 - 1400 est. 65,000,000¹ 
 - 1600 est. 150,000,000¹ 
 - 1644 est. 100,000,000 
Ming Dynasty still kept the rule on Southern China until 1662 which is seen as the Southern Ming.
¹ The numbers are based on estimates made by C.J. Peers in Late Imperial Chinese Armies: 1520-1840
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty 1122–256 BCE
  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
    Spring and Autumn Period
    Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BCE–206 BCE
Han Dynasty 206 BCE–220 CE
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439
Southern & Northern Dynasties 420–589
Sui Dynasty 581–619
Tang Dynasty 618–907
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960
Liao Dynasty
907–1125
Song Dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia Dyn.
  Southern Song Jin Dyn.
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic
of China
1949–present
Hong Kong
Special Adminstrative
Region 1997-present
Republic of China
On Taiwan island

Timeline of Chinese history
Dynasties in Chinese history
Military history of China
Naval history of China
Economic history of China
Linguistic history of China
Legal history of China
History of Chinese art
History of science and technology in China
History of education in China
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The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Hans (the main Chinese ethnic group), before falling to the rebellion led by Li Zicheng, and later replaced by Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. The Ming Dynasty, founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, ruled over the Empire of the Great Ming (Traditional Chinese: 大明國; Simplified Chinese: 大明国; Pinyin: Dà Míng Guó), as China was then known. Although the later Ming capital, Beijing, fell in 1644, remnants of the Ming throne and power (collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. During the subsequent Qing Dynasty, some Han Chinese harbored strong feelings against the rule by a non-Han ethnic group (the Manchus); consequently, the restoration of the Ming Dynasty was used as a rallying cry up until the modern era. Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Shun Dynasty was a pseudo imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (873 × 1161 pixel, file size: 819 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... For the controversial hypothesis advanced by Gavin Menzies, see: 1421 hypothesis. ... Peking redirects here. ... For the controversial hypothesis advanced by Gavin Menzies, see: 1421 hypothesis. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Ming Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, succeeding the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and falling amidst much peasant turmoil to the Manchu Qing dynasty. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Chongzhen Emperor (WG: Chung-chen) (February 6, 1611 - April 25, 1644) was last emperor of Ming dynasty in China between 1627 and 1644. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Peking redirects here. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: HànyÇ”; 华语/華語, HuáyÇ”; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family. ... The origin of the current law of the Peoples Republic of China can be traced back to the period of the early 1930s, during the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) (September 22, 1606 - 1644), born Li HóngjÄ« (鴻基), was a rebel in late Ming Dynasty China who proclaimed himself ChuÇŽng Wáng (闖王), or The Roaming King. Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣), Yanan Subprefecture (延安府), Shaanxi, Li grew up as a shepherd. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... Peking redirects here. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ...


Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy, including four-masted ships of 1,500 tons displacement, and a standing army of 1,000,000 troops. Although private maritime trade and official tribute missions from China took place in previous dynasties, the size of the tributary fleet under the Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He in the 15th century surpassed all others in grandeur. There were enormous projects of construction, including the restoration of the Grand Canal, the restoration of the Great Wall as it is known today, and the founding of the Forbidden City in Beijing during the first quarter of the 15th century. The Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424) also reestablished the civil service examinations, which had been abandoned under Mongol leadership since the late 13th century. Naval redirects here. ... Look up mast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... The imperial examinations (Chinese: 科舉; Pinyin: ) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service based on merit and education, which promoted upward mobility among the population for centuries. ...


The founder of the dynasty, Emperor Hongwu (r. 1368–1398), attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities in a rigid, immobile system that should have no need to engage with the commercial life and trade of urban centers. His rebuilding of China's agricultural base and the strengthening of communication routes through the militarized courier system had the unintended effect of creating a vast agricultural surplus that could be sold at burgeoning markets located along official courier routes. Rural cultural trends became characteristically more commercialized and urbanized. The high echelons of society embodied in the scholarly gentry class were also affected by this new consumptionary-based culture. Going against traditional norms, merchant families began producing exam candidates to become scholar-officials and took on cultural traits and practices that were distinctly those of the scholarly gentry class. izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ... For other uses, see Courier (disambiguation). ... In imperial China, gentry were the class of landowners who were retired mandarins or their descendents. ... Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ...


By the 16th century, the Ming economy was stimulated by maritime trade with the Spanish Empire. China became involved in a new global trade of goods, plants, animals, and food crops known as the Columbian Exchange. Trade with European powers and the Japanese brought in massive amounts of silver, the latter of which had became the common medium of exchange in China to replace copper and paper banknotes. The flow of silver into China was greatly diminished in the early third of the 17th century. This was due to the Spanish crown's cracking down on illegal silver smuggling directly from Mexico and straight across the Pacific to the Philippines (where Chinese trade ships docked annually). An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A medium of exchange is an intermediary used in trade to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Pacific redirects here. ...


At its height, the Ming Dynasty had a population of 160 million people. However, this figure dropped significantly after the first quarter of the 17th century. China's agriculture and economy—along with the rest of the world—was greatly affected by the beginning of the Little Ice Age. The damage to the economy from the lack of silver was coupled with the effects of natural calamities, crop failure, and sudden epidemics. The ensuing breakdown of authority and people's livelihoods allowed rebel leaders such as Li Zicheng to challenge Ming authority. After Beijing had been sacked by Li's forces, a general Wu Sangui allowed Manchu forces in through the north to retake the capital. The invasion solidified Qing rule in the north, as they would eventually extend their authority over the whole of China proper as well as Manchuria, Mongolia, the Tarim Basin, and Tibet. The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Although Christianity had existed in China since at least the Tang Dynasty (618–907) the late Ming period saw the arrival of Jesuit missionaries such as Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault. The former worked with the Chinese mathematician, astronomer, and agronomist Xu Guangqi to translate Euclid's Elements into Chinese for the first time in 1607. Matteo was also the first to Latinize the ancient philosopher Kong Fuzi as Confucius. Although Xu's written work and that of his contemporaries—such as Song Yingxing—were often technical and encyclopedic, the Ming era witnessed the development of the fictional novel, an example being the Jin Ping Mei published in 1610. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China in the early modern era stands as one of the notable events in the early history of relations between China and the Western world, as well as a prominent example of relations between two cultures and belief systems in the... Matteo Ricci. ... Nicolas Trigault (1577-1629) was a French Jesuit, and a missionary to China. ... Xu Guangqi (Simplified Chinese: 徐光启; Traditional Chinese: 徐光啟; Pinyin: Xú Guāngqǐ) (1562–1633) was a Chinese agricultural scientist and mathematician born in Shanghai. ... The frontispiece of Sir Henry Billingsleys first English version of Euclids Elements, 1570 Euclids Elements (Greek: ) is a mathematical and geometric treatise consisting of 13 books written by the Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria circa 300 BC. It comprises a collection of definitions, postulates (axioms), propositions (theorems... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Jin Ping Mei (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The Plum in the Golden Vase, also translated as The Golden Lotus) is a Chinese naturalistic novel composed in the vernacular (baihua) during the late Ming Dynasty. ...

Contents

History

Founding

Further information: List of Emperors of the Ming Dynasty

The Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) ruled before the establishment of the Ming Dynasty. The discrimination of Han Chinese led to a peasant revolt that successfully forced the Mongols to retreat into the Mongolian steppes. But historians such as Joseph Walker dispute this theory. Other causes include paper currency over-circulation, which caused inflation to go up tenfold during the reign of Yuan Emperor Shundi, along with the flooding of the Yellow River as a result of the abandonment of irrigation projects. In the late Yuan era, agriculture and the economy were in shambles. A rebellion broke out when hundreds of thousands of civilians were called upon to work on the Yellow River. The Ming Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, succeeding the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and falling amidst much peasant turmoil to the Manchu Qing dynasty. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Joseph Walker or Joe Walker can refer to more than one person of note, including: Joseph A. Walker, a United States military aviator Joseph A. Walker, Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright (The River Niger) J. E. Walker, former president of the Universal Life Insurance Company. ... Ukhaatu Khan (Classical Mongolian: Uqaɤatu qaɤan; Khalkha Mongolian: Ухаант хаан Uhaant haan), born Toghun Temür, was the fifteenth grand-khan of the Mongol Empire (Dai-ön Ulus/Yuan Dynasty). ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ...

Portrait of the Hongwu Emperor (r. 1368 - 1398)
Portrait of the Hongwu Emperor (r. 1368 - 1398)

A number of Han Chinese groups revolted, and eventually the Red Turbans led by Zhu Yuanzhang, assisted by an ancient and secret intellectual fraternity called the Summer Palace people, established dominance. Zhu cemented his power by eliminating his arch rival Chen Youliang in the Battle of Lake Poyang in 1363. The rebellion against the Yuan eventually succeeded, and the Ming Dynasty was established in Nanjing in 1368. Zhu Yuanzhang took Hongwu, or 'Vastly Martial' as his reign title. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ... The Red Turban Rebellion (Chinese: ) was an uprising by the White Lotus Chinese that targeted the ruling Yuan Dynasty. ... The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... Chén Yǒuliàng (陳友諒, in Wade-Giles Chen Yu-liang) (1320 - August 23, 1363) was the founder of the rebel Dahan (大漢 Great Han) regime in late Yuan Dynasty in China. ... Combatants Han rebel navy Ming rebel navy Commanders Chen Youliang† Zhu Yuanzhang Strength 650,000 200,000 Casualties Chen Youliang and most of his army 1,346 dead 11,347 wounded The naval battle of Lake Poyang (鄱陽湖之戰) took place 30 August - 4 October 1363 and was one of the final... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ...


Hongwu organized a military system known as the weisuo , which was similar to the fubing system of the Tang Dynasty. According to Ming Shigao, the political intention in establishing the weisuo system was to maintain a strong army while avoiding bonds between commanding officers and soldiers. Hongwu supported the creation of self-supporting agricultural communities. Neo-feudal land-tenure developments of late Song times were expropriated with the establishment of the Ming Dynasty. Great land estates were confiscated by the government, divided, and rented out; private slavery was forbidden. Consequently, after the death of the Yongle Emperor, independent peasant landholders predominated in Chinese agriculture. Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Slave redirects here. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360–August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ...


It is notable that, although he embraced Confucianism himself, Hongwu did not trust elite, educated Confucian scholars. Under the next few emperors, the Confucian scholar gentry—who had been marginalized under the Yuan for nearly a century—once again assumed a predominant role in running the empire. A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ...


Legal code

The Ming Imperial Court, by an unknown artist, c. 1580 AD.
The Ming Imperial Court, by an unknown artist, c. 1580 AD.

The legal code drawn up in the time of the Hongwu emperor was considered one of the great achievements of the era. The Ming shi mentions that as early as 1364, the monarch had started to draft a code known as Daming Lu. Hongwu took great care over the project and told the ministers that the laws should be comprehensive and intelligible, so as not to leave any loophole for sub-officials to misinterpret the law by playing on the words. The code also laid great emphasis on family relations. Daming Lu was based on Confucian ideas and remained one of the factors dominating the law of China until the end of the 19th century, until the communists took over mainland China. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Abolishing the Prime Minister post

Many argue that the Hongwu emperor, wishing to concentrate absolute authority in his own hands, abolished the office of prime minister and so removed the only insurance against incompetent emperors. However, the statement is misleading as a new post, "Senior Grand secretary", replaced the abolished prime minister post. Ray Huang, Professor from Sate University of college argues that Grand-secretaries, outwardly powerless, could exercise considerable positive influence from behind the throne. Because of their prestige and the public trust which they enjoyed, they could act as intermediaries between emperor and the ministerial officials, thus provide stabilizing force in the court.


Network of secret agents

The Xuande Emperor (1425-1435) playing chuiwan, a game similar to golf, by an anonymous court painter.
The Xuande Emperor (1425-1435) playing chuiwan, a game similar to golf, by an anonymous court painter.

In the Ming Dynasty, networks of secret agents flourished throughout the military. Due to the humble background of Zhu Yuanzhang before he became emperor, he harbored a special hatred against corrupt officials and had great awareness of revolts. He created the Jinyi Wei, to offer himself further protection and act as secret police throughout the empire. Although there are a few successes in their history, they were more known for their brutality in handling crime than as an actually successful police force. The Jinyi Wei had spread a terror throughout their empire, but their powers were decimated as the eunuchs' influence at the court increased. The eunuchs created three groups of secret agents in their favour; the East Factory, the West Factory and the Inner Factory. All were no less brutal than the Jinyi Wei and probably worse, since they were more of a tool for the eunuchs to eradicate their political opponents than anything else. Image File history File links Ming_Emperor_Xuande_playing_Golf. ... Image File history File links Ming_Emperor_Xuande_playing_Golf. ... Categories: China-related stubs | 1398 births | 1435 deaths | Ming Dynasty emperors ... Events Foundation of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Births John II, Duke of Lorraine (died 1470) Edmund Sutton, English nobleman (died 1483) Deaths January 18 - Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, English politician (born 1391) March 17 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shogun (born 1407) May 24 - Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of... For other uses, see number 1435. ... Ming Emperor Xuande is putting for a par? Chuiwan (Chinese: 捶丸; Pinyin: Chuíwán) was a game in ancient China and is claimed by some to be the origin of golf. ... This article is about the sport. ... Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). ... The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... The Jinyi Wei (Traditional Chinese: 錦衣衛; Simplified Chinese: 锦衣卫; literally Brocade-Clad Guard) was the secret service of the Ming emperors. ...


Government

Governmental institutions in China conformed to a similar pattern for some two thousand years, but each dynasty installed special offices and bureaus, reflecting its own particular interests. The Ming administration too followed this pattern: the Grand Secretariat assisted the emperor. Alongside this office were the Six Ministries for Personnel, Revenue, Rites, War, Justice, and Public Works, under the Department of State Affairs. The Censorate overseeing work of imperial officials was also an old institution with a new name comprising the Three Duke and the Three Minor Solitaries. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 935 KB) Summary author : ofol date 29-12-2005 voie des âmes, Changping, région de pékin ways of souls tombs of the Emperors of the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368 to 1644). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 935 KB) Summary author : ofol date 29-12-2005 voie des âmes, Changping, région de pékin ways of souls tombs of the Emperors of the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368 to 1644). ... Standing in the Spirit Way at the Ming Tombs looking back towards the entry gate. ... Peking redirects here. ...


The first Ming emperor, in his persecution mania, abolished the Secretariat, the Censorate, and the Chief Military Commission and personally took charge of the Six Ministries and the Five Military Commissions. Thus a whole level of administration was cut out and was only partially rebuilt by the following emperors. The Grand Secretariat was reinstalled, but without employing grand counselors ("chancellors"). The ministries, headed by a minister and run by directors remained under direct control of the emperor until the end of Ming. The Censorate was reinstalled and first staffed with investigating censors, later with censors-in-chief.

A glazed stoneware statue of Budai, Ming Dynasty, China, dated to the 20th year of the Chenghua Emperor, or 1468 AD
A glazed stoneware statue of Budai, Ming Dynasty, China, dated to the 20th year of the Chenghua Emperor, or 1468 AD

The dynasty had a vast imperial household, staffed with thousands of eunuchs, who were headed by the Directorate of Palace Attendants. The eunuchs were divided into different directorates and services that had to administer the staff, the rites, food, documents, stables, seals, gardens, state-owned factories, and so on. The so-called Western Depot acted as the eunuchs' secret service and was famous for its intrigues. Princes and descendants of the first Ming emperor were given nominal military commands and large land estates without title. By contrast, princes in the Han and Jin Dynasties had been installed as local kings. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1,008 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1,008 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Budai is also the name of a Taiwanese township in Chiayi, see Budai, Chiayi Maitreya in Budai form with disciples, as depicted at Feilai Feng grottos, near Lingyin Temple in China Budai (Chinese: ) or Budai Luohan, pronounced Hotei in Japanese, also known as the Laughing Buddha, is an interpretation of... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... Leland Stanfords horse stable, still in use Horse kept in stable A stable is a building in which livestock, usually horses, are kept. ... This article is about the authentication means. ... For the chosen plaintext attack used by the British during World War II, see gardening (cryptanalysis). ...


The Ming emperors adopted the provincial administration system of the Mongols, and the 13 Ming provinces are the precursors of the modern provinces. Thus, at the provincial level, the Yuan central government structure was copied; the bureaucracy contained three provincial commissions: one civil, one military, and one for surveillance. Below the province level were prefectures operating under a prefect, followed by subprefectures under a subprefect. Finally, the lowest unit was the county overseen by a magistrate. As in prior dynasties, the provincial administrations were controlled by a travelling inspector or grand coordinator from the Censorate.


In addition to taking over the established bureaucratic structure from the Yuan period, the Ming emperors established the new post of the travelling military inspector.


The scholar officials who populated these many ranks of bureaucracy were recruited through a rigorous examination system. Theoretically the system of exams allowed anyone to join the ranks of imperial officials; in reality the time and funding needed to support the study in preparation for the exam generally limited participants to those already coming from the moneyed classes. The focus of the examination was classical Confucian texts, and prospective scholars were expected to successfully complete the so-called "eight-legged essay". The exams increased in difficulty as the student progressed from the local level, and appropriate titles were accordingly awarded successful applicants. Passing the provincial examinations, scholars were titled "cultivated talents". Passing the metropolitan examination, they obtained the title jinshi or "graduate". The eight-legged essay (Chinese: å…«è‚¡æ–‡ bāgÇ”wén) was a style of essay writing that had to be mastered to pass the imperial examinations during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. ... The imperial examinations (科舉, kējǔ) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service, which had promoted upward mobility among the people for centuries. ...


Exploration to isolation

Ming foreign relations in 1580.

During the aggressive rule of the Yongle Emperor (reigned 1403–1424), the Chinese regained influence over Turkestan, the so-called Western Regions. The various Jurchen tribes of Manchuria began accepting Ming titles from the Yongle Emperor. Maritime Asian nations sent envoys with tributes for the Chinese emperor. Internally, the Grand Canal was almost entirely renovated from 1411 to 1415. Stretching from Hangzhou in the south to Tongzhou just outside Beijing, the Canal linked major urban centers and stimulated domestic trade. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (555x650, 318 KB)This map shows Ming Dynasty China in 1580. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (555x650, 318 KB)This map shows Ming Dynasty China in 1580. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jianzhou Jurchens were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... // Overview Tongzhou District (Simplified Chinese: 通州区; Traditional Chinese: 通州區; Hanyu Pinyin: Tōngzhōu QÅ«), located in southeast Beijing, is considered as the capitals eastern gate. ...


The most extraordinary venture during this stage was the dispatch of Zheng He's series of naval expeditions, which traversed the Indian Ocean and the Southeast Asian archipelago.[1] An ambitious eunuch of Hui descent, and quintessential outsider to the establishment of Confucian scholar elites, Zheng He led seven expeditions between 1405 and 1433, six of them also under the auspices of Emperor Yongle.[2] He traversed perhaps as far as the Cape of Good Hope and, according to the controversial 1421 theory, the Americas. A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360–August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... The 1421 theory of the Chinese discovery of the Americas originates from former British Royal Navy submarine commander Gavin Menzies. ...


The first expedition in 1405 consisted of 317 ships and 28,000 men--then the largest naval expedition in history. Zheng He's multi-decked ships carried up to 500 troops but also cargoes of export goods, mainly silks and porcelains, and brought back foreign luxuries such as spices and tropical wood. For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ...


Zheng He's initial appointment (made in 1403) to lead a sea-faring task force was a triumph for the commercial lobbies seeking to stimulate conventional trade, as opposed to mercantilism. The interests of the commercial lobbies and of the religious lobbies were also linked. Both were offensive to the neo-Confucian sensibilities of the scholarly elite: religious lobbies encouraged commercialism and exploration, which benefited commercial interests, in order to divert state funds from the anti-clerical efforts of the Confucian scholar gentry. Mercantile redirects here. ...

A Ming Dynasty red lacquer box with intricate carving.
A Ming Dynasty red lacquer box with intricate carving.

The economic motive for these maritime ventures may have been important, but the chief aim was probably political; to enroll further states as tributaries and mark the dominance of the Chinese Empire. The political character of Zheng He's voyages indicates the primacy of the political elites. Despite their formidable and unprecedented strength, Zheng He's voyages, unlike European voyages of exploration later in the 15th century, were not intended to extend Chinese sovereignty overseas. Indicative of the competition among elites, these excursions had also become politically controversial. Zheng He's voyages had been supported by his fellow low eunuchs at court and strongly opposed by the Confucian scholar officials. Their antagonism was in fact so great that they tried to suppress any mention of the naval expeditions in the official imperial record. A compromise interpretation realizes that the Mongol raids tilted the balance in the favor of the Confucian elites. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 709 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2339 × 1979 pixel, file size: 835 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Chinese carved lacquer box Ming Dynasty Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst, Berlin Photographer: user: Dr. Meierhofer Date: 28. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 709 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2339 × 1979 pixel, file size: 835 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Chinese carved lacquer box Ming Dynasty Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst, Berlin Photographer: user: Dr. Meierhofer Date: 28. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...


By the end of the 15th century, Imperial subjects were forbidden to build oceangoing ships or leave the country. Some historians speculate that this measure was taken in response to piracy. But during the mid-1500s, trade started again when silver replaced paper money. The Spanish Empire in the Americas (specifically, from Peru) provided China with a massive amount of silver, as silver Spanish currency became a commonplace item in mainland China. Although trading and shipbuilding were severely restricted after Zheng He, the Chinese still sent trade ships annually to the Philippines to trade items such as silk and porcelain with the Spanish in exchange for silver. The value of silver skyrocketed relative to the rest of the world, and both trade and inflation increased as China had already imported an enormous amount. Silver was the cause of the decline in use of Chinese paper-printed money (an innovation of the earlier Song Dynasty, see Banknote), and the late Ming rulers made desperate attempts in the end to revert back to copper coinage. However, the damage was already done, and after the somewhat prosperous reign of the Wanli Emperor (1573–1620), the Ming Empire steeply declined. The empire was struck with the famine, widespread plague, rebellion, and chaos that the later Manchus from the north were ultimately able to take advantage of in their bid to overthrow the Ming. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Wanli Emperor (September 4, 1563 - August 18, 1620) was emperor of China (Ming dynasty) between 1572 and 1620. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Scene from the failed Québecois rebellion against British rule in 1837. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ...

Emperor Minghuang's Journey to Sichuan, a Ming Dynasty painting after Qiu Ying (1494-1552).
Emperor Minghuang's Journey to Sichuan, a Ming Dynasty painting after Qiu Ying (1494-1552).

Historians of the 1960s, such as John Fairbank and Joseph Levinson, have argued that this renovation turned into stagnation and that science and philosophy were caught in a tight net of traditions that smothered any attempts at innovation. Historians who held to this view argue that in the 15th century, by imperial decree, the great navy was decommissioned. Construction of seagoing ships was forbidden, and, as a result, the iron industry gradually declined. This isolation is believed by many, including scholar Jared Diamond, to have led to the Great Divergence. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Spring morning in the Han Palace, by Qiu Ying Qiu Ying (仇英; Wade-Giles Chiu Ying) (1494 - 1552) was a Chinese painter who specialized in the gongbi brush technique. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... John King Fairbank (1907-1991) was among the most renowned American scholars of East Asia in the twentieth century. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Military conquests

The beginning of the Ming Dynasty was marked by Ming Dynasty military conquests as they sought to cement their hold on power. Early in his reign, the first Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang provided instructions as injunctions to later generations. These included the advice that those countries to the north were dangerous and posed a threat to the Ming polity, while those to the south did not and were not to be attacked. Yet, either because of or despite this, it was the polities to the south which suffered the greatest effects of Ming expansion over the following century. This prolonged entanglement in the south with no long-lasting tangible benefits ultimately weakened the empire. The Ming Dynasty military conquests were instrumental to its hold on power during the early stages of the Ming dynasty. ... The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ...


Rebuilding the Great Wall

The Great Wall on a 1805 map
The Great Wall on a 1805 map

After the Ming army was defeated at the Battle of Tumu, the Ming court was unable to come up with a plan for dealing with the Mongol threat. They refused to trade with the Mongols (based on the idea that trade would just strengthen the Mongols), but equally they could not send armies north of the border with any chance of success against the Mongol horsemen. The Chinese were too weak in cavalry to chase the Mongols, and the Chinese infantry were too slow to bring them to battle. The only option that seemed open to the Ming generals was the creation of strong defensive fortifications. The Mongols army, based on horses and temporary in nature, could not lay siege to the giant forts. The forts also played to the strengths of Chinese in the fields of engineering and construction. Large forts were created (and some were abandoned) throughout the early Ming period at places like Tung-sheng, Yu-lin, Ta-t'ung, and Hsuan-fu. These forts were not connected to each other. Image File history File linksMetadata Great_Wall_of_China_1805. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Great_Wall_of_China_1805. ... The Tumu Crisis (Chinese: 土木之變; pinyin: Tŭmù zhī bìan); also called Crisis of Tumubao (土木堡之變); or Battle of Tumu (土木之役), was a frontier conflict between Mongolia and the Chinese Ming Dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 8, 1449. ...

When some tribes of the Mongols moved into the desolate Ordos plain, the Ming court ordered the creation of a large wall along the hilltops above the Ordos. Constructed under the direction of Wang Yueh in the year 1475, it was some 600 miles of solid walls. The walls proved to be successful in defending against a raid conducted in 1482. From that point on, the Ming created more walls connecting to the wall of 1475. From 1540 to 1550, walls were built all along the border north of the capital. In the 1570s, the walls were extended all the way east to the sea. This continuous wall is what the Europeans called the Great Wall of China. Work on the wall largely superseded military expeditions against the Mongols for the last 80 years of the Ming Dynasty and continued up until 1644, when the dynasty collapsed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1265 KB) Summary Great wall of China at Mutianyu near Beijing. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1265 KB) Summary Great wall of China at Mutianyu near Beijing. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... Ordos can refer to: the Ordos Desert in Inner Mongolia House Ordos, a fictional organisation appearing in Dune spin-offs This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th...


Decline

The Pagoda of Famen Temple, built in the 16th century.
The Pagoda of Famen Temple, built in the 16th century.

The Ming Dynasty's decline can be traced to many problems which all came to a head in the 1640s. Militarily, the Ming armies were unable to defeat the skilled and fast moving armies of the Manchu. Economically, the conversion of the economy to one based on silver left it vulnerable to fluctuations in silver supply coming in from outside of China. The sudden closing of Japan to nearly all outside trade in 1639 and the sudden reduction in trade with the Spanish at roughly the same time caused a dramatic spike in the value of silver and made taxes (previously payable in silver) now impossible for most provinces. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (525 × 800 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 法门寺塔 唐戈摄影 2005年 宝鸡 from zh wp (删除该图像的所有修订版本) (当前) 19:24 2005年11月20日 . . 唐戈 (Talk) . . 525x800 (91096字节) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (525 × 800 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 法门寺塔 唐戈摄影 2005年 宝鸡 from zh wp (删除该图像的所有修订版本) (当前) 19:24 2005年11月20日 . . 唐戈 (Talk) . . 525x800 (91096字节) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages...


Military Problems

The first and third Ming emperors were skilled generals and they ordered many military actions both in the north against the Mongol tribes, and in the south (such as the conquest of Vietnam in 1406). However, later Ming emperors attached little importance to foreign affairs and with the increasing corruption in governance, this led to deterioration of the army. European observers of the 16th century would give a variety of accounts with their experience concerning Ming armies. Because of corruption, which would deteriorate troop effectiveness in many places, these foreign accounts would vary from well trained experienced soldiers to ragtag armies of hastly assembled peasants. Vietnam regained its independence in 1427 and in the north the Mongols were never pacified. Mongol tribes began to raid across the border into China starting around 1440. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Oirat Horde became a serious military threat under their new leader Esen Taiji in 1443. The Zhengtong Emperor personally led a punitive campaign against the Horde but the punitive expedition turned into a disaster as the huge Chinese army was annihilated at the battle of Tu Mu (September 1, 1449) and the Emperor was captured. The Oirat Horde under Esen marched on to the capital but the Ming government, under the direction of Minister of War Yu Qian, rapidly re-built the capital's garrison and fought off the short siege. Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... Esen Tayisi was a 15th century Mongolian prince of the Oirad horde (or Oyirads, also known as Kalmyks), best-known for capturing the Zhengtong Emperor after the Battle of Tumu Fortress. ... Zhu Qizhen (November 29, 1427 – February 23, 1464) was an emperor of the Ming Dynasty. ... The Tumu Crisis (Chinese: 土木之變; pinyin: Tŭmù zhī bìan); also called Crisis of Tumubao (土木堡之變); or Battle of Tumu (土木之役), was a frontier conflict between Mongolia and the Chinese Ming Dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 8, 1449. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... Yu Qian Temple, Hangzhou Yu Chien (Pinyin: Yu Qian, Chinese: 于谦) (1398-1457) was a Chinese defense minister of the Ming dynasty. ...


The Mongols remained a significant problem for the next hundred years in the north, while along the coast Japanese pirates began staging raids on Chinese ships and coastal communities. The inability of the powerless Japanese emperors and nearly powerless Shoguns to stop these pirate raids led to a serious breakdown in relations between China and Japan. For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... 16th century Japanese pirate raids. ...


The low-point in relations between Ming China and Japan occurred during the rule of the great Japanese warlord Hideyoshi, who in 1592 announced he was going to conquer China. A vast army of some 300,000 Japanese were mobilized (only about half actually left Japan). In two campaigns (now known collectively as the Imjin War) the Japanese fought with the Korean and Ming armies. Both sides won victories in the war but with Hideyoshi's death in 1598, the Japanese gave up their last Korean bases and returned to Japan. The Ming generals took credit for the victory but the cost to the government was enormous. Hideyoshi at his old age. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Clarification after the snow in a mountain pass by renowned Ming painter Tang Yin (1470-1524)
Clarification after the snow in a mountain pass by renowned Ming painter Tang Yin (1470-1524)

While this war took place, a new power was growing in the north east of what is now known as Manchuria. The remarkable tribal leader Nurhaci, starting with just a small tribe, rapidly gained control over all the Manchu tribes. During the Imjin war he offered to lead his tribes in support of the Ming army (this offer was refused). Recognizing the weakness in the Ming authority north of their border, he took control over all of the other unrelated tribes surrounding his homeland. In 1618 he demanded the Ming pay tribute to him to redress the Seven grievances which he documented and sent to the Ming court. This was, in a very real sense, a declaration of war as the Ming were not about to pay money to the Manchu. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 318 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 2363 pixel, file size: 293 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 318 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 2363 pixel, file size: 293 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ...


The Ming court ordered a major military campaign against Nurhaci, some 100,000 soldiers were organized along with large military forces from the Koreans. The campaign was a disaster, two of the four Chinese armies were annihilated by Nurhaci's fast moving and highly trained army (at most, about 50,000 strong). The Chinese never again attempted to destroy the Manchu and instead relied on building defensive strong-points. The Manchu raided into northern China almost constantly from 1620 onward (interrupted for a three year period by Nurhaci's death in 1626). The Ming army could do little other than chase after the fast moving Manchu, all the while, unrest in the provinces of China grew.


Finally in 1640, masses of Chinese peasants who were starving, unable to pay their taxes, and no longer in fear of the frequently defeated Chinese army, began to form into huge bands of rebels. The Chinese military, caught between fruitless efforts to defeat the Manchu raiders from the north and huge peasant revolts in the provinces, essentially fell apart. Unpaid, unfed, the army was defeated by the strongest of the peasant warlords (the self-styled Prince of Shun) and deserted the capital without much of a fight. The last Ming emperor hanged himself in garden of the Forbidden city in April of 1644. The Manchu army under Dorgon and Wu Sangui approached Beijing, whereupon the Prince of Shun's army, after being defeated in the battle of Shanhaiguan outside of the city, fled the capital. Li Zicheng supposedly died during his escape by pro-Ming militia. Just a few weeks later Dorgon proclaimed the Qing were now ruling China. Although scattered Ming remnants still existed, including those of Koxinga, these forces disagreed on the rightful Ming heir immediate and was unable to cooperate. Eventually the new Qing dynasty swallowed each Ming loyalist army one by one. Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe...


Economic Problems

Historians debate the relatively slower "progression" of European-style mercantilism and industrialization in China since the Ming. This question is particularly poignant, considering the parallels between the commercialization of the Ming economy, the so-called age of "incipient capitalism" in China, and the rise of commercial capitalism in the West. Historians have thus been trying to understand why China did not "progress" in the manner of Europe during the last century of the Ming Dynasty. In the early 21st century, however, some of the premises of the debate have come under attack. Economic historians such as Kenneth Pomeranz have argue that China was technologically and economically equal to Europe until the 1750's and that the divergence was due to global conditions, such as access to natural resources from the new world. Mercantile redirects here. ... The process of introducing a new product into the market is called commercialization. ... Kenneth Pomeranz is a professor and the chair of the history department at the University of California, Irvine in the US. He received his Ph. ...

A Ming Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish.
A Ming Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish.

Much of the debate nonetheless centers on contrast in political and economic systems between East and West. Given the causal premise that economic transformations induce social changes, which in turn have political consequences, one can understand why the rise of mercantilism, an economic system in which wealth was considered finite and nations were set to compete for this wealth with the assistance of imperial governments, was a driving force behind the rise of modern Europe in the 16-1700s. Capitalism, after all, can be traced to several distinct stages in Western history. Commercial capitalism was the first stage, and was associated with historical trends evident in Ming China, such as geographical discoveries, colonization, scientific innovation, and the increase in overseas trade. But in Europe, governments often protected and encouraged the burgeoning capitalist class, predominantly consisting of merchants, through governmental controls, subsidies, and monopolies, such as British East India Company. The absolutist states of the era often saw the growing potential to excise bourgeois profits to support their expanding, centralizing nation-states. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 638 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2165 × 2035 pixel, file size: 642 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plate in Blue-White-Style Ming-Dynasty Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst, Berlin Photographer: User:Dr. Meierhofer Date: 28. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 638 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2165 × 2035 pixel, file size: 642 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plate in Blue-White-Style Ming-Dynasty Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst, Berlin Photographer: User:Dr. Meierhofer Date: 28. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


It is curious that during the last century of the Ming Dynasty a genuine money economy emerged in China along with relatively large-scale mercantile and industrial enterprises under private as well as state ownership, such as the great textile centers of the southeast. In some respects, the question of economic development is at the center of debates pertaining to the relative decline of China in comparison with the modern West. Chinese Marxist historians, especially during the 1970s identified the Ming age one of "incipient capitalism", a description that seems quite reasonable, but one that does not quite explain the official downgrading of trade and increased state regulation of commerce during the Ming era. Marxian historians thus postulate that European-style mercantilism and industrialization might have evolved had it not been for the Manchu conquest and expanding European imperialism, especially after the Opium Wars. Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or the Anglo-Chinese Wars were two wars fought around the middle of the 19th century (1839-1842 and 1858-1860 respectively)[1] that were the climax of a long dispute between China and...

Wintry trees after Li Cheng, by Wen Zhengming (1470 - 1559)
Wintry trees after Li Cheng, by Wen Zhengming (1470 - 1559)

Post-modernist scholarship on China, however argues that this view is simplistic and at worst, flat out wrong. The ban on ocean going ships, it is pointed out, was intended to curb piracy and was lifted in 1557 at the strong urging of the bureaucracy who pointed out the harmful effects the ban on trade caused for the coastal economies. These historians, who include Kenneth Pomeranz, and Joanna Waley-Cohen deny that China "turned inward" at all and point out that this view of the Ming Dynasty is inconsistent with the growing volume of trade and commerce that was occurring between China and southeast Asia from 1557 onward. For example, when the Portuguese reached India, they found a growing trade network which they then followed all the way to China. In the 16th century, Europeans started to appear on the eastern shores and founded Macau, the first European settlement in China. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 206 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (594 × 1728 pixel, file size: 827 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 206 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (594 × 1728 pixel, file size: 827 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Wen Zhengming (Wade Giles: Wen Cheng-ming)(&#25991;&#24501;&#26126;, 1470&#8211;1559), leading Ming dynasty painter, calligrapher, and scholar. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Kenneth Pomeranz is a professor and the chair of the history department at the University of California, Irvine in the US. He received his Ph. ... Joanna Waley-Cohen is Professor of History at New York University, where she has taught since 1992. ...


Failure of government

The founder of the Ming Dynasty created a profoundly important document called the Ancestral Injunctions. This document (in a sense a constitution for the Ming) defined how the government was to be set up and defined what the Emperor could and could not do. Perhaps the key flaw in this document was the lack of provision for creating new laws. In a real sense, China, during the Ming, had no legislative body. There was no legal way to change the structure of the Ming government. This is seen most clearly in the way the grand secretary Chang Chu-cheng (ruled from 1572 to 1582) ran the Ming government. He was unable to make lasting changes in the civil service, instead everything he accomplished was through personal contacts and alliances he built up with other senior officials.


Later grand secretaries were not as skilled as Chang at creating alliances and getting the various ministries to work with each other and for much of the period 1605 till the end, the civil service was split into factions who hated and distrusted each other (the notable new faction was the so-called Donglin faction).


The Role of Eunuchs

The Ming founder, Emperor Hongwu, did not want the court eunuchs to encroach on the official government of the Confucian scholars. Later, spurious histories claimed that he forbade enuches from learning how to write or to handle state documents, however this is not true. What was true was that the court eunuchs were not allowed to communicate with members of the government outside of their official duties and this policy was followed till the Xuande Emperor officially set up schools for the imperial eunuchs and expanded their official duties to handle the processing of all the Emperor's personal documents. The reasons for this are clear, many decisions of the government had to personally be approved by the Emperor and the Ancestral Injunctions forbade the Emperor from creating a "chief executive" to handle any of the Emperor's tasks. The problem posed by the Eunuchs was equally clear, by issuing orders with the Imperial seal of authority, by preventing the Emperor from ever seeing some documents, the eunuchs could amass great power and wealth without anyone able to stop them. A eunuch is a castrated human male. ...


The eunuch Wei Zhongxian (in power roughly from 1620 to 1627) had his political rivals tortured to death. He ordered temples built to himself throughout the Empire, and built personal palaces created with funds allocated for building the previous emperor's tombs. His friends and family gained important positions without qualifications. While Wei Zhongxian was something of an extreme example of a corrupt eunuch, in general the problem of eunuchs running the country instead of the senior Confucian scholars was a hallmark of the later Ming Dynasty.


Fall Of The Dynasty

A depiction of a qilin (mythological creature), made of Dehua porcelain ware, Ming Dynasty.
A depiction of a qilin (mythological creature), made of Dehua porcelain ware, Ming Dynasty.

The fall of the Ming Dynasty was a protracted affair, its roots beginning as early as 1600 with the emergence of the Manchu under Nurhaci. Under the brilliant commander, Yuan Chonghuan, the Ming was able to repeatedly fight off the Manchus, notably in 1626 at Ning-yuan and in 1628. Succeeding generals, however, proved unable to eliminate the Manchu threat. Earlier, however, under Yuan's command the Ming had securely fortified the Shanhai pass, thus blocking the Manchus from crossing the pass to attack the Liaodong Peninsula. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1743 × 2387 pixel, file size: 442 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Qilin (Animal of Chinese Mythology) Statue made of Dehua-Porcelain Porzellansammlung im Dresdner Zwinger Photographer: User:Dr. Meierhofer Date: 25. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1743 × 2387 pixel, file size: 442 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Qilin (Animal of Chinese Mythology) Statue made of Dehua-Porcelain Porzellansammlung im Dresdner Zwinger Photographer: User:Dr. Meierhofer Date: 25. ... A qilin of the Qing dynasty in Beijings Summer Palace A painting by the court artist depicting one of Zheng Hes giraffes in 1414. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇煥; style name: Yuansu 元素 and Ziru 自如; June 6, 1584 – September 22, 1630) was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning. ...


Unable to attack the heart of Ming directly, the Manchu instead bided their time, developing their own artillery and gathering allies. They were able to enlist Ming government officials and generals as their strategic advisors. A large part of the Ming Army deserted to the Manchu banner. In 1633, they completed a conquest of Inner Mongolia, resulting in a large scale recruitment of Mongol troops under the Manchu banner and the securing of an additional route into the Ming heartland. Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: &#6181;&#6186;&#6182;&#6199; &#6190;&#6179;&#6184;&#6202;&#6180;&#6191;&#6180;&#6184; &#6181;&#6186;&#6177;&#6199;&#6194;&#6177;&#6202;&#6177;&#6184; &#6197;&#6176;&#6192;&#6176;&#6188;&#6180; &#6179;&#6199;&#6180;&#6184; r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: &#20869;&#33945;&#21476;&#33258;&#27835;&#21306;; Hanyu Pinyin: N...


By 1636, the Manchu ruler Huang Taiji was confident enough to proclaim the Imperial Qing Dynasty at Shenyang, which had fallen to the Manchu in 1621, taking the Imperial title Chongde. The end of 1637 saw the defeat and conquest of Ming's traditional ally Korea by a 100,000 strong Manchu army, and the Korean renunciation of the Ming Dynasty. Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Manchu name Manchu: (Hong Taiji) Huang Taiji (1592 – September 21, 1643; reigned 1626 – 1643), also transliterated as Hong Taiji or Hung Taiji based on the Manchu language, was the first Emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... This article is about a city. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Nekkhamma (Renunciation) is one of the ten paramis or perfections that a bodhisattva must develop in order to become a Buddha. ...


On May 26, 1644, Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng. Seizing their chance, the Manchus crossed the Great Wall after Ming border general Wu Sangui opened the gates at Shanhai Pass, and quickly overthrew Li's short-lived Shun Dynasty. Despite the loss of Beijing (whose weakness as an Imperial capital Zhu Yuanzhang had foreseen) and the death of the emperor, Ming power was by no means destroyed. Nanjing, Fujian, Guangdong, Shanxi, and Yunnan were all strongholds of Ming resistance. However, there were several pretenders for the Ming throne, and their forces were divided. Each bastion of resistance was individually defeated by the Qing until 1662, when the last real hopes of a Ming revival died with the Yongli emperor, Zhu Youlang. Despite the Ming defeat, smaller loyalist movements continued until the proclamation of the Republic of China. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) (September 22, 1606 - 1644), born Li Hóngjī (鴻基), was a rebel in late Ming Dynasty China who proclaimed himself Chuǎng Wáng (闖王), or The Roaming King. Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣), Yanan Subprefecture (延安府), Shaanxi, Li grew up as a shepherd. ... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... First Gate Under Heaven, under repairs in 2003. ... Shun Dynasty was a pseudo imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... The Prince of Gui (&#26690;&#29579;) or the Yongli Emperor, was an emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty in China. ...


Economy: agricultural and commercial revolution

This tripod planter from the Ming Dynasty is an example of Longquan celadon. It is housed in the Smithsonian in Washington, D.C.
This tripod planter from the Ming Dynasty is an example of Longquan celadon. It is housed in the Smithsonian in Washington, D.C.
A Ming Dynasty bronze mirror with Celestial symbols
A Ming Dynasty bronze mirror with Celestial symbols
The only surviving example of a major piece of furniture from the "Orchard Factory" (the Imperial Lacquer Workshop) set up in Beijing in the early Ming Dynasty. Decorated in dragons and phoenixes, it was made to stand in an imperial palace. Made sometime during the Xuande reign period (1426-1435) of the Dynasty. Currently on display at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. See the closeup for more detail
The only surviving example of a major piece of furniture from the "Orchard Factory" (the Imperial Lacquer Workshop) set up in Beijing in the early Ming Dynasty. Decorated in dragons and phoenixes, it was made to stand in an imperial palace. Made sometime during the Xuande reign period (1426-1435) of the Dynasty. Currently on display at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. See the closeup for more detail

Historians consider the Hongwu Emperor to be a cruel but able ruler. From the start of his rule, he took great care to distribute land to small farmers. It seems to have been his policy to favour the poor, whom he tried to help to support themselves and their families. For instance, in 1370 an order was given that some land in Hunan and Anhui should be distributed to young farmers who had reached manhood. To preclude the confiscation or purchase of this land by unscrupulous landlords, it was announced that the title to the land was not transferable. At approximately the middle of Hongwu's reign, an edict was published declaring that those who cultivated wasteland could keep it as their property and would never be taxed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1708x1045, 999 KB) A ceramic tripod planter from the Ming Dynasty. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1708x1045, 999 KB) A ceramic tripod planter from the Ming Dynasty. ... Longquan celadon (&#40857;&#27849;&#38738;&#29943;) is a variety of celadon pottery produced in Longquan city, Zhejiang province, China. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 172 KB)Table, carved lacquer on wood. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 172 KB)Table, carved lacquer on wood. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... For other mythic firebirds, see Fire bird (mythology). ... Categories: China-related stubs | 1398 births | 1435 deaths | Ming Dynasty emperors ... Events March 6 - Battle of St. ... For other uses, see number 1435. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan and Henan Hunan (&#28246;&#21335;; pinyin: Húnán) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of the Dongting Lake (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is... Anhui (Chinese: &#23433;&#24509;; pinyin: &#256;nhu&#299;; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


One of the most important aspects of the development of farming was water conservancy. The Hongwu emperor paid special attention to the irrigation of farms all over the empire, and in 1394 a number of students from Guoziqian were sent to all of the provinces to help develop irrigation systems.


Having himself come from a peasant family, Hongwu emperor knew very well how much farmers suffered under the gentry and the wealthy. Many of the latter, using influence with magistrates, not only encroached on the land of farmers, but also by bribed sub-officials to transfer the burden of taxation to the small farmers they had wronged. To prevent such abuses the Hongwu Emperor instituted two very important systems: "Yellow Records" and "Fish Scale Records", which served to guarantee both the government's income from land taxes and the people's enjoyment of their property.


Hongwu kept a powerful army organized on a military system known as the weisuo system. The weisuo system in the early Ming period was a great success. At one time the soldiers numbered over a million and Hongwu, well aware of the difficulties of supplying such a number of men, adopted this method of military settlements. Those who could afford it supplied their own equipment; otherwise it was supplied by the government. Thus the empire was assured strong forces without burdening the people for its support.


Hongwu's prejudice against the merchant class did not diminish the numbers of traders. On the contrary, commerce was on much greater scale than in previous centuries and continued to increase, as the growing industries needed the cooperation of the merchants. Poor soil in some provinces and over-population were key forces that led many to enter the trade markets. A book called "Tu pien hsin shu" gives a detailed description about the activities of merchants at that time. In the end, the Hongwu policy of banning trade only acted to hinder the government from taxing private traders. Hongwu did continue to conduct limited trade with merchants for necessities such as salts. For example, the government entered into contracts with the merchants for the transport of grain to the borders. In payments, the government issued salt tickets to the merchants, who could then sell them to the people. These deals were highly profitable for the merchants.


Private trade continued in secret because the coast was impossible to patrol and police adequately, and because local officials and scholar-gentry families in the coastal provinces actually colluded with merchants to build ships and trade. The smuggling was mainly with Japan and Southeast Asia, and it picked up after silver lodes were discovered in Japan in the early 1500s. The hai jin sea ban had a predominant effect on coastal communities. Since silver was the essential form of money in China, lots of people were willing to take the risk of sailing to Japan or Southeast Asia to sell products for Japanese silver, or to invite Japanese traders to come to the Chinese coast and trade in secret ports. The Ming court's attempt to stop this 'piracy' was the source of the wokou wars of the 1550s and 1560s. After private trade with Southeast Asia was legalized again in 1567, there was no more black market. Trade with Japan was still banned, but merchants could simply get Japanese silver in Southeast Asia. Also, Spanish Peruvian silver was entering the market in titanic quantities, and there was no restriction on trading for it in Manila. The widespread introduction of silver into China helped monetize the economy (replacing barter with currency), further facilitating trade. The Hai jin (&#28023;&#31105;) was a ban on maritime activities during the mid-Ming Dynasty of China. ...


See also

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Ming Dynasty

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Chancellor of China 丞相 (Cheng Xiang) or 宰相 (Zai Xiang), was the highest rank in the imperial government in former China after the emperor (685 BC-6 BC, 189-1380). ... Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world. ... The Ming Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, succeeding the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and falling amidst much peasant turmoil to the Manchu Qing dynasty. ... The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... The Ming Dynasty military conquests were instrumental to its hold on power during the early stages of the Ming dynasty. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Standing in the Spirit Way at the Ming Tombs looking back towards the entry gate. ... The headwear of a Han Chinese official during Ming Dynasty China consisted of a black hat with two wing-like flaps (small thin oval boards) on each side. ... Chinese export porcelain refers to a wide range of porcelain that was made and decorated in China exclusively for export to Europe between the 16th and the 20th century. ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe... The Hai jin (&#28023;&#31105;) was a ban on maritime activities during the mid-Ming Dynasty of China. ... Xu Xiake (&#24464;&#38686;&#23458;, py. ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Ming dynasty > Foreign relations
  2. ^ Zheng He's Voyages of Discovery, UCLA International Institute

References

  • Brook, Timothy. (1998). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22154-0 (Paperback).

Further readings

  • Huang, Ray. 1587, A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
  • Source for "Fall of the Ming Dynasty":- Dupuy and Dupuy's "Collins Encyclopedia of Military History"
Preceded by
Yuan Dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
1368–1644
Succeeded by
Shun Dynasty
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... Shun Dynasty was a pseudo imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...


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