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Encyclopedia > Mimicry
Plate from Henry Walter Bates (1862) illustrating Batesian mimicry between Dismorphia species (top row, third row) and various Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (second row, bottom row).
Plate from Henry Walter Bates (1862) illustrating Batesian mimicry between Dismorphia species (top row, third row) and various Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (second row, bottom row).

In evolutionary ecology, mimicry (also known as mimetism) describes a situation where one organism, the mimic, has evolved to share common outward characteristics with another organism, the model, through the selective action of a signal-receiver or "dupe". Collectively this known as a mimicry complex. The model is usually another species except in cases of automimicry. The signal-receiver is typically another intermediate organism, e.g the common predator of two species, but may actually be the model itself (such as an orchid resembling a female wasp). As an interaction, mimicry is in most cases advantageous to the mimic and harmful to the receiver, but may increase, reduce or have no effect on the fitness of the model depending on the situation. Models themselves are difficult to define in some cases, for example eye spots may not bear resemblance to any specific organism's eyes, and camouflage often cannot be attributed to any particular model. Mimic can refer to a mime or a mimic in biology. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 703 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1024 pixel, file size: 591 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bearbeitung von Image:Batesplate. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 703 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1024 pixel, file size: 591 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bearbeitung von Image:Batesplate. ... Photographic plates were one of the earliest forms of photographic film, in which a light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was applied to a glass plate. ... Henry Walter Bates (February 8, 1825 - February 16, 1892) was an English naturalist and explorer. ... Evolutionary ecology lies at the intersection ecology and evolutionary biology. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Selection (disambiguation). ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... Biological interactions result from the fact that organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other, in the natural world, no organism is an autonomous entity isolated from its surroundings. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ...


Camouflage, in which a species appears similar to its surroundings, is essentially a form of visual mimicry, but usually is restricted to cases where the model is non-living or abiotic. In between camouflage and mimicry is mimesis, in which the mimic takes on the properties of a specific object or organism, but one to which the dupe is indifferent.[1] The lack of a true distinction between the two phenomena can be seen in animals that resemble twigs, bark, leaves or flowers, in that they are often classified as camouflaged (a plant constitutes its "surroundings"), but are sometimes classified as mimics (a plant is also an organism). Crypsis is a broader concept that encompasses all forms of detection evasion, such as mimicry, camouflage, hiding etc. Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ... Crypsis is a phenomena where an organisms appearance allows it to blend well into its environment. ...


Though mimicry is most obvious to humans in visual mimics, others senses such as olfaction (smell) or hearing may be involved, and more than one type of signal may be employed.[2] Mimicry may involve morphology, behavior, and other properties. In any case, the signal always functions to deceive the receiver by preventing it from correctly identifying the mimic. In evolutionary terms, this phenomenon is a form of co-evolution usually involving an evolutionary arms race, and should not be confused with convergent evolution, which occurs when species come to resemble on another independently due to similar lifestyles. Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory refers to the scientific theory around how organisms signal their condition to others. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ... An evolutionary arms race is an evolutionary struggle between a predator species and its prey (including parasitism) that is said to resemble an arms race. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ...


Mimics may have multiple models during different stages of their life cycle, or they may be polymorphic, with different individuals imitating different models. Models themselves may have more than one mimic, though frequency dependent selection favors mimicry where models outnumber mimics. Models tend to be relatively closely related organisms,[3] but mimicry of vastly different species is also known. Most known mimics are insects,[2] though many other animal mimics including mammals are known. Plants and fungi may also be mimics, though less research has been carried out in this area.[4][5][6] A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ... Frequency dependent selection is the term given to an evolutionary process where the fitness of a phenotype is dependent on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...

Contents

Etymology

Use of the word mimicry dates back to 1637. It is derived from the Greek term mimetikos, "imitative," in turn from mimetos, the verbal adjective of mimeisthai, "to imitate." Originally used to describe people, it was only applied to other forms of life after 1851.[7] Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ...


Classification

Many types of mimicry have been described. An overview of each follows, highlighting the similarities and differences between the various forms. Classification is often based on function with respect to the mimic (e.g. avoiding harm), though other parameters can also be used, and multidimensional classifications are required to understand the full picture. For this reason, some cases may belong to more than one class, e.g. automimicry and aggressive mimicry are not mutually exclusive, as one describes the species relationship between model and mimic, while the other describes the function for the mimic (obtaining food). This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Defensive

Defensive or protective mimicry takes place when organisms are able to avoid an encounter that would be harmful to them by deceiving an enemy into treating them as something else. Four such cases are discussed here, the first three of which entail mimicry of an aposematic, harmful organism: Batesian mimicry, where a harmless mimic poses as harmful; Müllerian mimicry, where two harmful species share similar perceived characteristics; and Mertensian mimicry, where a deadly mimic resembles a less harmful but lesson-teaching model. Finally, Vavilovian mimicry, where weeds resemble crops, is discussed.


Batesian

Main article: Batesian mimicry
A drone fly exhibits Batesian mimicry by resembling a honey bee

In Batesian mimicry the mimic shares signals similar to the model, but does not have the attribute that makes it unprofitable to predators (e.g. unpalatability). In other words, a Batesian mimic is a sheep in wolf's clothing. It is named after Henry Walter Bates, an English naturalist whose work on butterflies in the Amazon rainforest (including The Naturalist on the River Amazons) was pioneering in this field of study.[8][9] Mimics are less likely to be found out when in low proportion to their model, a phenomenon known as negative frequency dependent selection which applies in most other forms of mimicry as well. This is not the case in Müllerian mimicry however, which is described next. For other uses, see Mimic (disambiguation). ... Dronefly, a bee mimic, on Dandelion flower - note that the shape of the eyes, the number of wings (2 as opposed to 4) and a wide waist distinguishes it from the honeybee; but from a distance one is easily fooled. ... Dronefly, a bee mimic, on Dandelion flower - note that the shape of the eyes, the number of wings (2 as opposed to 4) and a wide waist distinguishes it from the honeybee; but from a distance one is easily fooled. ... Binomial name Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758) Eristalis tenax is a European hoverfly, also known as the drone fly. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... The Wolf in Sheeps Clothing is a fable ascribed to Aesop. ... Henry Walter Bates (February 8, 1825 - February 16, 1892) was an English naturalist and explorer. ... For other uses of the term butterfly, see butterfly (disambiguation). ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... The Naturalist on the River Amazons is a 1863 book by the British naturalist Henry Walter Bates about his expedition to the Amazon Basin. ... Frequency dependent selection (or Dynamic Selection) is the term given to an evolutionary process where the fitness of a phenotype is dependent on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population. ...


Examples:

  • Lepidoptera
    • The Ash Borer (Podosesia syringae), a moth of the Clearwing family (Sesiidae), is a Batesian mimic of the Common wasp because it resembles the wasp, but is not capable of stinging. A predator that has learned to avoid the wasp would similarly avoid the Ash Borer.
    • Plain Tiger (Danaus chrysippus) - an unpalatable model with a number of mimics.
    • Common Crow (Euploea core) - an unpalatable model with a number of mimics. See also under Müllerian mimicry below.
    • Consul fabius and Eresia eunice imitate unpalatable Heliconius butterflies such as H. ismenius.[10]
    • Several palatable butterflies resemble different species from the highly noxious papilionine genus Battus.[10]
    • Several palatable moths produce ultrasonic click calls to mimic the unpalatable tiger moths.[11]
  • The False Cobra (Malpolon moilensis) is a mildly venomous but harmless colubrid snake which mimics the characteristic "hood" of an Indian cobra's threat display. The Eastern Hognose Snake (Heterodon platirhinos) similarly mimics the threat display of venomous snakes.

The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Binomial name Podosesia syringae Harris, 1839 The Ash Borer (Podosesia syringae), aka Lilac Borer, is a clearwing moth in the family Sesiidae. ... Author: Boisduval, 1828 Type species: Sesia apiformis (Hornet moth) Diversity: 123 genera 1,123 species Subfamilies Sesiinae Tinthiinae Genera Sesia Synanthedon and many others The Sesiidae or Clearwing moths are a family of the Lepidoptera in which the wings have hardly any of the normal lepidopteran scales, leaving them transparent. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The common wasp (Vespula vulgaris) is a wasp found in much of the Northern Hemisphere, and introduced to Australia and New Zealand. ... Binomial name Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Plain Tiger is a common butterfly which is widespread in Asia. ... Binomial name (Cramer, 1780) The Common Crow (Euploea core) is a common butterfly found in South Asia. ... Species Many, including Heliconius charitonius Heliconius cydno Heliconius erato Heliconius hecale Heliconius ismenius Heliconius melpomene Heliconius nattereri Heliconius sara Heliconius comprise a colorful and widespread butterfly genus distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World. ... Tribes Leptocircini Troidini Papilioninae occurs world wide with most of the species being found in the tropics. ... Species Battus crassus Battus polydamas Battus philenor Battus is a genus of butterflies that are usually found around pipevine (genus Aristolochia) plants. ... The false cobra (Malpolon moilensis ) is a mildly toxic snake found in parts of Asia. ... Subfamilies Boodontinae Calamariinae Colubrinae Dipsadinae Homalopsinae Natricinae Pareatinae Psammophiinae Pseudoxenodontinae Pseudoxyrhophiinae Xenodermatinae Xenodontinae See text for genera. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Indian Cobra or Spectacled Cobra (Naja naja), also known as an Asian Cobra, is a species of venomous snake native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Binomial name Latreille, 1801 The Eastern Hognose Snake (Heterodon platirhinos) is a species of colubrid snake. ... Families 14 in two suborders, see text The octopus is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. ... Binomial name Thaumoctopus mimicus Norman & Hochberg, 2005 The Indonesian Mimic Octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) is a species of octopus that has the uncanny ability to mimic several other sea creatures. ... Sea snakes of several different species belong to a group related to the cobras but aquatic rather than land dwelling. ... Lionfish in Red Sea near Hurghada Lionfish, Peleliu, Palau Lionfish at the Dallas World Aquarium A Lionfish is any of several species of venomous marine fish in the genera Pterois, Parapterois, Brachypterois, Ebosia or Dendrochirus, of the family Scorpaenidae. ...

Müllerian

Main article: Müllerian mimicry
The Heliconius butterflies from the tropics of the Western Hemisphere are the classical model for Müllerian mimicry.
The Heliconius butterflies from the tropics of the Western Hemisphere are the classical model for Müllerian mimicry.[13]

Müllerian mimicry describes a situation where two or more species have very similar warning or aposematic signals and both share genuine anti-predation attributes (e.g. being unpalatable). At first Bates could not explain why this should be so; if both were harmful why did one need to mimic another? The German naturalist Fritz Müller put forward the first explanation for this phenomenon: If two species were confused with one another by a common predator, individuals in both would be more likely to survive.[14][15] This type of mimicry is unique in several respects. Firstly, both the mimic and the model benefit from the interaction, which could thus be classified as mutualism in this respect. The signal receiver is also advantaged by this system, despite being deceived regarding species identity, as it avoids potentially harmful encounters. The usually clear identity of mimic and model are also blurred. In cases where one species is scarce and another abundant, the rare species can be said to be the mimic. When both are present in similar numbers however it is more realistic to speak of each as comimics than of a distinct 'mimic' and 'model' species, as their warning signals tend to converge toward something intermediate between the two.[16] Another theoretical problem comes up when one considers that the two species may exist on a continuum from the harmless to the highly noxious, raising the question of where Batesian mimicry ends and Müllerian convergence begins.[17][18] A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 598 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 2107 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 598 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 2107 pixel, file size: 3. ... Silver gulls will often mob predators who approach their nesting site. ... Johann Friedrich Theodor Müller PhD (March 31, 1821–May 21, 1897), always known as Fritz, was a German biologist who emigrated to Brazil, where he studied the natural history of the Amazon rainforest and was an early advocate of evolutionary theory. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ...


Examples:

  • Lepidoptera
    • The Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a member of a Müllerian complex with the Viceroy butterfly (Limenitis archippus) in shared coloration patterns and display behavior. The Viceroy has subspecies with somewhat different coloration, each one very closely matching the local Danaus species. E.g., in Florida, the pairing is of the Viceroy and the Queen Butterfly, and in Mexico, the Viceroy resembles the Soldier Butterfly. Therefore, the Viceroy is a single species involved in three different Müllerian pairs.[19] This example was long believed to be a case of Batesian mimicry, with the Viceroy being the mimic and the Monarch the model, but it was more recently determined that the Viceroy is actually the more unpalatable species, though there is considerable individual variation.[20] While L. archippus is really bad-tasting, Danaus species tend to be toxic rather than just repugnant, due to their different food plants.
    • Unpalatable Euploea species look very similar. See also under Batesian mimicry above.
    • The genus Morpho is palatable but are very strong fliers; birds - even species which are specialized for catching butterflies on the wing - find it very hard to catch them. The conspicuous blue coloration shared by most Morpho species seems to be a case of Müllerian mimicry.[10]
    • The "orange complex" of species, including the heliconiines Agraulis vanillae, Dryadula phaetusa, and Dryas iulia which all taste bad.[10]
    • Many different tiger moths make ultrasonic clicking calls to warn bats that they are unpalatable. Presumably a bat may learn to avoid any signalling moths, which would make this an example of Müllerian mimicry.[11]
  • Various bees and numerous vespid and sphecoid wasps: These animals are examples of Müllerian mimics because they have the aposematic yellow and black stripes (sometimes black and red, or black and white). Females of most of these species are potentially harmful to predators, fulfilling the second requirement of Müllerian mimicry. However, in essentially all such species, the males are harmless, and can thus be considered automimics of their conspecific females (see below). There are also many genera in these groups where the females are not capable of stinging, and yet still possess aposematic coloration (e.g., the wasp genus Cerceris), so they are considered Batesian mimics.

Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The butterfly species Danaus plexippus is commonly known as the Monarch butterfly. ... Binomial name Limenitis archippus Cramer, 1775 The Viceroy butterfly (Limenitis archippus) is a North American butterfly with a range from the Northwest Territories along the eastern edges of the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada mountains, southwards into central Mexico. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Species Danaus affinis Danaus chrysippus Danaus genutia Danaus gilippus Danaus melanippus Danaus plexippus . ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Binomial name Danaus gilippus (Cramer, 1775) The Queen (Danaus gilippus) is a North and South American butterfly in the family Nymphalidae (the brush-foots) with a wingspan of 2. ... Species Numerous, see text Synonyms Crastia Hübner, 1816 Trepsichrois Hübner, 1816 Salpinx Hübner, 1819 Eudaemon Billberg, 1820 Terpsichrois Hübner, 1821 (lapsus) Euplaea Boisduval, 1832 (lapsus) Calliploea Butler, 1875 Macroploea Butler, 1878 Stictoploea Butler, 1878 Euplea W.F. Kirby, 1879 (lapsus) Adigama Moore, 1880 Andasena Moore, 1883... Species M. achilleana M. adonis Sunset Morpho, M. helena M. menelaus M. peleides White Morpho, … A Morpho butterfly may be one of over 80 described species of the genus Morpho. ... Tribes Acraeini Heliconiini Pardopsini and see text. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Gulf Fritillary, Agraulis vanillae, a striking, bright orange butterfly of the family Nymphalidae, subfamily Heliconiinae. ... Binomial name Dryadula phaetusa (Linnaeus, 1758) Dryadula phaetusa, also known as the Banded Orange Heliconian, Banded Orange, or Orange Tiger, is a species of butterfly (an insect). ... Binomial name (Fabricius, 1775) Synonyms Dryas julia (a common lapsus) Dryas julia (also spelled iulia), commonly called the Julia butterfly or Julia Heliconian, is a species of butterfly (an insect). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Genera The vespids are a family of wasps, including all social wasps and some solitary wasps. ... Families Ampulicidae Crabronidae Heterogynaidae Sphecidae The Spheciformes is a paraphyletic assemblage of families which collectively comprise the sphecoid wasps; these are all the members of the superfamily Apoidea which are not bees, and in older classifications were called the Sphecoidea. The group is paraphyletic because the bees are believed to... The bright colours of this Yellow-winged Darter dragonfly serve as a warning to predators of its noxious taste. ... Species over 1000 worldwide The genus Cerceris of the subfamilly Philanthinae is in the family Crabronidae. ...

Emsleyan/Mertensian

Texas Coral Snake, Micrurus tener
Texas Coral Snake, Micrurus tener

Emsleyan[1] or Mertensian mimicry describes unusual cases where deadly prey mimic a less dangerous species. It was first proposed by Emsley[21] as a possible answer for the problem of Coral Snake mimicry in the New World. It was elaborated on by the German biologist Wolfgang Wickler in a chapter of Mimicry in Plants and Animals,[2] who named it after the German herpetologist Robert Mertens,[22] but see Sheppard (1969).[23] This scenario is a little more difficult to understand, as it is usually the most harmful species that is the model. If a predator dies, it cannot learn to recognize a warning signal, e.g. bright colors in a certain pattern. In other words, there is no advantage in being aposematic if an organism will kill any predators it succeeds in poisoning. It would then be better off camouflaged instead, so as to avoid encounters altogether. If, however, there is another species that is harmful but not deadly, the predator may learn to avoid it. Provided it results in less encounters than camouflage, the deadly species can then profit by mimicking this aposematic organism. Image File history File links Micrurus_tener. ... Image File history File links Micrurus_tener. ... Species Over 65, see article. ... Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians including their classification, ecology, behavior, physiology, anatomy, and paleontology. ... Robert Mertens (December 1, 1894 - August 23, 1975) was a German herpetologist. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ...


The exception here, ignoring any chance of animals learning by watching a conspecific die (see Jouventin et al. for a discussion of observational learning and mimicry),[24] is the possibility of not having to learn that it is harmful in the first place: instinctive genetic programming to be wary of certain signals. In this case, other organisms could benefit from this programming, and Batesian or Müllerian mimics of it could potentially evolve. In fact, it has been shown that some species do have an innate recognition of certain aposematic warnings. Hand-reared Turquoise-browed Motmots (Eumomota superciliosa), an avian predator, instinctively avoid snakes with red and yellow rings.[25] Other colors with the same pattern, and even red and yellow stripes with the same width as rings, were tolerated. However, models with red and yellow rings were feared, with the birds flying away and giving alarm calls in some cases. This provides one alternative explanation to Mertensian mimicry. See Greene and McDiarmid for a review of the subject.[26] Observational learning or social learning is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others. ... For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Eumomota superciliosa (Sandbach, 1837) The Turquoise-browed Motmot (Eumomota superciliosa) is a colourful, medium-sized bird of the motmot family, Momotidae. ... Concerning animals, an alarm call refers to various vocalizations that they emit in response to danger. ...


Examples:

  • Some Milk Snake (Lampropeltis triangulum) subspecies (harmless), the moderately toxic False Coral Snakes (genus Erythrolamprus), and the deadly Coral Snakes all have a red background color with black and white/yellow stripes. In this system, both the milk snakes and the deadly coral snakes are mimics, whereas the false coral snakes are the model.

Binomial name LaCépède, 1789 The milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum) is a species of king snake. ... False Coral may refer to: Erythrolamprus aesculapii Erythrolamprus bizona Erythrolamprus ocellatus (Tobago False Coral) Oxyrhopus petola Category: ... The coral snakes (Micrurus) are a genus of about 65 snake species, found in tropical South America and southern USA. They are venomous and related to Old World cobras. ...

Wasmannian

Wasmannian mimicry refers to the mimic resembling a model along with which it lives (inquiline) in a nest or colony. Most of the models here are social insects such as ants, termites, bees and wasps.[27] In zoology, an inquiline is an animal that lives commensally in the nest, burrow, or dwelling place of an animal of another species. ... Meat Eater ant colony swarming Fire ants Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialization found in some animals. ...


Mimetic weeds

Main article: Vavilovian mimicry
Rye is a secondary crop, originally being a mimetic weed of wheat.
Rye is a secondary crop, originally being a mimetic weed of wheat.

Vavilovian mimicry describes weeds which comes to share characteristics with a domesticated plant through artificial selection.[1] It is named after Russian botanist and geneticist Nikolai Vavilov.[28] Selection against the weed may occur either by manually killing the weed, or separating its seeds from those of the crop. The latter process, known as winnowing, can be done manually or by a machine. A drone fly exhibits Batesian mimicry by resembling a honey bee A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species or to the environment in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic[1]. A mimic generally... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 56 KB)Description: Rye (secale cereale) Source: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Hitchcock, A.S. (rev. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 56 KB)Description: Rye (secale cereale) Source: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Hitchcock, A.S. (rev. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... A crop is any plant that is grown in significant quantities to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, or for another economic purpose. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... A geneticist is a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms. ... Nikolai Vavilov Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (Николай Иванович Вавилов, November 25 [O.S. November 13] 1887 – January 26, 1943) was a prominent Russian botanist and geneticist best known for having identified the centres of origin of the cultivated plants. ... Wind winnowing is a method developed by ancient cultures for agricultural purposes. ...


Vavilovian mimicry presents an illustration of unintentional (or rather 'anti-intentional') selection by man. While some cases of artificial selection go in the direction desired, such as selective breeding, this case presents the opposite characteristics. Weeders do not want to select weeds that look increasingly like the cultivated plant, yet there is no other option. A similar problem in agriculture is pesticide. Vavilovian mimics may eventually be domesticated themselves, and Vavilov called these weeds-come-crops secondary crops. Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ...


It can be classified as defensive mimicry in that the weed mimics a protected species. This bears strong similarity to Batesian mimicry in that the weed does not share the properties that give the model its protection, and both the model and the dupe (in this case people) are both harmed by its presence. There are some key differences, though; in Batesian mimicry the model and signal receiver are enemies (the predator would eat the protected species if could), whereas here the crop and its human growers are in a mutualistic relationship: the crop benefits from being dispersed and protected by people, despite being eaten by them. In fact, the crop's only 'protection' relevant here is its usefulness to humans. Secondly, the weed is not eaten, but simply destroyed. The only motivation for killing the weed is its effect on crop yields. Finally, this type of mimicry does not occur in ecosystems unaltered by humans.


One case is Echinochloa oryzoides, a species of grass which is found as a weed in rice (Oryza sativa) fields. The plant looks similar to rice and its seeds are often mixed in rice and difficult to separate. This close similarity was enhanced by the weeding process which is a selective force that increases the similarity of the weed in each subsequent generation.[29] RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ...


Protective egg decoys

Unlike the above forms of mimicry, Gilbertian mimicry involves only two species. The potential host/prey drives away its parasite/predator by mimicking it, the reverse of host-parasite aggressive mimicry. It was coined by Pasteur as a term for such rare mimicry systems,[1] and is named after the American ecologist Lawrence E. Gilbert.[30] It should not to be confused with the Gilbert and Sullivan sense of the word, meaning absurd or comic. W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ...


This form of protective mimicry occurs in the genus Passiflora. The leaves of this plant contain toxins which deter herbivorous animals, however some Heliconius butterfly larvae have evolved enzymes which break down these toxins, allowing them to specialize on this genus. This has created further selection pressure on the host plants, which have evolved stipules that mimic mature Heliconius eggs near the point of hatching. These butterflies tend to avoid laying eggs near each existing ones, which helps avoid exploitative intraspecific competition between caterpillars—those that lay on vacant leaves provide their offspring with a greater chance of survival. Additionally, most Heliconius larvae are cannibalistic, meaning those leaves with older eggs will hatch first and eat the new arrivals. Thus, it seems such plants have evolved egg dummies due to these grazing herbivore enemies. The decoy eggs are also nectaries though, attracting predators of the caterpillars such as ants and wasps. The extent of their mimetic function is therefore slightly more difficult to assess.[3] Species Passiflora amalocarpa Passiflora amethystina Passiflora aurantia Passiflora caerulea Passiflora capsularis Passiflora edulis Passiflora foetida Passiflora helleri Passiflora holosericea Passiflora incarnata Passiflora karwinskii Passiflora mucronata Passiflora murucuja Passiflora tenuifila Passiflora tulae Passiflora vitifolia Passiflora yucatanensis Passion flower refers to vines in the genus Passiflora—flowering plants known for their... Species Many, including Heliconius charitonius Heliconius cydno Heliconius erato Heliconius hecale Heliconius ismenius Heliconius melpomene Heliconius nattereri Heliconius sara Heliconius comprise a colorful and widespread butterfly genus distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World. ... With its eucalyptus diet, the koala can be considered a specialist species. ... In botany, stipule refers to the often leaflike outgrowth borne on either side at the base of a leafstalk (or petiole). ... Intraspecific competition is the interaction between members of the same species that vie for the same resource in an ecosystem (e. ... Three Mormon crickets eating a fourth Mormon cricket In zoology, cannibalism is a common ecological interaction in the animal kingdom and has been recorded for more than 1500 species (this estimate is from 1981, and likely a gross underestimation). ... For other uses of Nectar, see Nectar (disambiguation). ...


The use of eggs is not essential to this system, only the species composition and protective function. Many other forms of mimicry also involve eggs, such as cuckoo eggs mimicking those of their host (the reverse of this situation), or plants seeds being dispersed by ants, who treat them as they would their own eggs.


Protective mimicry within a species

Monarch caterpillars, shown feeding, vary in toxicity depending on their diet.
Monarch caterpillars, shown feeding, vary in toxicity depending on their diet.

Browerian mimicry[1], named after Lincoln P. Brower and Jane Van Zandt Brower,[31][32] is a form of automimicry; where the model belongs to the same species as the mimic. This is the analogue of Batesian mimicry within a single species, and occurs when there is a palatability spectrum within a population. One example is Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus), which feed on milkweed species of varying toxicity. This species stores toxins from its host plant, which are maintained even in the adult (imago) form. As the levels of toxin will vary depending on diet during the larval stage, some individuals will be more toxic than others. The less palatable organisms will therefore be mimics of the more dangerous individuals, with their likeness already perfected. This need not be the case however; in sexually dimorphic species one sex may be more of a threat than the other, which could mimic the protected sex. Evidence for this possibility is provided by the behavior of a monkey from Gabon, which regularly ate male moths of the genus Anaphe, but promptly stopped after it tasted a noxious female.[33] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1600, 1496 KB) Source Own Picture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1600, 1496 KB) Source Own Picture. ... Botany Asclepias, the milkweeds, is a genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants in the family Asclepiadaceae that contains over 140 known species. ... The imago is the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from pupation where the metamorphosis is complete. ...


Aggressive

Main article: Aggressive mimicry

Aggressive mimicry describes predators (or parasites) which share the same characteristics as a harmless species, allowing them to avoid detection by their prey (or host). It is less often known as Peckhamian mimicry after George and Elizabeth Peckham.[34][35] The mimic may resemble the prey or host itself, or another organism which is either neutral or beneficial to the signal receiver. In this class of mimicry the model may be affected negatively, positively or not at all. Just as parasites can be treated as a form of predator,[36] host-parasite mimicry is treated here as a subclass of aggressive mimicry. Plate from Henry Walter Bates (1862) illustrating Batesian mimicry between Dismorphia species (top row, third row) and various Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (second row, bottom row). ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... George W. and Elizabeth G. Peckham were early American arachnologists, specializing in the study of jumping spiders (Salticidae). ...


The mimic may have a particular significance for duped prey. One such case is spiders, amongst which aggressive mimicry is quite common in both in luring prey and stealthily approaching predators.[37] One case is the Golden Orb Weaver (Nephila clavipes), which spins a conspicuous golden colored web in well-light areas. Experiments show that bees are able to associate the webs with danger when the yellow pigment is not present, as occurs in less well light areas where the web is much harder to see. Other colors were also learned and avoided, but bees seemed least able to effectively associate yellow pigmented webs with danger. Yellow is the color of many nectar bearing flowers, however, so perhaps avoiding yellow is not worth while. Another form of mimicry is based not on color but pattern. Species such as Argiope argentata employ prominent patterns in the middle of their webs, such as zigzags. These may reflect ultraviolet light, and mimic the pattern seen in many flowers known as nectar guides. Spiders change their web day to day, which can be explained by bee's ability to remember web patterns. Bees are able to associate a certain pattern with a spatial location, meaning the spider must spin a new pattern regularly or suffer diminishing prey capture.[38] Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ... Diversity 27 species Species N. clavata N. clavipes N. edulis N. inaurata N. pilipes  many more The golden silk orb-weavers (genus Nephila) are also commonly called golden orb-weavers or banana spiders. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Argiope argentata is a member of the Argiope genus of spiders and is also known as the Silver Argiope. ... Nectar guides are patterns seen in some flowers, such as sunflowers, when viewed under ultraviolet light. ...


Another case is where males are lured towards what would seem to be a sexually receptive female; the model in this situation being the same species as the dupe. Beginning in the 1960s, James E. Lloyd's investigation of female fireflies of the genus Photuris revealed they emit the same light signals that females of the genus Photinus use as a mating signal.[39] Further research showed male fireflies from several different genera are attracted to these "femmes fatales", and are subsequently captured and eaten. Female signals are based on that received from the male, each female having a repertoire of signals matching the delay and duration of the female of the corresponding species. This mimicry may have evolved from non-mating signals that have become modified for predation.[40] For the science fiction television series, see Firefly (TV series). ... Species P. pennsylvanicus etc. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Convicted spy Mata Hari made her name synonymous with femme fatale during WWI. A femme fatale (plural: femmes fatales) is an alluring and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers in bonds of irresistible desire, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations. ...


Some carnivorous plants may also be able to increase their rate of capture through mimicry.[41] Nepenthes mirabilis in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau Carnivorous plants (sometimes called insectivorous plants) are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, most focusing on insects and other arthropods. ...

Two Bluestreak cleaner wrasse cleaning a Potato grouper, Epinephelus tukula
Two Bluestreak cleaner wrasse cleaning a Potato grouper, Epinephelus tukula

Luring is not a necessary condition however, as the predator will still have a significant advantage by simply not being identified as such. They may resemble a mutualistic symbiont or a species of little relevance to the prey. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ...


A case of the former situation is a species of cleaner fish and its mimic, though in this example the model is greatly disadvantaged by the presence of the mimic. Cleaner fish are the allies of many other species, which allow them to eat their parasites and dead skin. Some allow the cleaner to venture inside their body to hunt these parasites. However, one species of cleaner, the Bluestreak cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus), is the unknowing model of a mimetic species, the Sabre-toothed blenny (Aspidontus taeniatus). This wrasse, shown to the left cleaning a grouper of the genus Epinephelus, resides in coral reefs in the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, and is recognized by other fishes who then allow it to clean them. Its imposter, a species of blenny, lives in the Indian Ocean and not only looks like it in terms of size and coloration, but even mimics the cleaner's 'dance'. Having fooled its prey into letting its guard down, it then bites it, tearing off a piece of its fin before fleeing the scene. Fish grazed upon in this fashion soon learn to distinguish mimic from model, but because the similarity is close between the two they become much more cautious of the model as well, such that both are affected. Due to victim's ability to discriminate between foe and helper, the blennies have evolved close similarity, right down to the regional level.[42] The cleaner wrasses Labroides dimidiatus removing dead skin and external parasites from the grouper Epinephelus tukula. ... Binomial name Valenciennes, 1839 Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Labroides dimidiatus The bluestreak cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) is a species of wrasse found on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and much of the Pacific Ocean, as well as many seas, including the Red Sea and those around Southeast... Genera (60 genera) The wrasses are a family (family Labridae) of reef safe marine fish, many of which are brightly-colored and popular for aquaria. ... Genera Acanthistius Alphestes Anyperidon Caprodon Cephalopholis Cromileptes Dermatolepis Epinephelus Gonioplectrus Gracila HypoplectrodesLiopropoma Mycteroperca Niphon Paranthias Plectropomus Saloptia Triso Variola For the computer program, see Grouper (Windows application). ... Epinephelus is a genus of grouper. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... The common name blenny is ambiguous at best, as it has been applied to several families of perciform marine fishes all sharing similar morphology and behaviour. ... The colours of animals have been a topic of interest in modern biology. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ...


Another interesting example that does not involve any luring the Zone-tailed Hawk, which resembles the Turkey Vulture. It flies amongst them, suddenly breaking from the formation and ambushing its prey.[43] Here the hawk's presence is of no evident significance to the vultures, affecting them neither negatively or positively. Binomial name Buteo albonotatus Kaup, 1847 The Zone-tailed Hawk, Buteo albonotatus, is a medium-sized hawk of warm, dry parts of the Americas. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) is the most common vulture in the Americas. ...


Parasites

Parasites can also be aggressive mimics, though the situation is somewhat different than those outlined above.


Some of the predators described have a feature that draws prey, and parasites can also mimic their host's natural prey, but are eaten themselves, a pathway into their host. Leucochloridium, a genus of flatworm, matures in the digestive system of songbirds, their eggs then passing out of the bird via the feces . They are then taken up by Succinea, a terrestrial snail. The eggs develop in this intermediate host, and then must find of a suitable bird to mature in. Host birds do not eat snails though, so the sporocyst must find some strategy to reach its hosts intestine. For this function, they are brightly colored and move in a pulsating fashion. A sporocyst-sac pulsates in the snail's eye stalks,[44] coming to resemble an irresistible meal for a songbird. In this way, it can bridge the gap between hosts, allowing it to complete its life cycle.[2] Parasitism is one version of symbiosis (living together), a phenomenon in which two organisms which are phylogenetically unrelated co-exist over a prolonged period of time, usually their entire life. ... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Platyhelminthes Wikispecies has information related to: Platyhelminthes The flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes from the Greek platy, meaning flat and helminth, meaning worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... Species See text. ... In parasitology, an intermediate host is an organism within which a parasite does not sexually reproduce. ...


In an unusual case, planidium larvae of some beetles of the genus Meloe will form a group and produce a pheromone that mimics the sex attractant of its host bee species; when the male bee arrives and attempts to mate with the mass of larvae, they climb onto his abdomen, and from there transfer to a female bee, and from there to the bee nest to parasitize the bee larvae.[3] A planidium is a specialized type of first-instar insect larva, seen in groups that are parasitoids; they are generally flattened, highly sclerotized, have legs, are quite mobile, and sometimes have eyes. ... The blister beetle genus Meloe is a large, widespread group commonly referred to as oil beetles. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ...


Host-parasite mimicry is a two species system where a parasite mimics its own host. Cuckoos are a canonical example of brood parasitism, a form of kleptoparasitism where the mother has its offspring raised by another unwitting organism, cutting down its the biological mother's parental investment in the process. Cases interspecific brood parasitism where a female lays in conspecific's nest, as illustrated by the Goldeneye duck (Bucephala clangula),[45] do not represent a case of mimicry. Genera See text. ... Brood parasites are a sub-category of kleptoparasite occurring among birds or insects, that lay their eggs in the nests of other species to be raised by the host. ... Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it. ... Robert Trivers theory of parental investment predicts that the sex making the largest investment in lactation, nurturing and protecting offspring will be more discriminating in mating and that the sex that invests less in offspring will compete for access to the higher investing sex. ... Species ]][[Link title[[Link title </math>]]]] Goldeneye are small tree-hole nesting northern hemisphere seaducks belonging to the genus Bucephala. ...


Reproductive

Reproductive mimicry occurs when the actions of the dupe directly aid in the mimic's reproduction. This is common in plants, which may have deceptive flowers that do not provide the reward they would seem to. Other forms of mimicry have a reproductive component, such as Vavilovian mimicry involving seeds, and brood parasitism, which also involves aggressive mimicry. For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ...


Mimicry of flowers

Bakerian mimicry, named after Herbert G. Baker,[46] is a form of automimicry where female flowers mimic male flowers of their own species, cheating pollinators out of a reward. This reproductive mimicry may not be readily apparent as members of the same species may still exhibit some degree of sexual dimorphism. It is common in many species of Caricaceae.[47] For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Genera See text Caricaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Brassicales, native to tropical regions of Central and South America and Africa. ...


Like Bakerian mimicry, Dodsonian mimicry is a form of reproductive floral mimicry, but the model belongs to a different species than the mimic. The name refers to Calaway H. Dodson.[48] By providing similar sensory signals as the model flower, it can lure its pollinators. Like Bakerian mimics, no nectar is provided. Epidendrurn ibaguense of the family Orchidaceae resembles flowers of Lantana camara and Asclepias curassavica, and is pollinated by Monarch Butterflies and perhaps hummingbirds.[49] Similar cases are seen in some other species of the same family. The mimetic species may still have pollinators of its own though, for example a lamellicorn beetle which usually pollinates correspondingly colored Cistus flowers is also known to aid in pollination of Ophrys species that are normally pollinated by bees.[50] Orchid redirects here. ... Binomial name Lantana camara, also known as Spanish Flag, is a very significant weed which has covered large areas of forests in India. ... Binomial name Asclepias curassavica L. Mexican Butterfly Weed, Blood-flower or Scarlet Milkweed (Asclepias curassavica) is a species of milkweed. ... For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Species - Gum Rockrose - Montpelier Cistus - Salvia Cistus Ref: Ellul (2002) The rockrose is the name for the genus Cistus of the flowering plant family Cistaceae. ... Species About 40 The genus Ophrys is a large group of orchids from the alliance Orchis in the subtribe Orchidinae. ...


Pseudocopulation

The Fly Orchid (Ophrys insectifera).
The Fly Orchid (Ophrys insectifera).
Further information: Pseudocopulation

Pseudocopulation occurs when a flower mimics a female of a certain insect species, the males of which try to copulate with it. This is much like the aggressive mimicry in fireflies described above, but with a much more benign outcome for the pollinator. This form of mimicry has been called Pouyannian mimicry,[1] after Pouyanne, who first described the phenomenon.[51][52] It is most common in orchids which mimic females of the order Hymenoptera (generally bees and wasps), and may account for around 60% of pollinations.[53] Depending on the morphology of the flower, a pollen sac called a pollinia is attached to the head or abdomen of the male. This is then transferred to the stigma of the next flower the male tries to inseminate, resulting in pollination. Visual mimicry is the most obvious sign of this deception for humans, but the visual aspect may be minor or non-existent. It is the senses of touch and olfaction that are most important.[53] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 1280 pixels, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 1280 pixels, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Binomial name Ophrys insectifera Fly orchid (Ophrys insectifera) is a plant of the family Orchidaceae, a native of the British Isles and Europe favouring sites with alkaline soil. ... Pseudocopulation is a method of attracting pollinators via sexual stimulation. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Pollinium, or plural pollinia, is a coherent mass of pollen grains. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ...


Automimicry

Automimicry or intraspecific mimicry occurs within a single species, one case being where one part of an organism's body resembles another part. Examples include snakes in which the tail resembles the head and show behavior such as moving backwards to confuse predators and insects and fishes with eyespots on their hind ends to resemble the head. The term is also used when the mimic imitates other morphs within the same species. When males mimic females or vice versa this may be referred to as sexual mimicry. Eyespots on a peafowl. ... Spotted Hyena European Mole Sexual mimicry is where one sex takes the characteristics of another sex within a species. ...


Examples:

  • Many insects have filamentous "tails" at the ends of their wings which are combined with patterns of markings on the wings themselves to create a "false head" which misdirects predators (e.g., hairstreak butterflies).
  • Several pygmy owls bear "false eyes" on the back of their head to fool predators into believing the owl is alert to their presence.
  • The yellow throated males of the Common Side-blotched Lizard use a 'sneaking' strategy in mating. They look and behave like unreceptive females. This strategy is effective against 'usurper' males with orange throats, but ineffective against blue throated 'guarder' males, which will chase them away. [54]
  • Female hyenas have pseudo-penises which make them look like males.[55]

Tribes Amblypodiini Aphnaeini Arhopalini Catapaecilmatini Cheritrini Deudorigini Eumaeini Horagini Hypolycaenini Hypotheclini Iolaini Loxurini Luciini Oxylidini Remelanini Theclini Tomarini Zesiini Subfamily Theclinae is a group of butterflies, including the hairstreaks, elfins and allies, in the family Lycaenidae. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard, 1852 Subspecies (Salsipuedes Side-blotched Lizard) (Western Side-blotched Lizard) (Nevada Side-blotched Lizard) (Santa Catalina side-blotched lizard) (Northern Side-blotched Lizard) (San Benito Side-blotched Lizard) (Taylors Side-blotched Lizard - doubtful) (Plateau Side-blotched Lizard) Synonyms Uta antiqua, Uta elegans... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of population genetics-inspired models of change in gene frequency in populations to game theory. ... Subfamilies and Genera Hyaeninae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ... Female spotted hyenas have pseudo-penises, which may function as a social signal. ...

Other

Some forms of mimicry do not fit easily within the classification given above. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (682 × 830 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (682 × 830 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name (Vahl, 1797) Synonyms Hierococcyx varius The Common Hawk-cuckoo Cuculus varius also popularly called the Brainfever bird is a medium sized cuckoo resident in South Asia. ... Binomial name Accipiter badius Gmelin, 1788 The Shikra (Accipiter badius) is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards and harriers. ...


Owl butterflies (genus Caligo) bear eye-spots on the underside of their wings; if turned upside-down, their undersides resemble the face of an owl (such as the Short-eared Owl or the Tropical Screech Owl) for which in turn the butterfly predators - small lizards and birds - would be food.[56] Thus it has been supposed that the eye-spots are a form of Batesian mimicry. However, the pose in which the butterfly resembles an owl's head is not normally adopted in life. Species eurilochus species-group arisbe species group: atreus species group: oileus species-group beltrao species-group incertae sedis Owl butterflies, of which there are around 20 different species, are members of the genus Caligo, in the brush-footed butterfly family Nymphalidae. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) The Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) is a species of typical owl (family Strigidae). ... Binomial name (Vieillot, 1817) Synonyms Otus choliba (Vieillot, 1817) The Tropical Screech-owl (Megascops choliba) is a species of owl in the Strigidae family. ... lizards are pink and become very aggressive when they see other females. ...


Another case is floral mimicry induced by the discomycete fungus Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi.[57] In this unusual case, a fungal plant pathogen infects leaves of blueberries, causing them to secrete sugary substances including glucose and fructose, in effect mimicking the nectar of flowers. To the naked eye the leaves do not look like flowers, yet strangely they still attract pollinating insects like bees. As it turns out, the sweet secretions are not the only cues—the leaves also reflect ultraviolet, which is normally absorbed by the plant's leaves. Ultraviolet light is also employed by the host's flowers as a signal to insects, which have visual systems quite capable of picking up this low wavelength (300-400nm) radiation. The fungus is then transferred to the ovaries of the flower where it produces mummified, inedible berries, which overwinter before infecting new plants. This case is unusual in that the fungus benefits from the deception, but it is the leaves which act as mimics, being harmed in the process. It bears similarity to host-parasite mimicry, but the host does not receive the signal. It also has a little in common with automimicry, but the plant does not benefit from the mimicry, and the action of the pathogen is required to produce it. Discomycetes is a former taxonomic class of Ascomycete fungi which contains all of the cup, sponge, brain, and some club-like fungi. ... Plant pathology redirects here. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...


Evolution

It was sometimes assumed that mimicry evolves as a positive adaptation; that is, the mimic gains fitness via convergent evolution which results in resemblance to another species, although there are others who suggest that evolution is non-adaptive or merely a result of structural similarities. The lepidopterist (and sometime author) Vladimir Nabokov argued that much of insect mimicry, including the Viceroy/Monarch mimicry, resulted from the fact that coloration patterns in both species simply had a common structural basis, and thus the tendency for convergence by chance was high.[58] However, this very example provides evidence precisely to the contrary, as the viceroy's color pattern is completely unlike any of the species to which it is closely related, and the viceroy itself has three color forms, each adapted to resemble a different species of Danaus.[19] Likewise, this example is based on two organisms that are indeed fairly similar in structure (both butterflies), while a great many cases of mimicry (especially in large Batesian/Mũllerian complexes) involve insects from multiple orders that share virtually no structural similarities whatsoever; beetles, true bugs, moths, wasps, bees, and flies may all belong to a single mimetic complex, despite profound differences.[2] This article is about evolution in biology. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... Species Danaus affinis Danaus chrysippus Danaus genutia Danaus gilippus Danaus melanippus Danaus plexippus . ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... The term true bug refers to the insects of the order Hemiptera and in particular to those of the suborder Heteroptera. ... For other uses, see Moths A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly. ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation). ...


The most widely accepted model used to explain the evolution of mimicry in butterflies is the two-step hypothesis. In this model the first step involves mutation in modifier genes that regulate a complex cluster of linked genes associated with large changes in morphology. The second step consists of selections on genes with smaller phenotypic effects and this leading to increasing closeness of resemblance. This model is supported by empirical evidence that suggests that there are only a few single point mutations that cause large phenotypic effects while there are numerous others that produce smaller effects. Some regulatory elements are now known to be involved in a supergene that is involved in the development of butterfly colour patterns. Computational simulations of population genetics have also supported this idea.[59] For other uses, see Supergene (disambiguation). ...


See also

Biomimicry (also biomimickry) is the conscious copying of examples and mechanisms from natural organisms and ecologies. ... Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mothers beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex. ... Molecular mimicry is defined as the theoretical possibility that sequence similarities between foreign and self-peptides are sufficient enough to result in the cross-activation of autoreactive T or B cells by pathogen-derived peptides. ... In evolutionary biology, preadaptation describes a situation where an organism uses a preexisting anatomical structure inherited from an ancestor for a potentially unrelated purpose. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...

Similar terms

  • Mimetic is an adjective used to describe cases of mimicry, but is also used in mathematics (see mimetic). This should not be confused with memetics, the scientific study of memes.
  • Mimesis also refers to imitation, especially relating to the arts.

The goal of numerical analysis is to approximate the continuum, so instead of solving a partial differential equation one aims in solve a discrete version of the continuum problem. ... Memetics is an approach to evolutionary models of information transfer based on the concept of the meme. ... For other uses, see Meme (disambiguation). ... Mimesis (μίμησις from μιμεîσθαι) in its simplest context means imitation or representation in Greek. ... Imitation is an advanced animal behaviour whereby an individual observes anothers behaviour and replicates it itself. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...

Further reading

  • Cott, H.B. (1940) Adaptive Coloration in Animals. Methuen and Co, Ltd., London ISBN 0416300502
  • Wickler, W. (1968) Mimicry in Plants and Animals (Translated from the German) McGraw-Hill, New York. ISBN 0070701008
  • Edmunds, M. 1974. Defence in Animals: A Survey of Anti-Predator Defences. Harlow, Essex & NY: Longman 357 p. ISBN 0582441323
  • Owen, D. (1980) Camouflage and Mimicry. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176838
  • Pasteur, Georges (1982). “A classificatory review of mimicry systems”. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13: 169–199.
  • Brower, L. (ed.) (1988). Mimicry and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226076083 (a supplement of volume 131 of the journal American Naturalist dedicated to E. B. Ford.)
  • Ruxton, G. D.; Speed, M. P.; Sherratt, T. N. (2004). Avoiding Attack. The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198528604
  • Evans, M. A. (1965) Mimicry and the Darwinian Heritage Journal of the History of Ideas 26 (2): 211-220.
  • Wiens, D. (1978) Mimicry in Plants. Evolutionary Biology. 11:365–403.
  • Dafni, A. (1984) Mimicry and Deception in Pollination Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15 : 259-278.
  • An introductory book for a younger audience: Hoff, M. K. (2003) Mimicry and Camouflage. Creative Education. Mankato, Minn. Great Britain. ISBN 1583412379

American Naturalist is a monthly scientific journal, founded in 1867, and associated with the University of Chicago. ... This article is about the British ecological geneticist E.B. Henry Ford. ...

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e Wickler, W. 1968. Mimicry in plants and animals. McGraw-Hill, New York
  3. ^ a b Campbell, N. A. (1996) Biology (4th edition), Chapter 50. Benjamin Cummings, New York ISBN 0-8053-1957-3
  4. ^ Boyden, T. C. (1980) Floral Mimicry by Epidendrum ibaguense (Orchidaceae) in Panama Evolution 34:135-136.
  5. ^ Roy, B. A. (1994) The Effects of Pathogen-Induced Pseudoflowers and Buttercups on Each Other's Insect Visitation Ecology 75:352-358.
  6. ^ Wickler, Wolfgang (1998). “Mimicry”. Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition. Macropædia 24, 144–151. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-11910
  7. ^ Douglas Harper (2007-10-06). Online Etymology Dictionary.
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  23. ^ But Sheppard points out that Hecht and Marien put forward a similar hypothesis ten years earlier (Hecht, M. K. & Marien, D. (1956) The coral snake mimic problem: A reinterpretation. Journal of Morphology. 98:335-365), see Sheppard, P. M. (1969) Review of Mimicry in Plants and Animals by Wolfgang Wickler The Journal of Animal Ecology 38: 243.
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  31. ^ Brower, L. P. (1970) Plant poisons in a terrestrial food chain and implications for mimicry theory. In K. L. Chambers (ed) Biochemical Coevolution Corvallis, OR: Oregon State Univ. pp. 69-82.
  32. ^ Brower, L. P., Brower, J. V. Z., Corvino, J. M. (1967) Plant poisons in a terrestrial food chain. Proclaimations of the National Academy of Sciences USA 57:893-98.
  33. ^ Bigot, L., Jouventin, P. (1974) Quelques expériences de comestibilité de Lépidoptères gabonais faites avec le mandrill, le cercocèbe à joues grises et legarde-boeufs. Terre Vie 28:521-43.
  34. ^ Peckham, E. G. (1889) Protective resemblances of spiders. Occasional Papers of Natural History Society of Wisconsin 1:61-113.
  35. ^ Peckham, E. G. & G. W. Peckham (1892) Ant-like spiders of the family Attidae. Occasional Papers of Natural History Society of Wisconsin 2:1-84.
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  38. ^ Craig, C. L. (1995) Webs of Deceit. Natural History 104 (3): 32-35.
  39. ^ Lloyd, J. E. (1965) Aggressive Mimicry in Photuris: Firefly Femmes Fatales Science 149:653-654.
  40. ^ Lloyd, J. E. (1975) Aggressive Mimicry in Photuris Fireflies: Signal Repertoires by Femmes Fatales. Science. 187:452-453.
  41. ^ Moran, Jonathan A. (1996) Pitcher dimorphism, prey composition and the mechanisms of prey attraction in the pitcher plant Nepenthes rafflesiana in Borneo. Journal of Ecology 84:515–525.
  42. ^ Wickler, W. (1966) Mimicry in Tropical Fishes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 251:473-474.
  43. ^ Willis, E. O. (1963) Is the Zone-Tailed Hawk a Mimic of the Turkey Vulture? The Condor 65:313-317.
  44. ^ See here for a photo.
  45. ^ Andersson, M. & Eriksson, M.O.G. 1982 Nest parasitism in goldeneyes Bucephala clangula: some evolutionary aspects. American Naturalist 120, 1-16 (1982)
  46. ^ Baker H. G. 1976. “Mistake” pollination as a reproductive system, with special reference to the Caricaceae. Pp 161–169 in J. Burley and B.T. Styles, eds. Variation, breeding, and conservation of tropical trees. Academic Press, London, U.K.
  47. ^ Bawa, K. S. (1980) Mimicry of male by female flowers and intrasexual competition for pollinators in Jacaratia dolichaula (D. Smith) Woodson (Caricaceae). Evolution 34:467-74.
  48. ^ Dodson, C. H., Frymire, G. P. (1961) Natural pollination of orchids. Missouri Botanical Garden Bulletin 49:133-39.
  49. ^ Boyden, T. C. (1980) Floral mimicry by Epidendrurn ibaguense (Orchidaceae) in Panama. Evolution 34:135-36.
  50. ^ Kullenberg, B. (1961) Studies in Ophrys pollination. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala 34:1-340.
  51. ^ Correvon H., Pouyanne A. (1916) Uncurieux cas de mimetisme chez les Ophrydees. J. Soc. Nat. Hortic. Fr. 17:29–31, 41–42, 84.
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  53. ^ a b van der Pijl, L., Dodson, C. H. (1966) Orchid Flowers; Their Pollination and Evolution. Coral Gables, FL: Univ. Miami Press
  54. ^ Sinervo B.; Miles D.B.; Frankino W.A.; Klukowski M.; DeNardo D.F. (2000) Testosterone, Endurance, and Darwinian Fitness: Natural and Sexual Selection on the Physiological Bases of Alternative Male Behaviors in Side-Blotched Lizards. Hormones and Behavior. 38:222-233.
  55. ^ Muller, M. N.; Wrangham, R. (2002) Sexual Mimicry in Hyenas The Quarterly Review of Biology 77:3-16.
  56. ^ See here for a photo
  57. ^ Batra L. R.; Batra, S. (1985) Floral Mimicry Induced by Mummy-Berry Fungus Exploits Host's Pollinators as Vectors Science 228:1011-1013.
  58. ^ Alexander, Victoria N. Nabokov and Insect mimicry. Nabokov Studies
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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mimicry


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Mimic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mimic (disambiguation). ... A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic. ... Plate from Henry Walter Bates (1862) illustrating Batesian mimicry between Dismorphia species (top row, third row) and various Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (second row, bottom row). ... Pseudocopulation is a method of attracting pollinators via sexual stimulation. ... Spotted Hyena European Mole Sexual mimicry is where one sex takes the characteristics of another sex within a species. ... A drone fly exhibits Batesian mimicry by resembling a honey bee A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species or to the environment in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic[1]. A mimic generally... Eyespots on a peafowl. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 703 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1024 pixel, file size: 591 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bearbeitung von Image:Batesplate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The bright colours of this Yellow-winged Darter dragonfly serve as a warning to predators of its noxious taste. ... Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ... Crypsis is a phenomena where an organisms appearance allows it to blend well into its environment. ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ... The colours of animals have been a topic of interest in modern biology. ... Frequency dependent selection is the term given to an evolutionary process where the fitness of a phenotype is dependent on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population. ... In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ... Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory refers to the scientific theory around how organisms signal their condition to others. ...

Topics in evolutionary ecology
v  d  e
Patterns of evolution: Convergent evolutionEvolutionary relayParallel evolution
Signals: AposematismMimicryCrypsis
Interactions between species: MutualismPredationParasitism

 
 

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