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Encyclopedia > Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. A rock, by comparison, is an aggregate of minerals and need not have a specific chemical composition. Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salts to very complex silicates with thousands of known forms.[1] The study of minerals is called mineralogy. Look up mineral in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Rock (disambiguation). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... A magnified crystal of salt In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ...

An assortment of minerals.
An assortment of minerals.

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Mineral definition and classification

To be classified as a "true" mineral, a substance must be a solid and have a crystalline structure. It must also be a naturally occurring, homogeneous substance with a defined chemical composition. Traditional definitions excluded organically derived material. However, the International Mineralogical Association in 1995 adopted a new definition: For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is an international group of 38 national societies. ...

a mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline and that has been formed as a result of geological processes.[2]

The modern classifications include an organic class - in both the new Dana and the Strunz classification schemes.[3][4]


The chemical composition may vary between end members of a mineral system. For example the plagioclase feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodium-rich albite (NaAlSi3O8) to calcium-rich anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) with four recognized intermediate compositions between. Mineral-like substances that don't strictly meet the definition are sometimes classified as mineraloids. Other natural-occurring substances are nonminerals. Industrial minerals is a market term and refers to commercially valuable mined materials (see also Minerals and Rocks section below). A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... An endmember in mineralogy is a mineral that is at the extreme end of a mineral series. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... Albite Albite is an alkali feldspar mineral. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Anorthite is one of the plagioclase feldspars, an important group of minerals abundant in the Earths crust. ... A mineraloid is a mineral-like substance that does not demonstrate crystallinity. ... A Nonmineral (Mineralogy) is a substance found in a natural environment that does not satisfy the definition of a Mineral and is not even a Mineraloid. ... Industrial minerals are geological materials which are mined for their commercial value, which are not fuel (fuel minerals or mineral fuels) and are not sources of metals (metallic minerals). ...


A crystal structure is the orderly geometric spatial arrangement of atoms in the internal structure of a mineral. There are 14 basic crystal lattice arrangements of atoms in three dimensions, and these are referred to as the 14 "Bravais lattices". Each of these lattices can be classified into one of the six crystal systems, and all crystal structures currently recognized fit in one Bravais lattice and one crystal system. This crystal structure is based on regular internal atomic or ionic arrangement that is often expressed in the geometric form that the crystal takes. Even when the mineral grains are too small to see or are irregularly shaped, the underlying crystal structure is always periodic, and can be determined by X-ray diffraction. Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after Auguste Bravais, is an infinite set of points generated by a set of discrete translation operations. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


Chemistry and crystal structure together define a mineral. In fact, two or more minerals may have the same chemical composition, but differ in crystal structure (these are known as polymorphs). For example, pyrite and marcasite are both iron sulfide, but their arrangement of atoms differs. Similarly, some minerals have different chemical compositions, but the same crystal structure: for example, halite (made from sodium and chlorine), galena (made from lead and sulfur) and periclase (made from magnesium and oxygen) all share the same cubic crystal structure. The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... The mineral marcasite, sometimes called white iron pyrite, is iron sulfide (FeS2). ... For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Galena is a lead ore. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Periclase occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Crystal structure greatly influences a mineral's physical properties. For example, though diamond and graphite have the same composition (both are pure carbon), graphite is very soft, while diamond is the hardest of all known minerals. This happens because the carbon atoms in graphite are arranged into sheets which can slide easily past each other, while the carbon atoms in diamond form a strong, interlocking three-dimensional network. This article is about the gemstone. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


There are currently more than 4,000 known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association, which is responsible for the approval of and naming of new mineral species found in nature. Of these, perhaps 150 can be called "common," 50 are "occasional," and the rest are "rare" to "extremely rare." The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is an international group of 38 national societies. ...


Differences between minerals and rocks

A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure. A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals. (A rock may also include organic remains and mineraloids.) Some rocks are predominantly composed of just one mineral. For example, limestone is a sedimentary rock composed almost entirely of the mineral calcite. Other rocks contain many minerals, and the specific minerals in a rock can vary widely. Some minerals, like quartz, mica or feldspar are common, while others have been found in only one or two locations worldwide. The vast majority of the rocks of the Earth's crust consist of quartz, feldspar, mica, chlorite, kaolin, calcite, epidote, olivine, augite, hornblende, magnetite, hematite, limonite and a few other minerals.[5] Over half of the mineral species known are so rare that they have only been found in a handful of samples, and many are known from only one or two small grains. For other uses, see Rock (disambiguation). ... A mineraloid is a mineral-like substance that does not demonstrate crystallinity. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The chlorite ion This discusses some chlorine compounds. ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... Epidote from Slovakia Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral, Ca2(Al, Fe)3(SiO4)3(OH), crystallizing in the monoclinic system. ... The mineral olivine (also called chrysolite and, when gem-quality, peridot) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. ... Augite is a single chain inosilicate mineral described chemically as (Ca,Mg,Fe)SiO3 or calcium magnesium iron silicate. ... Amphibole (Hornblende) Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. ... // Headline text Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral form of iron(II,III) oxide, with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Limonite Limonite Limonite is a ferric hydrate of varying composition, the generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH2O, although this is not entirely accurate as Limonite often contains a varying amount of oxide compared to hydroxide. ...


Commercially valuable minerals and rocks are referred to as industrial minerals. Rocks from which minerals are mined for economic purposes are referred to as ores (the rocks and minerals that remain, after the desired mineral has been separated from the ore, are referred to as tailings). Industrial minerals are geological materials which are mined for their commercial value, which are not fuel (fuel minerals or mineral fuels) and are not sources of metals (metallic minerals). ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... An ore is a mineral deposit containing a metal or other valuable resource in economically viable concentrations. ... Tailings (also known as slickens[1]) are the waste left over[2] after removing the gangue from ore. ...


Mineral composition of rocks

A main determining factor in the formation of minerals in a rock mass is the chemical composition of the mass, for a certain mineral can be formed only when the necessary elements are present in the rock. Calcite is most common in limestones, as these consist essentially of calcium carbonate; quartz is common in sandstones and in certain igneous rocks which contain a high percentage of silica. For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ...


Other factors are of equal importance in determining the natural association or paragenesis of rock-forming minerals, principally the mode of origin of the rock and the stages through which it has passed in attaining its present condition. Two rock masses may have very much the same bulk composition and yet consist of entirely different assemblages of minerals. The tendency is always for those compounds to be formed which are stable under the conditions under which the rock mass originated. A granite arises by the consolidation of a molten magma at high temperatures and great pressures and its component minerals are those stable under such conditions. Exposed to moisture, carbonic acid and other subaerial agents at the ordinary temperatures of the Earth's surface, some of these original minerals, such as quartz and white mica are relatively stable and remain unaffected; others weather or decay and are replaced by new combinations. The feldspar passes into kaolinite, muscovite and quartz, and any mafic minerals such as pyroxenes, amphiboles or biotite have been present they are often altered to chlorite, epidote, rutile and other substances. These changes are accompanied by disintegration, and the rock falls into a loose, incoherent, earthy mass which may be regarded as a sand or soil. The materials thus formed may be washed away and deposited as sandstone or siltstone. The structure of the original rock is now replaced by a new one; the mineralogical constitution is profoundly altered; but the bulk chemical composition may not be very different. The sedimentary rock may again undergo metamorphism. If penetrated by igneous rocks it may be recrystallized or, if subjected to enormous pressures with heat and movement during mountain building, it may be converted into a gneiss not very different in mineralogical composition though radically different in structure to the granite which was its original state.[5] Paragenesis is a petrologic concept meaning an equilibrium assemblage of mineral phases. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... Weathering is the decomposing of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the air. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kaolin redirects here. ... Muscovite layer Muscovite, also known as potash mica, is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2. ... In geology, mafic minerals and rocks are silicate minerals, magmas, and volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks that have relatively high concentrations of the heavier elements. ... Figure 1:Mantle-peridotite xenolith with green peridot olivine and black pyroxene crystals from San Carlos Indian Reservation, Gila Co. ... For the logical fallacy, see Amphibology. ... A Biotite slice Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral that contains potassium, magnesium, iron and aluminium. ... The chlorite ion This discusses some chlorine compounds. ... Epidote from Slovakia Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral, Ca2(Al, Fe)3(SiO4)3(OH), crystallizing in the monoclinic system. ... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... Gneiss Gneiss (IPA: ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ...


Physical properties of minerals

Classifying minerals can range from simple to very difficult. A mineral can be identified by several physical properties, some of them being sufficient for full identification without equivocation. In other cases, minerals can only be classified by more complex chemical or X-ray diffraction analysis; these methods, however, can be costly and time-consuming. X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ...


Physical properties commonly used are:[1]

  • Crystal structure and habit: See the above discussion of crystal structure. A mineral may show good crystal habit or form, or it may be massive, granular or compact with only microscopically visible crystals.
Talc
Talc
Rough diamond.
Rough diamond.
  • Hardness: the physical hardness of a mineral is usually measured according to the Mohs scale. This scale is relative and goes from 1 to 10. Minerals with a given Mohs hardness can scratch the surface of any mineral that has a lower hardness than itself.
    • Moh's Hardness scale:[6]
  1. Talc Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
  2. Gypsum CaSO4·2H2O
  3. Calcite CaCO3
  4. Fluorite CaF2
  5. Apatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH,Cl,F)
  6. Orthoclase KAlSi3O8
  7. Quartz SiO2
  8. Topaz Al2SiO4(OH,F)2
  9. Corundum Al2O3
  10. Diamond C (pure carbon)
  • Luster indicates the way a mineral's surface interacts with light and can range from dull to glassy (vitreous).
    • Metallic -high reflectivity like metal: galena and pyrite
    • Sub-metallic -slightly less than metallic reflectivity: magnetite
    • Non-metallic lusters:
      • Adamantine - brilliant, the luster of diamond also cerussite and anglesite
      • Vitreous -the luster of a broken glass: quartz
      • Pearly - iridescent and pearl-like: talc and apophyllite
      • Resinous - the luster of resin: sphalerite and sulfur
      • Silky - a soft light shown by fibrous materials: gypsum and chrysotile
      • Dull/earthy -shown by finely crystallized minerals: the kidney ore variety of hematite
  • Color indicates the appearance of the mineral in reflected light or transmitted light for translucent minerals (i.e. what it looks like to the naked eye).
    • Iridescence - the play of colors due to surface or internal interference. Labradorite exhibits internal iridescence whereas hematite and sphalerite often show the surface effect.
  • Streak refers to the color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on an unglazed porcelain streak plate. Note that this is not always the same color as the original mineral.
  • Cleavage describes the way a mineral may split apart along various planes. In thin sections, cleavage is visible as thin parallel lines across a mineral.
  • Fracture describes how a mineral breaks when broken contrary to its natural cleavage planes.
    • Chonchoidal fracture is a smooth curved fracture with concentric ridges of the type shown by glass.
    • Hackley is jagged fracture with sharp edges.
    • Fibrous
    • Irregular
  • Specific gravity relates the mineral mass to the mass of an equal volume of water, namely the density of the material. While most minerals, including all the common rock-forming minerals, have a specific gravity of 2.5 - 3.5, a few are noticeably more or less dense, e.g. several sulfide minerals have high specific gravity compared to the common rock-forming minerals.
  • Other properties: fluorescence (response to ultraviolet light), magnetism, radioactivity, tenacity (response to mechanical induced changes of shape or form), piezoelectricity and reactivity to dilute acids.

Image File history File links Talc_block. ... Image File history File links Talc_block. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In materials science, hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Fluorite (also called fluor-spar) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ... Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal. ... Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral, which forms igneous rock. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. ... Corundum (from Tamil kurundam) is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide and one of the rock-forming minerals. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... For the file system called Lustre, see Lustre (file system) Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... Galena is a lead ore. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... // Headline text Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral form of iron(II,III) oxide, with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... Sample of cerussite-bearing quartzite Cerussite (also known as lead carbonate or white lead ore) is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an important ore of lead. ... Anglesite specimen in its orthorhombic crystalline form Anglesite is a lead sulfate mineral, PbSO4. ... The name apophyllite refers to a specific group of phyllosilicate minerals, a class of minerals that also includes the micas. ... Sphalerite sample Another sphalerite sample The unit cell of sphalerite Sphalerite (ZnS) is a gay mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Chrysotile Asbestos Chrysotile is an asbestiform sub-group within the serpentine group of minerals. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Labradorite, a feldspar mineral, is a member of the plagioclase series. ... The streak (also called powder color) of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across a unweathered surface. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric potential[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ...

Chemical properties of minerals

Minerals may be classified according to chemical composition. They are here categorized by anion group. The list below is in approximate order of their abundance in the Earth's crust. The list follows the Dana classification system.[1][7] An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... James Dwight Dana (February 12, 1813 - April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist and zoologist. ...


Silicate class

The largest group of minerals by far are the silicates (most rocks are >95% silicates), which are composed largely of silicon and oxygen, with the addition of ions such as aluminium, magnesium, iron, and calcium. Some important rock-forming silicates include the feldspars, quartz, olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, garnets, and micas. Commons:Image:Quartz Crystal. ... Commons:Image:Quartz Crystal. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... “Aluminum” redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... The mineral olivine (also called chrysolite and, when gem-quality, peridot) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. ... Figure 1:Mantle-peridotite xenolith with green peridot olivine and black pyroxene crystals from San Carlos Indian Reservation, Gila Co. ... For the logical fallacy, see Amphibology. ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ...


Carbonate class

The carbonate minerals consist of those minerals containing the anion (CO3)2- and include calcite and aragonite (both calcium carbonate), dolomite (magnesium/calcium carbonate) and siderite (iron carbonate). Carbonates are commonly deposited in marine settings when the shells of dead planktonic life settle and accumulate on the sea floor. Carbonates are also found in evaporitic settings (e.g. the Great Salt Lake, Utah) and also in karst regions, where the dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonates leads to the formation of caves, stalactites and stalagmites. The carbonate class also includes the nitrate and borate minerals. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Morocco Dolomite is the name of both a carbonate rock and a mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate (formula: CaMg(CO3)2) found in crystals. ... Siderite is also the name of a type of iron meteorite. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton are any drifting organism that inhabits the water column of oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. ... A sample of evaporite material Evaporites (IPA: ) are water-soluble, mineral sediments that result from the evaporation of bodies of surficial water. ... Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt lake in the Western Hemisphere,[1] the fourth-largest terminal lake in the world,[2] and the 33rd largest lake on Earth. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... Water droplet coming out of the central canal of a stalactite A stalactite (Greek stalaktites, (Σταλακτίτης), from the word for drip and meaning that which drips) is a type of speleothem(secondary mineral) that hangs from the ceiling or wall of limestone caves. ... The Witchs Finger in the Carlsbad Caverns A stalagmite (from the Greek stalagma (Σταλαγμίτης), drop or drip) is a type of speleothem that rises from the floor of a limestone cave due to the dripping of mineralized solutions and the deposition of calcium carbonate. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Borates in chemistry are chemical compounds containing boron bonded to three oxygen atoms written as B(OR)3. ...


Sulfate class

Sulfates all contain the sulfate anion, SO42-. Sulfates commonly form in evaporitic settings where highly saline waters slowly evaporate, allowing the formation of both sulfates and halides at the water-sediment interface. Sulfates also occur in hydrothermal vein systems as gangue minerals along with sulfide ore minerals. Another occurrence is as secondary oxidation products of original sulfide minerals. Common sulfates include anhydrite (calcium sulfate), celestine (strontium sulfate), barite (barium sulfate), and gypsum (hydrated calcium sulfate). The sulfate class also includes the chromate, molybdate, selenate, sulfite, tellurate, and tungstate minerals. In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... A sample of evaporite material Evaporites (IPA: ) are water-soluble, mineral sediments that result from the evaporation of bodies of surficial water. ... Hydrothermal circulation in the oceans is the passage of the water through mid-ocean Ridge (MOR) systems. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Anhydrite is a mineral - anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4. ... Celestine or celestite[1] (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. ... Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... A sample of ammonium dichromate Chromates and dichromates are salts of chromic acid and dichromic acid, respectively. ... The molybdate ion is MoO42-. A molybdate (compound) is a compound containing the molybdate ion, or more complicated polymeric ions. ... The selenate ion is SeO42-. Selenates are analogous to sulfates and have similar chemistry. ... Sulfites (also sulphite) are compounds that contain the sulfite ion SO32−. They are often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation), dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... The tellurate ion is TeO42- or TeO66-. Unlike sulfate, tellurate is a somewhat good oxidizer; it can be reduced to tellurite or tellurium. ... The tungstate ion is WO42-. A tungstate (compound) is a compound containing the tungstate ion, or more complicated polymeric ions. ...


Halide class

The halides are the group of minerals forming the natural salts and include fluorite (calcium fluoride), halite (sodium chloride), sylvite (potassium chloride), and sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). Halides, like sulfates, are commonly found in evaporitic settings such as playa lakes and landlocked seas such as the Dead Sea and Great Salt Lake. The halide class includes the fluoride, chloride, and iodide minerals. Sodium chloride (halite). ... Sodium chloride (halite). ... For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Fluorite (also called fluor-spar) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ... For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ... Sylvite is potassium chloride (KCl) in natural mineral form. ... Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl. ... It has been suggested that Playa lake be merged into this article or section. ... The Dead Sea (‎, yam ha-melaħ, Sea of Salt; Quranic Arabic: , baħrᵘ l- mayitⁱ [3], Death Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ...


Oxide class

Oxides are extremely important in mining as they form many of the ores from which valuable metals can be extracted. They also carry the best record of changes in the Earth's magnetic field. They commonly occur as precipitates close to the Earth's surface, oxidation products of other minerals in the near surface weathering zone, and as accessory minerals in igneous rocks of the crust and mantle. Common oxides include hematite (iron oxide), magnetite (iron oxide), chromite (iron chromium oxide), spinel (magnesium aluminium oxide - a common component of the mantle), ilmenite (iron titanium oxide), rutile (titanium dioxide), and ice (hydrogen oxide). The oxide class includes the oxide and the hydroxide minerals. An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... An ore is a mineral deposit containing a metal or other valuable resource in economically viable concentrations. ... The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Weathering is the decomposing of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the air. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... // Headline text Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral form of iron(II,III) oxide, with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. ... Chromite, iron magnesium chromium oxide: (Fe,Mg)Cr2O4, is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. ... The spinels are any of a class of minerals which crystallize in the isometric system with an octahedral habit. ... Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ...


Sulfide class

Many sulfide minerals are economically important as metal ores. Common sulfides include pyrite (iron sulfide - commonly known as fools' gold), chalcopyrite (copper iron sulfide), pentlandite (nickel iron sulfide), and galena (lead sulfide). The sulfide class also includes the selenides, the tellurides, the arsenides, the antimonides, the bismuthinides, and the sulfosalts (sulfur and a second anion such as arsenic). Strictly, a mineral that is a sulfide. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... Chalcopyrite (sometimes called peacock pyrite) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. ... Pentlandite is a iron-nickel sulfide, (Fe,Ni)9S8. ... The selenide ion is Se2-. A selenide is a chemical compound in which selenium serves as a anion with oxidation number of -2, much as sulfur does in a sulfide. ... Telluride is either: A compound of a metal with the element Tellurium. ... An arsenide ion is an arsenic atom with three extra electrons and charge -3. ... Antimonides are compounds of antimony with more electropositive elements. ... Sulfosalt minerals are those complex sulfide minerals with the general formula: AmBnSp; where A represents a metal such as copper, lead, or silver; B represents a semi-metal such as arsenic, antimony or bismuth; and S is sulfur or rarely selenium. ...


Phosphate class

The phosphate mineral group actually includes any mineral with a tetrahedral unit AO4 where A can be phosphorus, antimony, arsenic or vanadium. By far the most common phosphate is apatite which is an important biological mineral found in teeth and bones of many animals. The phosphate class includes the phosphate, arsenate, vanadate, and antimonate minerals. Strictly, a mineral that is a phosphate. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... The arsenate ion is AsO43-. An arsenate (compound) is some compound that contains this ion. ... Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ... The antimonate ion is Sb(OH)6-. An antimonate (compound) is some compound that contains this ion. ...


Element class

The Elemental group includes metals and intermetallic elements (gold, silver, copper), semi-metals and non-metals (antimony, bismuth, graphite, sulfur). This group also includes natural alloys, such as electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver), phosphides, silicides, nitrides and carbides (which are usually only found naturally in a few rare meteorites). Electrum coin of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. ...


Organic class

The organic mineral class includes biogenic substances in which geological processes have been a part of the genesis or origin of the existing compound.[2] Minerals of the organic class include various oxalates, mellitates, citrates, cyanates, acetates, formates, hydrocarbons and other miscellaneous species.[3] Examples include whewellite, moolooite, mellite, fichtelite, carpathite, evenkite and abelsonite. Whewellite is a mineral, hydrated calcium oxalate, formula CaC2O4·H2O. Because of its organic content it is thought to have an indirect biological origin and this is supported by it being found in coal and sedimentary nodules. ... Moolooite is a rare blue-green mineral with the formula Cu++(C2O4)·n(H2O) (n<1) (making it a hydrated copper oxalate). ... Mellite, also called honeystone, is an unusual mineral being also an organic chemical. ... Fichtelite is a rare white mineral found in fossilized wood from Bavaria. ... Carpathite (also pendletonite. ... Tetracosane, also called tetrakosane, is an alkane hydrocarbon with the structural formula CH3(CH2)22CH3. ... Abelsonite is a mineral of nickel, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen with formula: Ni[C32H36N4]. It forms purple to reddish brown triclinic crystals. ...


See also

Gem animals. ... Complete mineral list There is actually no such thing as a complete list of minerals. The International Mineralogical Association is the body that recognises new minerals and new mineral names, however minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure, although some minerals published previously have been... The Tucson Gem & Mineral Show is held every year in February for three weeks (two open to the public, one open only to professionals). ... Industrial minerals are geological materials which are mined for their commercial value, which are not fuel (fuel minerals or mineral fuels) and are not sources of metals (metallic minerals). ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... Mineral wool, means fibres made from minerals or metal oxides, be they synthetic or natural. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Norman Levi Bowen was born in Kingston, Ontario, Canada June 21, 1887 and died on September 11, 1956. ... For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... Rock may refer to: Rock, a geologic substance composed of minerals Rock, short for Rock and Roll music Rock, a small offshore islet with minimal soil Rock, a confectionery made and sold in many of the UKs seaside holiday resorts Rock candy, a type of confectionery composed of large...

External links

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References

  1. ^ a b c Klein, Cornelis and Cornelius Hurlbut, Jr. (1985) Manual of Mineralogy, Wiley, 20th ed., ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  2. ^ a b http://www.minsocam.org/msa/ima/ima98(04).pdf Ernest H. Nickel, 1995, The definition of a mineral, The Canadian Mineralogist, vol. 33, pp. 689 - 690
  3. ^ a b http://www.mindat.org/dana.php?a=50 Dana Classification 8th edition - ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
  4. ^ http://www.mindat.org/strunz.php?a=9 Strunz Classification - Organic Compounds
  5. ^ a b This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Petrology", a publication now in the public domain.
  6. ^ http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Products/Pglossary/mineral.html USGS Photo glossary of volcano terms
  7. ^ http://www.minerals.net/mineral/sort-met.hod/dana/dana.htm Dana classification - Minerals.net

  Results from FactBites:
 
Amethyst Galleries' Mineral Gallery (647 words)
A mineral is (generally) an inorganic, naturally occurring, organized crystalline structure composed of a single chemical compound or element.
Mineral crystals form because their component chemicals tend to aggregate together in certain specific arrangements dictated by the shapes and components of the molecules involved (and sometimes varying with temperature and pressure).
Often, minerals are formed as a solution changes in some way which allows or forces the component mineral(s) to solidify.
Mineral (chemistry) - MSN Encarta (185 words)
Mineral (chemistry), in general, any naturally occurring chemical element or compound, but in mineralogy and geology, chemical elements and compounds that have been formed through inorganic processes.
Mineral species are, as a rule, limited to solid substances, the only liquids being metallic mercury and water.
Metalliferous minerals of economic value, which are mined for their metals, are known as ores.
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