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Encyclopedia > Minarchism
Part of the Politics series on
Libertarianism

Schools of thought
Agorism
Anarcho-capitalism
Geolibertarianism
Green libertarianism
Right-Libertarianism
Left-Libertarianism
Minarchism
Neolibertarianism
Paleolibertarianism
Progressive libertarianism
Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Agorism is a radical left-libertarian political philosophy popularized by Samuel Edward Konkin III, who defined an agorist as a conscious practitioner of counter-economics (peaceful black markets and grey markets). ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Geolibertarianism (also geoanarchism) is a liberal political philosophy that holds along with other forms of libertarian individualism that each individual has an exclusive right to the fruits of his or her labor, as opposed to this product being owned collectively by society or the community. ... Green-Libertarian describes a political philosophy that was established in the United States. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy that holds that individuals should be allowed complete freedom of action as long as they do not infringe on the freedom of others. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Libertarian socialism. ... Neolibertarianism is a political philosophy combining elements of libertarian and conservative thought that embraces incrementalism and pragmatism domestically, and a generally interventionist foreign policy based on self-interest, national defense and the expansion of freedom. ... Paleolibertarianism is a school of thought within American libertarianism founded by Lew Rockwell and Murray Rothbard, and closely associated with the Ludwig von Mises Institute. ... Progressive Libertarianism is a political or philosophy whose adherents promote social change through voluntarism rather than government laws and regulation. ...


Origins
Austrian School
Chicago School
Classical liberalism
Individualist anarchism
The Austrian School, also known as “the Vienna School” and as “the Psychological School”, is a school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. ... The Chicago School of Economics is a school of thought in economics; it refers to the style of economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago after 1946. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... Individualist Anarchism is an anarchist philosophical tradition that has a strong emphasis on sovereignty of the individual[1] and is generally opposed to collectivism[2]. The tradition appears most often in the United States, most notably in regard to its advocacy of private property. ...


Ideas
Civil liberties
Free markets
Free trade
Laissez-faire
Liberty
Individualism
Non-aggression
Private property
Self-ownership
Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... Methodological individualism is a philosophical orientation toward explaining broad society-wide developments as the accumulation of decisions by individuals. ... The non-aggression principle (also called the non-aggression axiom, anticoercion principle, or zero aggression principle) is a deontological ethical stance associated with the libertarian movement. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Self-ownership (aka the soveriegnty of the individual or individual sovereignty) is the condition where an individual has the exclusive moral right to control his or her own body and life. ...


Key issues
Economic views
History
Parties
Theories of law
Views of rights
Criticism of libertarianism
The Austrian School of economics and the Chicago School of economics are important foundations of the economic system favored by modern libertarians —capitalism, where the means of production are privately owned, economic and financial decisions are made privately rather than by state control, and goods and services are exchanged in... Modern libertarians see themselves as having revived the original doctrine of liberalism, and often call themselves libertarians and classical liberals interchangeably. ... Many countries and subnational political entities have libertarian political parties. ... Libertarian theories of law build on libertarianism or classical liberalism. ... Libertarians and Objectivists limit what they define as rights to variations on the right to be left alone, and argue that other rights such as the right to a good education or the right to have free access to water are not legitimate rights and do not deserve the same... Libertarianism is a political philosophy that supports largely unrestricted property rights and opposes most government interventions (such as taxation, prosecution of victimless crimes and regulations on businesses beyond the minimum required to prevent fraud or property damage) as coercive, even if a democratic majority supports it. ...

Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

In civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism or small government, is the view that the size, role and influence of government in a free society should be minimal — only large enough to protect the liberty and property of each individual. Many minarchists consider themselves part of the libertarian tradition, and claim that what they call minarchy continues the traditions of classical liberal philosophy. The term is perhaps most often used to differentiate libertarians who believe it is possible to have a state that protects individual liberty without violating it itself, from the anarchists who believe that any state is inherently a violation of individual liberty. Minarchists believe some minimal government is necessary to preserve liberty (from invading non-minarchy based armies, if nothing else). Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts—the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... Statism (or Etatism) is a very loose and often derogatory term that is used to describe: Specific instances of state intervention in personal, social or economic matters. ... Limited government is most commonly government where its functions and powers are prescribed, limited, and restricted by law, usually in a written constitution. ... The philosophy of liberalism originated in 18th century Europe, in the writings of philosophers such as John Locke. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (cf. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ...


The term was coined in 1970 or 1971 by Samuel Edward Konkin III, an anarchist. [1] [2] Samuel Edward Konkin III (aka SEK3) was the author of The New Libertarian Manifesto and a proponent of the political philosophy which he called agorism. ...

Contents

Overview

Minarchists agree that the guiding principle in determining what should or should not fall into the domain of the government is the maximization of individual liberty. Minarchists often disagree on exactly how to accomplish this. Many minarchists usually agree that government should be restricted to its "minimal" or "night watchman" state functions of government (e.g., courts, police, prisons, defense forces). Some minarchists include in the ideal role of government the management of essential common infrastructure (e.g., roads and money). In general, minarchists favor the administration and funding of government services in a small jurisdiction (like a city or county) over a larger jurisdiction (like a state or nation). This is favored because decisions are presumed to be more efficient when the decision-makers are closer to the subjects of the decisions (the citizens), and this leaves individuals who wish to avoid living or working under an expansion of government more options (it's easier to move to another city or county than to move to another state or country) - thus inducing more downsizing political pressure on the government. Minarchists are generally opposed to government programs that either transfer wealth or subsidize certain sectors of the economy. However, most minarchists support some level of government funding, including perhaps taxation in some limited cases, as long as individual liberty and the non-aggression principle are not compromised. [3] A night watchman state, or a minimal state is a form of government in political philosophy where the governments responsibilities are so minimal they cannot be reduced much further without becoming a form of anarchy. ... In economics, a public good is a good that is hard or even impossible to produce for private profit, because the market fails to account for its large beneficial externalities. ... Income redistribution or redistribution of wealth is a political policy promoted by members of the political left, especially socialists, and opposed by members of the political right. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The non-aggression principle (also called the non-aggression axiom, anticoercion principle, or zero aggression principle) is a deontological ethical stance associated with the libertarian movement. ...


Some minarchists explain their vision of the state by referring to basic principles rather than arguing in terms of pragmatic results. For example, in his book Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Robert Nozick defines the role of a minimal state as follows: Anarchy, State, and Utopia is a work of political philosophy written by Robert Nozick in 1974. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... The night watchman state or the minimal state is the state with the least possible amount of powers; these powers cannot be reduced any further without abolishing the state altogether and instituting a form of anarchy. ...

"Our main conclusions about the state are that a minimal state, limited to the narrow functions of protection against force, theft, fraud, enforcement of contracts, and so on, is justified; that any more extensive state will violate persons' rights not to be forced to do certain things, and is unjustified; and that the minimal state is inspiring as well as right. Two noteworthy implications are that the state may not use its coercive apparatus for the purpose of getting some citizens to aid others, or in order to prohibit activities to people for their own good or protection."

Other minarchists instead use utilitarian arguments. They might use theoretical economic arguments, like Ludwig von Mises's contribution to Austrian economics, or statistical economic research, like the Index of Economic Freedom. Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ... The Austrian School, also known as “the Vienna School” and as “the Psychological School”, is a school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ...


Other arguments for minarchism are natural rights, contractarianism and egalitarianism. Natural rights is a philosophical hition of universal rights that are seen as inherent in the nature of people and not contingent on human actions or beliefs. ... Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ...


Prominent minarchists include Benjamin Constant, Herbert Spencer, Leonard Read, Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich Hayek, James M. Buchanan, Milton Friedman, Ayn Rand, Bill Maher, John Hospers, Robert Nozick, George Reisman. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... Leonard E. Read (1898 - 1983) was the founder of the Foundation for Economic Education, which was the first modern libertarian think tank in the United States. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was a prominent American economist and public intellectual. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher,[1] best known for developing Objectivism and for writing the novels We the Living, The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged and the novella Anthem. ... William Bill Maher, Jr. ... John Hospers (born 9 June 1918) was the first presidential candidate of the United States Libertarian Party, running in the 1972 presidential election. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... George Reisman is Professor of Economics at Pepperdine University, and author of the massive 1,050-page volume Capitalism: A Treatise on Economics (ISBN 0915463733). ...


Organizations with minarchist members and supporters include Reason Foundation, International Society for Individual Liberty, and Bureaucrash. The Reason Foundation is a nonprofit think tank founded in 1986 that also publishes Reason magazine. ...


Criticism

Some believe that minarchism is a contradictory philosophy. Libertarianism, by definition, opposes the initiation of force or fraud against person or property. In order for a state to fund itself, it would have to tax people, which requires coercion and thus an initiation of force. Some libertarians argue that anarcho-capitalism is the only logically consistent form of libertarian belief. It is also contradictory to state that violence is immoral, yet still maintain violence in the form of a government. This article is becoming very long. ... Property designates those things that are commonly recognized as being the possessions of a person or group. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


But supporters of minarchism counter that a government could survive on private donations and the creation of trust funds without any form of taxation whatsoever. Even if a government could be voluntarily funded, then it still amounts to an authority with a monopoly of force over a given area, and as such would dictate and control. The mere existence of government, irrespective of how it is funded, undermines one's self-ownership, since to govern is to control. Self-ownership (aka the soveriegnty of the individual or individual sovereignty) is the condition where an individual has the exclusive moral right to control his or her own body and life. ...


Also, some libertarians believe that the concept of "constitutionally limited government" is a fallacy. All known governments in history have grown in size and scope[dubious ]. The American Founding Fathers' approach of limiting the inherent force linked with government (in respect to the United States Constitution) has not worked[dubious ]. The size and scope of the contemporary US federal government probably is far greater than what the Founding Fathers intended or envisaged.[citation needed] Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Founding Fathers are persons instrumental in the establishment of an institution, usually a political institution, especially those connected to the origination of its ideals. ... In physics, force is an influence that may cause a body to accelerate. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


Some minarchists believe their approach to be more pragmatic. However, professor Hans Hermann Hoppe has argued that the only form of state that can pragmatically be restrained from expanding is a monarchical (privately owned) state. Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ... Hans-Hermann Hoppe (born September 2, 1949) is an Austrian school economist and controversial anarcho-capitalist philosopher. ...


See also

Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... It has been suggested that Definitions of capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... Objectivism is the philosophical system developed by Russian-American philosopher and writer Ayn Rand. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Starve-the-beast is a strategy of using budget deficits in order to force the government to reduce its social spending. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (cf. ... Individualist anarchism (or anarchist individualism, anarcho-individualism, individualistic anarchism, philosophical anarchism or scientific anarchism) is an anarchist philosophical tradition that has a strong emphasis on the non-aggression principle and individual sovereignty. ...

External links

Minarchist organizations


  Results from FactBites:
 
Minarchism (595 words)
V občanské výchově, minarchism, někdy nazvaný minimální statism nebo malá vláda, je názor, že velikost, role a vliv vlády ve svobodné společnosti by měli být minimální - jen velký dost chránit svobodu každý a každý jednotlivec, bez porušení svobody nějakých jednotlivců sám, tak maximalizovat individuální svobodu.
Někteří věří, že minarchism je inconsitent s vírou liberálnosti a je neslučitelná filozofie.
Ale zastáncové minarchism namítají, že vláda mohla přežít se soukromými dary a vytvořením fondy bez nějaké formy daňového systému whatsoever.
Roblog » An Introduction to Minarchism (742 words)
Minarchism originally stemmed from the anarchist movement, and was borne out of many anarchists’; disillusionment with the ideology.
Minarchism was created as a result of the realisation that the state is a “necessary evil” if individual liberties are to be protected and maximised, and the term ‘minarchism’ was coined by the famous anarchist Samuel Edward Konkin III.
Minarchism’s ultimate ends are, as we can see, in keeping with the political, social and economic ideals of most libertarians, and as a result minarchism tends to be classified as a libertarian ideology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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