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Encyclopedia > Minamoto no Yoritomo
Portrait of Yoritomo (copy)
Portrait of Yoritomo (copy)

Minamoto no Yoritomo (源 頼朝? May 9, 1147February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan, who ruled from 1192 until 1199. Image File history File links Minamoto_no_Yoritomo. ... Image File history File links Minamoto_no_Yoritomo. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate For other uses, see Shogun (disambiguation). ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ...


Early Life and Exile (1147-1180)

Minamoto no Yoritomo was the third oldest son of Minamoto no Yoshitomo, the heir of the Minamoto (Seiwa Genji) clan, and his official wife, Fujiwara no Saneori, who was a member of the illustrious Fujiwara clan. Yoritomo was born in Heian (known presently as Kyoto), then the capital of Japan. At that time Yoritomo's grandfather Minamoto no Tameyoshi, was the head of the Minamoto. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yoshitomo Minamoto. ... Minamoto (源) was an honorary surname bestowed by the Emperors of Japan of the Heian Period to their sons and grandsons after accepting them as royal subjects. ... The Seiwa Genji (清和源氏) were the most successful and powerful of the many branch families of the Minamoto clan. ... The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) was a clan of regents who had sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ... Kyōto ) (lit. ... Kyōto ) (lit. ... Minamoto no Tameyoshi (源為義) was head of the Minamoto clan in Japan. ...


In 1156, factional divisions in the court erupted into open warfare within the capital itself. The cloistered Emperor Toba and his son Emperor Go-Shirakawa sided with the son of Fujiwara regent Fujiwara no Tadazane, Fujiwara no Tadamichi as well as Taira no Kiyomori (a member of the Taira clan), while Cloistered Emperor Sutoku sided with Tadazane's younger son, Fujiwara no Yorinaga. This was known as the Hōgen Rebellion, or the 'Hogen Disturbance'. Cloistered Rule, also known as the Insei system, was a process used by some Emperors of Japan by which they would ostensibly retire to a monastery and hand over power to a successor, but continue to exert power and influence from behind the scenes. ... Emperor Toba (鳥羽天皇 Toba Tennō) (February 24, 1103 – July 20, 1156) was the 74th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Go-Shirakawa (後白河天皇 Go-Shirakawa Tennō) (October 18, 1127 – April 26, 1192) was the 77th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Fujiwara no Tadazane was the grandson of Fujiwara no Morozane. ... Fujiwara no Tadamichi (藤原忠通) (1097-1164) was the eldest son of the Japanese regent (kunpaku) Fujiwara no Tadazane and a member of the politically powerful Fujiwara clan. ... Statue of Taira no Kiyomori, Miyajima, Hiroshima Prefecture Taira no Kiyomori (å¹³ 清盛 1118 - 1181) was a general of the late Heian period of Japan. ... Taira (平) is a Japanese surname. ... Emperor Sutoku (崇徳天皇 Sutoku Tennō) (7 July 1119 – 14 September 1164) was the 75th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Fujiwara no Yorinaga (藤原頼長; 1120-1156) of the Fujiwara clan held the position of Imperial Palace Minister of the Left. ... Combatants Forces loyal to Emperor Go-Shirakawa Forces loyal to retired Emperor Sutoku Commanders Fujiwara no Tadamichi, Minamoto no Tameyoshi, Taira no Tadamasa Fujiwara no Yorinaga, Taira no Kiyomori, Minamoto no Yoshitomo Strength Unknown Unknown, incl. ...


Unfortunately the Seiwa Genji were split. Minamoto no Tameyoshi, the head of the Minamoto, who was Yoshitomo's father and Yoritomo's grandfather, sided with Cloistered Emperor Sutoku. Minamoto no Yoshitomo, who was Tameyoshi's son and Yoritomo's father, sided with Cloistered Emperor Toba and Emperor Go-Shirakawa, as well as Kiyomori.


In the end, the supporters of Emperor Go-Shirakawa won the civil war, thus ensuring victory for Minamoto no Yoshitomo and Taira no Kiyomori. Cloistered Emperor Sutoku was placed under house arrest, and Fujiwara no Yorinaga was fatally wounded in battle. Even Minamoto no Tameyoshi, Yoshitomo's father, was executed as well, even after numerous pleas from Yoshitomo. Nonetheless, Emperor Go-Shirakawa and Kiyomori were ruthless, and Minamoto no Yoshitomo found himself as the head of the Minamoto, while Yoritomo became the heir.


Since Yoritomo was descended from the imperial family on his father's side and the Fujiwara noble family on his mother's side, he received his first court title and was appointed an administrator. Nonetheless, in Kyoto, the Taira clan, now under the leadership of Taira no Kiyomori, and the Minamoto clan, under the leadership of Minamoto no Yoshitomo, began to factionalize again.


Taira no Kiyomori supported the Emperor Nijō, who was the son of Go-Shirakawa. Kiyomori had the support of Fujiwara no Nobuyori. Meanwhile, Minamoto no Yoshitomo supported the now cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa and their old ally Fujiwara no Tadamichi and the scholar-courtier Fujiwara no Michinori. This was known as the Heiji Rebellion, or the 'Heiji Disturbance'. Nonetheless, the Minamoto were not well prepared, and the Taira took control of Kyoto. Emperor Nijō (二条天皇 Nijō Tennō) (July 31, 1143 – September 5, 1165) was the 78th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Fujiwara no Nobuyori (藤原信頼)(d. ... Emperor Go-Shirakawa (後白河天皇 Go-Shirakawa Tennō) (October 18, 1127 – April 26, 1192) was the 77th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Fujiwara no Tadamichi (藤原忠通) (1097-1164) was the eldest son of the Japanese regent (kunpaku) Fujiwara no Tadazane and a member of the politically powerful Fujiwara clan. ... Fujiwara no Michinori (藤原道則)(d. ... The Heiji Rebellion (平治の乱) was fought between rival subjects of the cloistered emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan in 1159. ...


In the aftermath, harsh terms were imposed on the Minamoto and their allies. Fujiwara no Michinari and Fujiwara no Tadamichi were executed, while the palace of Cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa was burned down by the Taira. Meanwhile, Minamoto no Yoshitomo fled the capital just as the Taira marched in 1160, but was betrayed and executed by a retainer in Owari. As for Yoritomo, the new head of the Minamoto, he was exiled to Hirugashima, an island in Izu province (on the Kanto Plain), which at that time was under the rule of the Hōjō clan. Taira no Kiyomori and the Taira clan were now the undisputed leaders of Japan. Yoritomo was not executed by Kiyomori because of pleas from Kiyomori's stepmother Lady Ikenozunni. Yoritomo's half brother, Minamoto no Noriyori, was also exiled, while Minamoto no Yoshitsune, another half-brother, was forced to enter a monastery. All other siblings were executed. Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Izu may refer to. ... Kanto can mean: The Kanto region of Japan. ... The Hojo clan (北条氏) in History of Japan is a family of regents of the Kamakura Shogunate. ... Grave of Minamoto no Noriyori, Shuzenji (present-day Izu), Shizuoka Prefecture Minamoto no Noriyori )(1156-1193) was a late Heian period general, who fought alongside his brothers Minamoto no Yoritomo and Minamoto no Yoshitsune at a number of battles of the Genpei War. ... Yoshitsune by Kikuchi Yosai Yoshitsune and Benkei Viewing Cherry Blossoms, by Yoshitoshi Tsukioka , Minamoto no Yoshitsune (源 義経) (1159 – June 15, 1189) was a general of the Minamoto clan of Japan in the late Heian and early Kamakura period. ...


Yoritomo grew up with a life in exile. In 1179, he married into the Hōjō clan, led by Hōjō Tokimasa. He married Tokimasa's daughter, Hōjō Masako. Meanwhile, he was notified of events in Kyoto thanks to helpful friends.Soon enough, Yoritomo's passive exile was to be over. Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... The Hōjō clan (北条氏) in the history of Japan was a family of regents of the Kamakura Shogunate. ... Hōjō Tokimasa (北條 時政, 1138-1215) was the first Hōjō shikken (regent) of the Kamakura bakufu and head of the Hōjō clan. ... Hōjō Masako by Kikuchi Yōsai (菊池 容斎) Hōjō Masako (北条 政子,1156-1225) was the eldest child and eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa by his wife Hōjō no Maki, the first shikken, or regent, of the Kamakura shogunate. ...


Call to Arms and the Genpei War (1180-1185)

In 1180, Prince Mochihito, a son of Cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa, humiliated by the Taira because of the Taira-backed accession of the throne of his nephew, Emperor Antoku (who was half Taira himself) made a national call to arms of the Minamoto clan all over Japan to rebel against the Taira. Yoritomo decided to take part in this, especially after things escalated between the Taira and Minamoto after the death of Minamoto no Yorimasa and Prince Mochihito himself. Yoritomo set himself up as the rightful heir of the Minamoto clan, and, with financial backing of the Hōjō, his wife's family, he set up a capital at Kamakura in the east. Not all Minamoto thought of Yoritomo as rightful heir. His uncle, Minamoto no Yukiie, and his cousin Minamoto no Yoshinaka conspired against him. The Genpei or Gempei War (源平合戦、寿永・治承の乱) (1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Prince Mochihito as he appeared on the 2005 NHK Taiga, Yoshitsune Prince Mochihito (以仁王, Mochihito-ō) (d. ... Emperor Go-Shirakawa (後白河天皇 Go-Shirakawa Tennō) (October 18, 1127 – April 26, 1192) was the 77th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Antoku (安徳天皇 Antoku Tennō) (December 22, 1178 – April 25, 1185) was the 81st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Minamoto no Yorimasa (源頼政)(1106-1180) was the leader of the Minamoto armies at the beginning of the Genpei War. ... Prince Mochihito as he appeared on the 2005 NHK Taiga, Yoshitsune Prince Mochihito (以仁王, Mochihito-ō) (d. ... Kamakura can refer to: The city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan The Kamakura Shogunate period in the History of Japan The Kamakura family name in Japan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Minamoto no Yukiie )(d. ... Minamoto no Yoshinaka )(1154-1184) was a general of the late Heian Period of Japanese history. ...


In 1181, Taira no Kiyomori died, and the Taira clan was now led by Taira no Munemori. Munemori took a much more aggressive policy against the Minamoto, and attacked Minamoto bases from Kyoto. Nonetheless, Yoritomo was well protected in Kamakura. His half-brothers, Minamoto no Yoshitsune and Minamoto no Noriyori defeated the Taira in several key battles, but they could not stop Minamoto no Yoshinaka, Yoritomo's rival, from entering Kyoto in 1183 and chasing the Taira south. They took Emperor Antoku with them, so when the Minamoto entered the capital, they enthroned the half-brother of Antoku, Emperor Go-Toba, as the new emperor. Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Taira no Munemori )(1147-1185) was heir to Taira no Kiyomori, and one of the Taira clans chief commanders in the Genpei War. ... Yoshitsune by Kikuchi Yosai Yoshitsune and Benkei Viewing Cherry Blossoms, by Yoshitoshi Tsukioka , Minamoto no Yoshitsune (源 義経) (1159 – June 15, 1189) was a general of the Minamoto clan of Japan in the late Heian and early Kamakura period. ... Grave of Minamoto no Noriyori, Shuzenji (present-day Izu), Shizuoka Prefecture Minamoto no Noriyori )(1156-1193) was a late Heian period general, who fought alongside his brothers Minamoto no Yoritomo and Minamoto no Yoshitsune at a number of battles of the Genpei War. ... Kyōto ) (lit. ... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... Emperor Go-Toba ) (August 6, 1180 – March 28, 1239) was the 82nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


In 1180, Yoritomo was defeated at Ishibashiyama, his first major battle; but his early years as an insurgent chief were mostly spent in consolidating his power over the warrior aristocrats in the Kanto area, most of whom accepted his authority peaceably. From 1181 to 1184, a de facto truce with the Taira dominated court allowed Yoritomo the time to build an administration of his own, centered on his military headquarters in Kamakura. In the end he triumphed over his rival cousins, who sought to steal from him control of the clan, and over the Taira, who suffered a terrible defeat at the Battle of Dan-no-ura in 1185. Yoritomo thus established the supremacy of the warrior samurai caste and the first bakufu (shogunate) at Kamakura, beginning the feudal age in Japan which lasted until the mid 19th century. The battle of Ishibashiyama (石橋山, literally Stone Bridge Mountain) was the first in which Minamoto no Yoritomo, who was to become shogun less than a decade later, was commander of the Minamoto forces. ... The Battle of Dan-no-ura, more commonly known as Dan-no-ura no Tatakai (壇ノ浦の戦い), was a major sea battle of the Genpei War, occurring at Dan_no_ura, in the Shimonoseki Strait off the southern tip of Honshu. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Preceded by:
Samurai Taira no Munemori
Kamakura Shogun
1192-1199
Succeeded by:
Minamoto no Yoriie

  Results from FactBites:
 
ooBdoo (873 words)
Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate, seized considerable power from the aristocracy in Kyoto.
In the 1100s, the wars between the Minamoto and Taira families came to a conclusion with the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War (1185).
Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperor and established a feudal system of government based in Kamakura in which the military, the samurai, assumed political power while the Emperors of Japan and the aristocracy in Kyoto remained the figurehead de jure rulers.
Minamoto no Yoritomo (178 words)
Minamoto no Yoritomo 源頼朝 (1147-1199) was the founder and first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate.
Son of Minamoto no Yoshitomo, Yoritomo was banished by Taira no Kiyomori to Hirogakojima[?] of Izu[?] province (present day Shizuoka[?] prefecture) after the Heiji Rebellion in 1159.
Yoritomo was granted the title of shogun in 1192, which was eventually passed to his oldest son Yoriie in 1202.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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