FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Minangkabau" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Minangkabau
Minangkabau
Minangkabau woman dressed in traditional clothes
Minangkabau woman dressed in traditional clothes
Total population

8 million[citation needed] Image File history File links Joyce. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia (2000 census) 5,475,000 [1]
        West Sumatra 3,747,000
        Riau 535,000
        North Sumatra 307,000
        Jakarta 265,000
        West Java 169,000
        Jambi 132,000
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 538,826
Languages
Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay.
Religions
Islam

The Minangkabau ethnic group (also known as Minang or Padang) is indigenous to the highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. Their culture is matrilineal, with property and land passing down from mother to daughter, while religious and political affairs are the province of men (although some women also play important roles in these areas). Today 4 million Minangs live in West Sumatra, while about 3 million more are scattered throughout many Indonesian cities and towns. Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... This page is about the capital city of Indonesia. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ... For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... The Minangkabau language (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau-people of West Sumatra, in the western part of Riau and in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau, who often trade or have a restaurant. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ...


The Minangkabau are strongly Islamic, but also follow their ethnic traditions, or adat. The Minangkabau adat was derived from animistic and Hindu beliefs before the arrival of Islam, and remnants of animistic beliefs still exist even among some practicing Muslims. The present relationship between the Islam and adat is described in the saying "tradition founded upon Islamic law, Islamic law founded upon the Qur'an" ("adat basandi syara', syara' basandi Kitabullah"). For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This is an article about the digital recording format. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Their West Sumatran homelands were the location of the Padri War from 1821 to 1837. The Padri War also called Minangkabau War is the name given to the skirmishes fought by Dutch troops from 1821 to 1837 in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ...

Contents

Etymology

Rumah gadang in the Pandai Sikek village of West Sumatra, with two rice barns (rangkiang) in front.
Rumah gadang in the Pandai Sikek village of West Sumatra, with two rice barns (rangkiang) in front.

The name Minangkabau is thought to be a conjunction of two words, minang ("victorious") and kabau ("buffalo"). There is a legend that the name is derived from a territorial dispute between the Minangkabau and a neighbouring prince. To avoid a battle, the local people proposed a fight to the death between two water buffalo to settle the dispute. The prince agreed and produced the largest, meanest, most aggressive buffalo. The Minangkabau produced a hungry baby buffalo with its small horns ground to be as sharp as knives. Seeing the adult buffalo across the field, the baby ran forward, hoping for milk. The big buffalo saw no threat in the baby buffalo and paid no attention to it, looking around for a worthy opponent. But when the baby thrust his head under the big bull's belly, looking for an udder, the sharpened horns punctured and killed the bull, and the Minangkabau won the contest and the dispute. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1209 KB)[edit] Summary Photograph I took myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1209 KB)[edit] Summary Photograph I took myself. ... Rumah Gadang in the Pandai Sikek village of West Sumatra The rumah gadang (Minangkabau, big house) is the traditional house of the Minangkabau. ...


The roofline of traditional houses in West Sumatra, called Rumah Gadang (Minangkabau, "big house"), curve upward from the middle and end in points, in imitation of the water buffalo's upward-curving horns. Rumah Gadang in the Pandai Sikek village of West Sumatra The rumah gadang (Minangkabau, big house) is the traditional house of the Minangkabau. ... The Minangkabau language (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau-people of West Sumatra, in the western part of Riau and in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau, who often trade or have a restaurant. ...


History

Statue of Adityawarman, founder of the first Minangkabau kingdom.
Statue of Adityawarman, founder of the first Minangkabau kingdom.

People who spoke Austronesian languages first arrived in Sumatra around 2,500 years ago, as part of the Austronesian expansion from Taiwan to Southeast Asia. The Minangkabau language is closest to the Malay language, though when the two languages split from a common ancestor and the precise historical relationship between Malay and Minangkabau culture is not known. Until the 20th century the majority of the Sumatran population lived in the highlands. The highlands are well suited for human habitation, with plentiful fresh water, fertile soil, a cool climate, and valuable commodities such as gold and ivory. It is probable that wet rice cultivation evolved in the Minangkabau highlands long before it appeared in other parts of Sumatra, and predates significant foreign contact.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 330 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (771 × 1400 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dear Michal, For me it´s no problem if you like to use the photo of the AAditvarman statue. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 330 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (771 × 1400 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dear Michal, For me it´s no problem if you like to use the photo of the AAditvarman statue. ... Adityawarman was a prince in the Majapahit empire during the 14th century, and a blood relative of Hayam Wuruk. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Minangkabau language (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau-people of West Sumatra, in the western part of Riau and in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau, who often trade or have a restaurant. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ...


Adityawarman, a follower of Tantric Buddhism with ties to the Singhasari and Majapahit kingdoms of Java, is believed to have founded the first kingdom in the Minangkabau highlands at Pagaruyung and ruled between 1347 and 1375, most likely to control the local gold trade. The establishment of a royal system seems to have involved conflict and violence, eventually leading to a division of villages into one of two systems of tradition, Bodi Caniago and Koto Piliang, the later having overt allegiances to royalty.[3] By the 16th century, the time of the next report after the reign of Adityawarman, royal power had been split into three recognized reigning kings. They were the King of the World (Raja Alam), the King of Adat (Raja Adat), and the King of Religion (Raja Ibadat), and collectively they were known as the Kings of the Three Seats (Rajo Tigo Selo).[4] The Minangkabau kings were charismatic or magical figures who received a percentage of gold mining and trading profits, but did not have much authority over the conduct of village affairs.[5][3] Adityawarman was a prince in the Majapahit empire during the 14th century, and a blood relative of Hayam Wuruk. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Pagaruyung (also Pagarruyung and Pagar Ruyung) was the seat of Minangkabau kings, though little is known about it. ...

Tuanku Imam Bonjol, a leader in the Padri War.
Tuanku Imam Bonjol, a leader in the Padri War.

In the mid-16th century, the Aceh Sultanate invaded the Minangkabau coast, occupying port outlets in order to acquire gold. It was also around the 16th century that Islam started to be adopted by the Minangkabau. The first contact between the Minangkabau and western nations occurred with the 1529 voyage of Jean Parmentier to Sumatra. The Dutch East India Company first acquired gold at Pariaman in 1651, but later moved south to Padang to avoid interference from the Acehnese occupiers. In 1663 the Dutch agreed to protect and liberate local villages from the Acehnese in return for a trading monopoly, and as a result setup trading posts at Painan and Padang. Until early in the 19th century the Dutch remained content with their coastal trade of gold and produce, and made no attempt to visit the Minangkabau highlands. As a result of conflict in Europe, the British occupied Padang from 1781 to 1784 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, and again from 1795 to 1819 during the Napoleonic Wars. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Peto Syarif, Tuanku Imam Bonjol (1772 – November 6, 1864), was a hero in the Indonesian struggle against Dutch rule. ... The Padri War also called Minangkabau War is the name given to the skirmishes fought by Dutch troops from 1821 to 1837 in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Jean Parmentier (1494 - 1529), born in Dieppe, France, was a navigator, cartographer, and poet. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Pariaman is a city in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Padang is the capital and largest city of West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... View of Painan from a nearby hilltop. ... Padang is the capital and largest city of West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von...


Late in the 18th century the gold supply which provided the economic base for Minangkabau royalty began to be exhausted. Around the same time other parts of the Minangkabau economy had a period of unparalleled expansion as new opportunities for the export of agricultural commodities arose, particularly with coffee which was in very high demand. A civil war started in 1803 with the Padri fundamentalist Islamic group in conflict with the traditional syncretic groups, elite families and Pagaruyung royals. A large part of the Minangkabau royal family were killed by the Padri in 1815. As a result of a treaty with a number of penghulu and representatives of the murdered Minangkabau royal family, Dutch forces made their first attack on a Padri village in April 1821.[3] The first phase of the war ended in 1825 when the Dutch signed an agreement with the Padri leader Tuanku Imam Bonjol to halt hostilities, allowing them to redeploy their forces to fight the Java War. When fighting resumed in 1832, the reinforced Dutch troops were able to more effectively attack the Padri. The main center of resistance was captured in 1837, and by the end of the next year the war was effectively over. Peto Syarif, Tuanku Imam Bonjol (1772 – November 6, 1864), was a hero in the Indonesian struggle against Dutch rule. ... The Java War was fought in Java between 1825 and 1830. ...


With the Minangkabau territories now under the control of the Dutch, transportation systems were improved and economic exploitation was intensified. New forms of education were introduced, allowing some Minangkabau to take advantage of a modern education system. The 20th century marked a rise and cultural and political nationalism, culminating in the demand for Indonesian independence. Rebellions against the Dutch occupation occurred such as the 1908 Anti-Tax Rebellion and the 1927 Communist Uprising. During World War II the Minangkabau territories were occupied by the Japanese, and when the Japanese surrendered in August 1945 Indonesia proclaimed independence. The Dutch attempts to regain control of the area were ultimately unsuccessful and in 1949 the Minangkabau territories became part of Indonesia as the province of Central Sumatra. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In February 1958, during a revolt in Sumatra against the Indonesian government, rebels proclaimed the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PRRI) in Bukittinggi. The Indonesian government had recaptured the town by May the same year. Pemerintah Revolusioner Republik Indonesia (PRRI) is a rebellious movement leaded by Army officers of the newly formed Indonesian Army The Rebellion of the Colonels The movement was started when a clash of few military faction inside the newly formed Indonesian Army backgrounded by the political rivalry began to demand of...


Culture

The Minangs are the world's largest matrilineal society, in which properties such as land and houses are inherited through female lineage. Some scholars argue that this might have caused the diaspora (Minangkabau, "merantau") of Minangkabau males throughout the Malay archipelago to become scholars or to seek fortune as merchants. As early as the age of 7, boys traditionally leave their homes and live in a surau (a prayer house & community centre) to learn religious and cultural (adat) teachings. When they are teenagers, they are encouraged to leave their hometown to learn from schools or from experiences out of their hometown so that when they are adults they can return home wise and 'useful' for the society and can contribute their thinking and experience to run the family or nagari (hometown) when they sit as the member of 'council of uncles'. For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... This is an article about the digital recording format. ...


This tradition has created Minang communities in many Indonesian cities and towns, which nevertheless are still tied closely to their homeland; a state in Malaysia named Negeri Sembilan is heavily influenced by Minang culture. State motto: no State motto Capital Seremban Royal Capital Seri Menanti Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman Chief Minister YAB Dato Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan Area 6,645 km2 Population  - Est. ...


Due to their culture that stresses the importance of learning, Minang people are over-represented in the all walks of life in Indonesia, with many ministers from Minang and the first female minister was a Minang scholar.


In addition to being renowned as merchants, the Minangs have also produced some of Indonesia's most influential poets, writers, statesmen, scholars, and religious scholars. Being fervent Muslims, many of them embraced the idea of incorporating Islamic ideals into modern society. Furthermore, the presence of these intellectuals combined with the people's basically proud character, made the Minangkabau homeland (the province of West Sumatra) one of the powerhouses in the Indonesian struggle for independence. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ...


Today both natural and cultural tourism have become considerable economic activities in West Sumatra.


Ceremonies and festivals

Women carrying platters of food to a ceremony
Women carrying platters of food to a ceremony

Minangkabau ceremonies and festivals include: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 1054 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sumatra Minangkabau ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 1054 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sumatra Minangkabau ...

  • Turun mandi - baby blessing ceremony
  • Sunat rasul - circumcision ceremony
  • Baralek - wedding ceremony
  • Batagak pangulu - clan leader inauguration ceremony. Other clan leaders, all relatives in the same clan and all villagers in the region are invited. The ceremony will last for 7 days or more.
  • Turun ka sawah - community work ceremony
  • Manyabik - harvesting ceremony
  • Hari Rayo - Islamic festivals
  • Adoption ceremony
  • Adat ceremony
  • Funeral ceremony
  • Wild boar hunt ceremony
  • Maanta pabukoan - sending food to mother-in-law for Ramadhan
  • Tabuik - Muslim celebration in the coastal village of Pariaman
  • Tanah Ta Sirah, inaugurate a new clan leader (Datuk) when the old one died in the few hours (no need to proceed batagak pangulu, but the clan must invite all clan leader in the region).
  • Mambangkik Batang Tarandam, inaugurate a new leader (Datuk) when the old one died in the pass 10 or 50 years and even more, must do the Batagak Pangulu.

Hari Raya (Malay for Day of Celebration) is a term used in Malaysia that can apply to the Muslim festivals of Eid ul-Fitr or Eid ul-Adha. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This is an article about the digital recording format. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sawm of Ramadan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pariaman is a city in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ...

Arts

Saluang performance
Saluang performance

Traditional Minangkabau arts include: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The saluang is a traditional musical instrument in Minangkabau people in West Sumatera, Indonesia. ...

  • Randai, folk theater which includes music, dance and drama
  • Saluang Jo Dendang ("bamboo flute and singing")
  • Talempong (gong-chime) music
  • Tari Piring ("Plate dance")
  • Tari Payung ("Umbrella dance")
  • Tari Indang, traditional dance
  • Pidato Adat (also known as Sambah Manyambah), ceremonial orations.
  • Pencak Silat, performances based upon the Silat martial art

Randai is a folk theatre tradition of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... The saluang is a traditional musical instrument in Minangkabau people in West Sumatera, Indonesia. ... A talempong a small kettle gong which gives its name to an ensemble of four or five talempong as well as other gongs and drums. ... Pencak Silat or Silat (fighting by using techniques of self-defence) is an Asian martial art with roots in the culture of the Malay World. ... Look up Silat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Crafts

Minangkabau crafts include:

Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Songket is fabric which belongs to the brocade family of textiles. ... Gold Embroidery Cross-stitch embroidery, Hungary, mid-20th century Phulkari from Punjab region, India 15th century embroidered cope, Ghent, Belgium Embroidery, c. ... Carved wooden cranes Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the ornamentation of a wooden object. ... A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... Band made of Silver. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Filigree (formerly written filigrann or filigrane) is a jewel work of a delicate kind made with twisted threads usually of gold and silver. ... Granular synthesis is a sound synthesis method for digital musical instruments (synthesizers) that operates on the microsound time scale. ...

Cuisine

The staple ingredients of the Minangkabau diet are rice, fish, coconut and chilli. The usage of meat is mainly limited to special occasions, and beef and chicken are most commonly used. Pork is not halal and therefore not consumed, while lamb, goat and game are rarely consumed for reasons of taste and availability. Vegetables are part of daily consumption. Fruits are mainly seasonal, although fruits such as banana, papaya and citrus are continually available. Food fried with coconut oil is a daily staple, and coconut milk is also a key ingredient. Desiccated coconut is consumed in snack food almost daily, and consumed weekly as a food ingredient.[6]

Well known Minangkabau dishes include: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1760 × 1168 pixel, file size: 566 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lamb rendang. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1760 × 1168 pixel, file size: 566 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lamb rendang. ... This article is about the dish. ...

Most notable of Minang culture is its culinary tradition, with unique spicy foods such as Rendang, Soto Padang (a soup), Sate Padang and Dendeng Balado (beef with chilli sauce). Minangkabau restaurants, which are often called "Padang" restaurants in reference to the capital of West Sumatra, are present throughout Indonesia and some neighboring countries.[citation needed] This article is about the dish. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Grilled beef satay Satay (also written saté) is a dish that may have originated in Sumatra or Java in Indonesia but is popular in many southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. ... This article is about the dish. ... Padang is the capital and largest city of West Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


Language

Main article: Minangkabau language

The Minangkabau language (Baso Minangkabau) belongs to the Malayic linguistic subgroup, which in turns belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch. The Minangkabau language is closely related to the Negeri Sembilan Malay language used by the people of Negeri Sembilan, many of which are descendants of Minangkabau immigrants. The language has a number of dialects and sub-dialects, but native Minangkabau speakers generally have no difficultly understanding the variety of dialects. The differences between dialects are mainly at the phonological level, though some lexical differences also exist. Minangkabau dialects are regional, consisting of one or more villages (nagari), and usually correspond to differences in customs and traditions. Each sub-village (jorong) has its own sub-dialect consisting of subtle differences which can be detected by native speakers.[7] The Padang dialect has become the lingua franca for people of different language regions.[8] The Minangkabau language (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau-people of West Sumatra, in the western part of Riau and in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau, who often trade or have a restaurant. ... The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu or Bahasa Malaysia, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, and parts of the coast of Borneo. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... The Negeri Sembilan Malay is an Austronesian language, spoken by the people of Negeri Sembilan in Malaysia. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Seremban Royal Capital Seri Menanti Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman Chief Minister YAB Dato Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan Area 6,645 km2 Population  - Est. ... Phonology (Greek phone = voice/sound and logos = word/speech) is a subfield of grammar (see also linguistics). ... A lexicon is a list of words together with additional word-specific information, i. ...


The Minangkabau society has a diglossia situation, whereby they use their native language for everyday conversations, while the Indonesian language is used for most formal occasions, in education, and in writing, even to relatives and friends.[7] The Minangkabau language was originally written using the Jawi script, an adapted Arabic alphabet. Romanization of the language dates from the 19th century, and a standardized official orthography of the language was published in 1976.[8] Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yawi. ...

Denominations ISO 639-3 Population (as of) Dialects
Minangkabau min 6,500,000 (1981) Agam, Pajokumbuh, Tanah, Si Junjung, Batu Sangkar-Pariangan, Singkarak, Orang Mamak, Ulu, Kerinci-Minangkabau, Aneuk Jamee (Jamee), Penghulu.
Source: Gordon (2005).[9]

Despite widespread use of Indonesian, they have their own mother tongue. The Minangkabau language shares many similar words with Malay, yet it has a distinctive pronunciation and some grammatical differences rendering it unintelligible to Malay speakers.[citation needed] ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Minangkabau language (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau-people of West Sumatra, in the western part of Riau and in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau, who often trade or have a restaurant. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


Adat and religion

Traditional Minangkabau mosque
Traditional Minangkabau mosque

Until the rise of the Padri movement late in the 18th century, Islamic practices such as prayers, fasting and attendance at mosques had been weakly observed in the Minangkabau highlands. The Padri were inspired by the Wahhabi movement in Mecca, and sought to eliminate societal problems such tobacco and opium smoking, gambling and general anarchy by ensuring the tenets of the Koran were strictly observed. All Minangkabau customs allegedly in conflict with the Koran were to be abolished. Although the Padri were eventually defeated by the Dutch, during this period the relationship between adat and religion was reformulated. Previously adat was said to be based upon appropriateness and proprietary, but this was changed so adat was more strongly based upon Islamic precepts. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 872 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Minangkabau ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 872 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Minangkabau ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ...


Notable Minangkabau people

Mohammad Hatta, Indonesian nationalist and first vice president of Indonesia
Mohammad Hatta, Indonesian nationalist and first vice president of Indonesia

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mohammad Hatta (August 12, 1902 - March 14, 1980) was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). ... This is a list of notable Minangkabau people. ... Abdul Muis, date unknown Abdul Muis (3 July 1883–17 June 1959) was an Indonesian writer, journalist and nationalist. ... Haji Agus Salim (Koto Gadang, Bukittinggi, Minangkabau, October 8, 1884-Jakarta, November 4, 1954) was one of Indonesias founding fathers and prominent diplomats. ... Mohammad Hatta (August 12, 1902 - March 14, 1980) was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). ... Muhammad Yamin (1903-1962) was born in Talawi, Sawahlunto, in the heartland of the Minangkabau on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Hajjah Rangkayo Rasuna Said (Maninjau, Agam, 14 September 1910–Jakarta, 2 November 1965) was a Minangkabau woman who fought for the freedom of Indonesia and became a national heroine. ... Sutan Sjahrir (5 March 1909 — 9 April 1966) was the first prime minister of Indonesia, after a career as a key Indonesian nationalist organizer in the 1930s and 1940s. ... Tan Malaka, portrait as published in his autobiography Tan Malaka (1896/1897–c. ... Encik Yusof bin Ishak (August 12, 1910 - November 23, 1970) was an eminent Singaporean politician. ... Chairil Anwar (1922 - April 28, 1949) was probably one of the most famous Indonesian poets. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Peto Syarif, Tuanku Imam Bonjol (1772 – November 6, 1864), was a hero in the Indonesian struggle against Dutch rule. ... The Padri War also called Minangkabau War is the name given to the skirmishes fought by Dutch troops from 1821 to 1837 in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... ġσ Ï‚ Lt. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Zubir Said (also Zubir Syed) (22 July 1907 – 16 November 1987) is a film composer who composed the national anthem of Singapore, Majulah Singapura. ... Majulah Singapura (Malay for Onward Singapore) is Singapores national anthem. ...

References

  1. ^ (2003) Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9812302123. 
  2. ^ Miksic, John (2004). "From megaliths to tombstones: the transition from pre-history to early Islamic period in highland West Sumatra.". Indonesia and the Malay World 32 (93). DOI:10.1080/1363981042000320134. 
  3. ^ a b c Dobbin, Christine (1977). "Economic change in Minangkabau as a factor in the rise of the Padri movement, 1784-1830.". Indonesia 23 (1): 1-38. DOI:10.2307/3350883. 
  4. ^ Abdullah, Taufik (October 1966). "Adat and Islam: An Examination of Conflict in Minangkabau". Indonesia 2: 1-24. DOI:10.2307/3350753. 
  5. ^ Reid, Anthony (2005). An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese and Other Histories of Sumatra. National University of Singapore Press. ISBN 9971692988. 
  6. ^ Lipoeto, Nur I; Agus, Zulkarnain; Oenzil, Fadil; Masrul, Mukhtar; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark L (February 2001). "Contemporary Minangkabau food culture in West Sumatra, Indonesia". Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10 (1). DOI:10.1046/j.1440-6047.2001.00201.x. 
  7. ^ a b Anwar, Khaidir (June 1980). "Language use in Minangkabau society". Indonesia and the Malay World (22): 55-63. DOI:10.1080/03062848008723789. 
  8. ^ a b Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. ISBN 0415202981. 
  9. ^ Gordon, Raymond G. (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (online version), Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved on 2007-9-3. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: February - Iraq disarmament crisis: British and U.S. forces carry out bombing raids attempting to disable Iraqs air defense network. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • Summerfield, Anne; John Summerfield (1999). Walk in Splendor: Ceremonial Dress and the Minangkabau. UCLA. ISBN 0-930741-73-0. 
  • Kahn, Joel S. (1993). Constituting the Minangkabau : peasants, culture, and modernity in colonial Indonesia. Berg. ISBN 085-49-6316-2. 
  • Sanday, Peggy Reeves (2002). Women at the center : life in a modern matriarchy. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8906-7. 

Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the...

See also

Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Seremban Royal Capital Seri Menanti Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman Chief Minister YAB Dato Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan Area 6,645 km2 Population  - Est. ... Rumah Gadang in the Pandai Sikek village of West Sumatra The rumah gadang (Minangkabau, big house) is the traditional house of the Minangkabau. ...

External links

Indonesia Portal
  • On Culture's Loom
  • The Carvers of Bukittinggi

  Results from FactBites:
 
Indonesia - Minangkabau (465 words)
According to a 1980 study by anthropologist Joel S. Kahn, there is a general pattern of residence among the Minangkabau in which sisters and unmarried lineage members try to live close to one another, or even in the same house.
Since the Minangkabau men, like the Acehnese men, often merantau (go abroad) to seek experience, wealth, and commercial success, the women's kin group is responsible for maintaining the continuity of the family and the distribution and cultivation of the land.
Minangkabau were prominent among the intellectual figures in the independence movement of Indonesia.
Dissent in Indonesia - NI 116 - Minangkabau - our buffalo wins (623 words)
The story of Minangkabau parables the conquest over the raw might of an oppressor by the guile of the oppressed.
The people in that part of the country call their land Minangkabau which means 'the buffalo wins' or 'the buffalo's victory'.
The people of West Sumatra were still free and that is why the houses and headdresses of the people are made to look like buffalo horns and why their land is called Minangkabau.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m