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Encyclopedia > Ming Dynasty military conquests

The Ming Dynasty military conquests were instrumental to its hold on power during the early stages of the Ming dynasty. The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ...

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Hong-wu reign (1368-98)

Early in his reign, Zhu Yuanzhang, the first Ming emperor, laid down instructions to later generations that included advice to the Chief Military Commission on those countries which posed a threat to the Ming polity, and those which did not. He stated that those to the north were dangerous, while those to the south did not constitute a threat, and were not to be subject to attack. Yet, either despite this, or as a result of it, it was the polities to the south which were to suffer the greatest effects of Ming expansion over the following century. The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ...


In 1369, not long after Zhu Yuan-zhang founded his new dynasty, he sent proclamations for the instruction of the countries of Yunnan and Japan. This early recognition of Yunnan (which lay beyond the Ming) as a "country", was to change very soon thereafter. By 1380, Yunnan, which was still held by a Mongol prince, was considered to belong to China since the Han dynasty, and 250,000 troops were deployed in an attack on the polity, taking Dali, Lijiang and Jinchi in 1382. As a result, the Ming founder took control of the major urban centres of the north-western part of what is today, Yunnan, including several Tai areas. Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; Hanyu pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Events September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitrii Ivanovich defeat a mixed army of Tatars and Mongols (the Golden Horde), stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Motto: Dayar Mongol Anthem: Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Capital Ulaanbaatar Largest city Ulaanbaatar Official language(s) Mongolian Government President Prime minister Parliamentary democracy Nambaryn Enkhbayar Miyeegombo Enkhbold Independence - Declared July 11, 1921 (from China) Area  - Total    - Water (%)   1,564,116 km² (18th) 603,909 sq mi  0. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... DALI (Danish Audiophile Loudspeaker Industry) is a manufacturer of high-end loudspeakers situated in Denmark. ... Lijiang City (Chinese: 丽江市; Hanyu Pinyin: ) refers to an administrative division comprising of urban and rural areas in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Emperor Go-Komatsu ascends to the throne of Japan John Wyclifs teachings are condemned by the Synod of London. ... The Tai languages are a subgroup of the Tai Kadai language family. ...


By 1387, Ming Tai-zu had set his sights further, and in preparation for an attack on the Baiyi (Möng Mao) polity to the south. Under the commander Mu Ying, the Ming forces attacked the Bai-yi with firearms, taking a claimed 30,000 heads. Si Lun-fa was subsequently dunned for all the costs of the military expedition against him, as a quid pro quo for recognising him as ruler of the Bai-yi. Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... The Hongwu Emperor (September 21, 1328 – June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder and first emperor 1368 - 1398 of the Míng Dynasty of China. ... Quid pro quo (Latin for something for something, many times understood by English speakers as what for what or tit for tat) is used to mean, in the English speaking world, a favour for a favour (in other linguistic contexts, such as Portuguese and French, it means a misunderstanding, a...


The new polities which were "created" (or recognised) in Yunnan under the first Ming ruler, were known to the Ming as "native offices" (tu si), as they were, initially, usually left under the control of the hereditary rulers, by which the Ming exerted control, and engaged in economic expropriation through tribute demands, and other levies. Che-li (Chiang Hung), for example, was established as a "native office" in 1384. Here, then, was the beginnings of the process by which formerly Southeast Asian polities were gradually absorbed into the Chinese polity. A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ... Look up Levy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Levy may refer to: forced labor; see conscription or national service a form of tax A misspelling of Levi A misspelling of levee See List of people by name: Lev for people named Levy. ... Xishuangbanna (Dai in IPA: []; Traditional Chinese: 西雙版納; Simplified Chinese: 西双版纳; Pinyin: Xīshuāngbǎnnà; Thai: สิบสองปันนา []; previously named Chēlǐ 車里 and Yǔnjǐnghóng 允景洪 in Chinese... Events May / September 3 - Siege of Lisbon by the Castilian army, during the 1383-1385 Crisis Births Antoine, Duke of Brabant (died 1415) St Frances of Rome (died 1440) Khalil Sultan, ruler of Transoxiana (died 1411) Deaths January 1 - King Charles II of Navarre (b. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


In the process by which they were gradually absorbed by the Ming, these polities were subjected to a wide range of tribute demands, labour levies, and other levies, including troop provision. As an example, in the case of the Tai-Mao polity of Lu-Chuan/Ping-Mian, the Ming court demanded 15,000 horses, 500 elephants and 30,000 cattle from the ruler Si Lun-fa in 1397. Subsequently, large silver demands (silver, in lieu of labour) were levied on Lu-chuan. The annual amount of 6,900 liang of silver was initially set, and then it was almost tripled to 18,000 liang. When it was realised that this was impossible to meet, the levy was reduced to the original amount. Other diverse levies were applied to the other polities, and enforced through the use or threat of military force. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular usage, kine archaic, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ...


The Hong-wu reign was marked by frequent despatch of envoys to foreign polities, and the court reception of foreign envoys from the maritime polities of Annam, Champa, Cambodia, Siam, Cochin, San Fo-qi, Java, Japan, Ryukyu, Brunei, and Korea. They were drawn to China by the trade concessions available to tribute envoys, and the rewards given to the rulers who submitted the "tribute". However, the machinations of the Ming state meant that diplomatic links were also a major method by which court insiders, within the system, could gain influence and control. It was the failure to report the arrival of an envoy from Champa that led to Hu Wei-Yong (胡惟庸), the Ming prime minister from 1377 to 1380, being executed on charges of treason. Members of the Ming bureaucracy were likely already heavily involved in Southeast Asian maritime politics by the 1390s. From the latin maritimus, maritime refers to things relating to the sea. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Rough location of Champas core territories. ... Motto: (none) Anthem: Phleng Chat Capital Bangkok Largest city Bangkok Official language(s) Thai Government King Prime Minister Constitutional monarchy Bhumibol Adulyadej Thaksin Shinawatra Independence • Sukhothai kingdom • Ayutthaya kingdom • Thonburi kingdom • Chakri dynasty from Khmer Empire 1238–1368 1350–1767 1767–April 7, 1782 April 7, 1782–present Area  - Total... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島 Ryūkyū-rettō) are an island group, the southern portion belonging to Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the northern part belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. ... Korea (Korean: (ì¡°ì„  or 한국, see below) is a civilization and geographical area situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ... Until the early 19th Century, each European nation had its own system of diplomatic rank. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Events January 17 – Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Events September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitrii Ivanovich defeat a mixed army of Tatars and Mongols (the Golden Horde), stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation or state. ... Events and Trends 1392 Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General Yi Seonggye led a coup détat, overthrowing the kingdom of Goryeo and founding the kingdom of Joseon End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan 1394 Expulsion of Jews from France 1395 End of reign of...


In the early 1370s, the coastal people in China were forbidden to cross the oceans, other than on official missions. Fujian military officials, who had privately sent people across the seas to engage in trade, were punished not long thereafter. The prohibition was reinstated in 1381 and 1384, and an imperial command "strictly prohibiting people from having contact with foreigners" was promulgated in 1390. The frequency of these prohibitions suggests that they were not very effective, and the reason given for the imperial command was that "at this time in Guangdong/Guangxi, Zhejiang and Fujian, there were foolish people who did not know of these prohibitions, and frequently engaged in private trade with foreigners". The prohibition on going abroad to trade privately was reiterated in 1397. Whether these prohibitions actually affected maritime trade between southern China and Southeast Asia is something which is not immediately apparent from the Ming texts, and perhaps through further archaeological research, it will be possible to piece together the ebbs and flows in maritime trade between China and Southeast Asia during this period. Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s 1360s - 1370s - 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s 1420s Years: 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 Events and Trends Mamai was a powerful military commander of Golden Horde, who resided in the western part of this... Fujian (Chinese: 福建; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ... Events June 12 - Peasants Revolt: In England rebels arrive at Blackheath. ... Events May / September 3 - Siege of Lisbon by the Castilian army, during the 1383-1385 Crisis Births Antoine, Duke of Brabant (died 1415) St Frances of Rome (died 1440) Khalil Sultan, ruler of Transoxiana (died 1411) Deaths January 1 - King Charles II of Navarre (b. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; Pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangtung or Canton Province, Jyutping: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: Guǎngxī; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... Archaeological field survey is the methodological process by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) collect information about the location, distribution and organisation of past human cultures across a large area (e. ...


Yong-le reign (1403-1424)

Knowledge of the reign of Ming Tai-zu’s successor, the Jian-wen Emperor (1399-1402), has been almost entirely lost to us as a result of the civil war and coup d'etat launched by his uncle, Zhu Di. In the aftermath, Zhu Di tried to eliminate all evidence of his nephew’s reign from the historical record. As such, the links between Ming China and Southeast Asia in this crucial period must remain in the realm of conjecture. Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360–August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ...


The period of Yong-le, as Zhu Di was to name his reign, is however, very well-documented, and it is this period in which many of the most dramatic Ming interactions with Southeast Asia occurred. Like his father, after coming to power, Zhu Di ordered the Ministry of Rites to send demands to foreign polities, requiring them to bring tribute to court. In the same year, he also established the Maritime Trade Supervisorates in the provinces of Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong, in order to control the sea trade with all foreign polities. In 1405, hostels were established under each of the above-noted provinces to look after the foreign envoys who would come from abroad. It was already apparent at this early stage of the reign that the Yong-le Emperor was planning to have much to do with maritime Asia. Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


At the same time, the new emperor was also anxious to advertise the cultural superiorities of the Ming to the rest of the known world and to this end, he distributed 10,000 copies of the "Biographies of Exemplary Women" (烈女傳) to various non-Chinese polities for their moral instruction. Whether any motifs from this Chinese text have appeared in Southeast Asian literature, has not yet, it appears, been studied. Court calendars were also distributed to Southeast Asian polities by the Ministry of Rites. In literature, a motif is any recurring element that has symbolic significance. ...


A number of major military expeditions into Southeast Asia occurred during the Yong-le reign. In 1406, in an effort to increase Ming influence and power in Đại Việt (Vietnam), the country which was known to the Ming as Annan (the "Pacified South"), the Yong-le emperor attempted to send a puppet ruler, named Chen Tian-ping (Trần Thiên Bình) into that country. Chen Tian-ping was killed as he proceeded into the country. This killing by the Vietnamese became the immediate pretext for Yong-le to launch a huge invasion, a move, obviously planned well before the event. In that same year, two huge Chinese armies were sent along two routes, via Yunnan and Guangxi, into Đại Việt. Chinese forces claimed that seven million of the Vietnamese were killed in this initial campaign to take the polity. In 1407, Jiaozhi became Ming China’s 14th province, and remained so until 1428, when the Ming was forced to withdrew by Vietnamese independent movement led by Le Loi. In contrast to the name Annan ("Pacific South"), this 21-year period was one of almost incessant fighting of the region's history. Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Annan has multiple meanings, including: Person Kofi Annan, the Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Events November 20 - A solemn truce between John, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry. ... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... // Events October 12 - English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury besiege Orléans. ... Lê Lợi (1384? - 1433). ... Annan has multiple meanings, including: Person Kofi Annan, the Secretary-General of the United Nations. ...


As soon as the Ming forces took control of the polity, changes were instituted. In the first year, 7,600 tradesmen and artisans (including gun founders), captured in Đại Việt, were sent to the Ming capital at today’s Nanjing. This stripping of some of the most skilled members of the society extensively affected the Vietnamese society. Subsequently, more Chinese and non-Chinese troops were brought into the region to maintain some semblance of control, and a wide range of new organs of civil administration were re-established. By 1408, Jiaozhi had 41 subprefectures, and 208 counties, all being administered in a Chinese mode, but many staffed by Vietnamese. Regardless of how much political hegemony was thrown off in the late 1420s, when the Ming were driven out, the administrative legacy of the Chinese occupation must have had a major and wide-ranging impact on the societies of the country. In a claimed effort to further inculcate Chinese ways, Confucian schools, existed already in Đại Việt several hundred years before, were re-established in Chinese style, and Chineses were appointed to teach in them. In an attempt to assimilate the country into Chinese cultural sphere, this period saw an invaluable part of Vietnamese academic and historical works destroyed by the Ming authorities. An artisan, also called a craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... Nanjing (Chinese: 南京 [ ]; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin) , Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal System Pinyin) ) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... Events December 13 - The Order of the Dragon is officially formated under King Sigismund of Hungary. ... Subprefecture is an administrative level that is below prefecture or province. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Hegemony (pronounced ) (greek:ηγεμονία) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Events and Trends Categories: 1420s ... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Chinese: å„’å­¦, Pinyin: Rúxué‚ [ ] , literally The School of the Scholars; or, less accurately, 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Religion of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ...


The year 1407 also saw a new Maritime Trade Supervisorate, being established at Yuntun (Vandon) City in Jiaozhi, while two new such offices were established at Xinping (新平) and Shunhua (順化) in 1408. Thus, within two years, three maritime trade supervisorates had been created in this new province, the same number as existed in the rest of China. This was a clear indication of the desire of the Ming to control maritime trade to the south, and exploit the economic advantage of such control. Events November 20 - A solemn truce between John, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry. ... Events December 13 - The Order of the Dragon is officially formated under King Sigismund of Hungary. ...


Other economic exploitation involved grain taxes, annual levies of lacquer, sapan wood, kingfisher feathers, fans and aromatics, and the imposition of monopolies on gold, silver, salt, iron, and fish. In addition, eunuchs were sent to Jiaozhi with the task of collecting treasure for the Emperor, but an equal amount of treasure collection appears to have been done for themselves. The rapaciousness of the eunuchs, at least as depicted in Ming accounts, was such that even the emperors intervened on appointments. The Hong-xi Emperor objected to the re-sending of the eunuch Ma Qi, to Jiaozhi, when he attempted to have himself reappointed to control the gold, silver, aromatics and pearls of the region in 1424. The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or colored coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Kingfishers are birds of the three families Alcedinidae (river kingfishers), Halcyonidae (tree kingfishers), and Cerylidae (water kingfishers). ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... It has been suggested that coercive monopoly be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus: one of the most abundant species of fish in the world. ... A eunuch is an infertile human male whose testicles have either been removed (deliberately or by accident) or are otherwise non-functional. ... Nuclei from Toba Pearl Island, Japan A pearl is a hard, rounded object produced by certain animals, primarily mollusks such as oysters. ... Events August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stuart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ...


By 1414, the Ming was sufficiently well-entrenched in the north of Ðại Việt to allow it to push further, establishing four further subprefectures in a region south of Jiaozhi, which had formerly been administered by Ðại Việt and still freed from Chinese influence, as well as some parts of northern border of Champa. There are authors who believe that the Chinese occupation of Ðại Việt in this period played some role in the later southward expansion of the Vietnamese state. However, the Vietnamese southward expansion had began in the Ly dynasty of Ðại Việt and the major advancements were made by Nguyen Lords at least two centuries later. The levies and demands, made on the new province by the Ming, meant that its capacity to feed itself, suffered. On numerous occasions in the 1420s, it was necessary to arrange transport of grain from Guangdong and Guangxi into Jiaozhi. Such deficiencies would have had profound effects on the social structure and social stability in the region, compounded by the warfare and imposition of Chinese norms. The range of colonial policies which the Ming pursued had wide-ranging effects, both on the society at the time, as well as on the future development of the Vietnamese state. // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Rough location of Champas core territories. ... The Lý Dynasty (nhà Lý), sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty (nhà Hậu Lý), was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Anterior Le Dynasty (nhà Tiền Lê) and ended in 1225 when the queen Lý Chiêu Hoàng... The Nguyen Lords (1558 - 1775) were a series of rulers of Southern Vietnam. ... Events and Trends Categories: 1420s ...


Prior to Yong-le's invasion of Ðại Việt in 1406, he engaged himself in further expansion into the polities of Yunnan. By 1403, he had created new military guards on the distant border, with two independent battalions, directly under the Regional Military Commission, being established at Tengchong and Yongchang in 1403. These were to be the bases from which the subsequent further occupation and control of the Tai regions was to be pursued. In the same year, new Chief’s Offices were established in Yunnan, at Zhele Dian, Dahou, Ganyai, Wandian and Lujiang, and in 1406, a further four Chief’s Offices were established under Ningyuan Guard, in what is today Sip Song Chau Tai in Vietnam. When the Tai polities did not accord with what the new Ming emperor required, military actions were launched against them. In 1405, for example, the senior Chinese representative in Yunnan, Mu Sheng, launched an attack on Lanna (Babai). Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO code In military terminology, a battalion consists of two to six companies typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Lanna (English One Million Thai Rice Fields, Thai ล้านนา) was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city of Chiang Mai. ...


After some sort of recognition or acceptance of the superior position of the Ming court, Chinese clerks or registry managers were appointed to the "native offices" to "assist" the traditional ruler, and ensure that Ming interests were served. Chinese clerks were appointed to carry out Chinese language duties in the native offices of Yunnan in 1404, while similar circulating-official clerk positions (to be filled by Chinese) were established in seven Chief’s Offices in Yunnan in 1406. The "native office" polities were then subject to demands in terms of gold and silver in lieu of labour (差發銀/金), administered by the Ministry of Revenue, and were also required to provide troops to assist in further Ming campaigns. Mu-bang, for example, was required to send its troops against Lanna (Babai) in 1406. This pattern of exploitation continued through the reign. Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ...


See also

  • Fourth Chinese domination (History of Vietnam)

The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1406 to 1428, upon which, the country was ruled by the Ming administration. ...

External links

  • Yun, China history forum

 
 

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