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Encyclopedia > Minami Torishima
Aerial photo from 1987
Aerial photo from 1987

Minamitori-shima (南鳥島) or Marcus Island is an isolated island in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located at 24°18′N 153°58′E. The Japanese meaning of the name is "Southern Bird Island". It is 1.2 km² in area. It is the easternmost territory belonging to Japan, some 1 848 km SE of Tokyo, or 1 267 East of the closest Japanese island, Minami Iō-jima of the Ogasawara Islands, and nearly on a straight line between Tokyo and Wake Island, which is 1 415 km ESE. The closest island, however, is Farallon de Pajaros of the Mariana Islands, which is 1021 km WSW of Minamitori Shima. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 507 pixel Image in higher resolution (2824 × 1789 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 507 pixel Image in higher resolution (2824 × 1789 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A map of the Ogasawara Islands south of Japan The Ogasawara Islands (小笠原諸島) are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical islands some 1,000 km directly south of central Tokyo, Japan. ... Farallon de Pajaros (from Spanish Farallón de los pájaros, meaning Birds Rock), also known as Urracas (from Spanish Urracas, meaning Magpies), is the westernmost island in the Northern Mariana Islands chain. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrone Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean, in about 12 to 21 N...


That the island was initially discovered by Captain Arriola in 1694, is not at all established (see the article in the 'Journal of Pacific History', Vol. 36, No. 1; 2001, pp. 105-115). Its location was left unrecorded until further sightings in the early 19th century.


The island is first mentioned in 1864, given a position by a US survey ship in 1874, and first landed on by Kiozaemon Saito in 1879. Japan officially annexed the island July 24, 1898 (Kuroda 1954, 87), the US claim from 1889 according to the Guano Islands Act being not officially acknowledged. Sovereignty over the island before WWI was apparently disputed as various sources from the time move the island from the American to Japanese domain without specific explanation. In 1914, William D. Boyce included Marcus Island as an obviously American island in his book, "The Colonies and Dependencies of the United States". 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Guano Islands Act was federal legislation passed by the U.S. Congress on August 18, 1856 enabling citizens of the U.S. to take possession of islands containing guano deposits. ... William D. Boyce William Dickson Boyce (June 16, 1858- June 11, 1929), was an American entrepreneur, best known today for founding the Boy Scouts of America. ...


In World War II there were over 4,000 Japanese soldiers stationed on the island, and the US Navy attacked it in 1942 [1] and in 1943 [2], but never attempted to capture it. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


The Treaty of San Francisco (1951) moved the island to American jurisdiction. The island was sold to Japan in 1968.


In 1964 the U. S. Coast Guard opened a LORAN-C navigation station on Marcus Island, whose mast was until 1985 one of the tallest structures in the Pacific area. In the 1980s the Loran station was maintained by 23 "Coasties". They were based there on one-year tours with a visit to mainland Japan at the 6-month point. Marcus Island LORAN-C transmitter is a LORAN-C transmitter on Marcus Island, Japan of Grid 9970 at 24°178 N, 153°5854 E( ).. Markus Island LORAN-C transmitter had a transmission power of 4000 kilowatts, which was more than the most powerful broadcasting stations ever used. ...

View from the cockpit of a C-130 Hercules
View from the cockpit of a C-130 Hercules


On Fridays a C-130 from the 345th Tactical Airlift Squadron, Yokota AFB, Japan would resupply the island. Often Coasties would judge landings by raising placards with large numbers. An unusually long four hour ground time allowed the Coasties to read and answer letters. Aircrews used this time to snorkel and collect green glass fishing bouys that wash up on the shore. It takes about 45 minutes to walk around the island. A rusted-out Japanese mini-tank was a reminder of the island's history. The island was subsequently handed over to the Japanese. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules, a four-engine turboprop aircraft, is the main tactical air transport aircraft of the United States and UK military forces. ... Yokota Air Base (横田空軍基地), a base of the United States Air Force, is located in Fussa City (福生市) and nearby communities in the suburbs of Tokyo, Japan. ...

    • The resupply plane actually came on Thursdays, from Tachikawa AFB (Tokyo)....followed by the traditional Japanese/Coast Guard baseball game...

The island is presently used for weather observation and has a radio station, but little else. Because of its isolation, it is of some interest to DXers. Ham radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Ham radio station with vintage vacuum tube gear featuring separate transmitter, receiver and power supply Amateur radio, often called Ham radio, is a hobby and public service enjoyed by about 6 million people throughout the world. ...


Administratively, the island is considered part of Ogasawara village, Tokyo. The Ogasawara Islands (小笠原諸島) are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical islands some 1000 km directly south of central Tokyo, Japan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Island characteristics

  • Geographic coordinates: 27°17′N 153°58′ECoordinates: 27°17′N 153°58′E

It is triangular in shape and as well as low lying. It was created by coral which eventually turned into a landmass. The island is surrounded by a fringing reef which range from 50 metres to 300 metres in width. Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A reef surrounding an islet. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ...


The island is unusual as it in fact gets higher the closer you get to the coast. The central area of the island is 1 metre below sea level whilst the coast is about 5 to 8 metres.


Bibliography

  • Bryan, William A.: A monograph of Marcus Island; in: Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Vol. 2, No. 1; 1903
  • Kuroda, Nagahisa: Report on a trip to Marcus Island, with notes on the birds; in: Pacific Science, Vol. 8, No. 1; 1954
  • Lévesque, Rodrigue: The odyssey of Captain Arriola and his discovery of Marcus Island in 1694; in: Journal of Pacific history, Vol. 32, No. 2; 1997, pp. 229-233
  • PUB 158 JAPAN Volume 1, NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, Bethesda, Maryland [3]
  • Sakagami, Shoichi F.: An ecological perspective of Marcus Island, with special reference to land animals; in: Pacific Science, Vol. 15, No. 1; 1961
  • Welsch, Bernhard: The asserted discovery of Marcus Island in 1694; in: Journal of Pacific History', Vol. 36, No. 1; 2001, pp. 105-115
  • Welsch, Bernhard: Was Marcus Island discovered by Bernardo de la Torre in 1543?; in: Journal of Pacific History, Vol. 39, No. 1; 2004, pp. 109-122

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Minami Torishima - Definition, explanation (279 words)
Minami Torishima (南鳥島) or Marcus Island is an isolated island in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located at {{coor{
It is the easternmost territory belonging to Japan, some 1 848 km SE of Tokyo, or 1 267 East of the closest Japanese island, Minami Iōjima of the Ogasawara Islands, and nearly on a straight line between Tokyo and Wake Island, which is 1 415 km ESE.
The closest island, however, is Farallon de Pajaros of the Mariana Islands, which is 1021 km WSW of Minami Torishima.
Minami Torishima - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (275 words)
Minami Torishima (南鳥島) or Marcus Island is an isolated island in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located at 24°18′N 153°58′E.
It is the easternmost territory belonging to Japan, some 1 848 km SE of Tokyo, or 1 267 East of the closest Japanese island, Minami Iōjima of the Ogasawara Islands, and nearly on a straight line between Tokyo and Wake Island, which is 1 415 km ESE.
The closest island, however, is Farallon de Pajaros of the Mariana Islands, which is 1021 km WSW of Minami Torishima.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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