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Encyclopedia > Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes

Milton Keynes shown within Buckinghamshire
Population 184,506
OS grid reference SP841386
 - London 54.4m
Unitary authority Milton Keynes
Ceremonial county Buckinghamshire
Region South East
Constituent country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town MILTON KEYNES
Postcode district MK1 - 15
Dialling code 01908
Police Thames Valley
Fire Buckinghamshire
Ambulance South Central
UK Parliament North East Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes South West
European Parliament South East England
List of places: UKEnglandBuckinghamshire

Coordinates: 52°02′10″N 0°46′12″W / 52.036, -0.77 Image File history File links Size of this preview: 504 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 714 pixels, file size: 292 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ... This is a list of the largest cities and towns of England ordered by population. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A post town is a required part of all UK postal addresses. ... UK postal codes are known as postcodes. ... The MK postcode area, also known as the Milton Keynes postcode area[2], is a group of postal districts around Bedford, Buckingham, Milton Keynes, Newport Pagnell and Olney in England. ... +44 redirects here. ... Thames Valley Police is one of the largest Home Office police services in England and the largest non-metropolitan one, covering 2200 sq mi (5,700 km²) and a population of 2. ... A Fire Appliance belonging to the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service The fire service in the United Kingdom has undergone dramatic changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process that has been propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational... The Buckinghamshire Fire and Rescue Service, is the Fire Service serving the county of Buckinghamshire. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The South Central Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing NHS ambulance services in Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Hampshire, Milton Keynes, Oxfordshire, Portsmouth, and Southampton, in the South East England region. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... Creation 1992 MP Mark Lancaster Party Conservative Type House of Commons County Buckinghamshire EP constituency South East England North East Milton Keynes is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Milton Keynes South West is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of Members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom in the 2004 to 2009 session, ordered by name. ... The constituency within England. ... List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places within counties List of places in Bedfordshire List of places in Berkshire List of places in Buckinghamshire List of places in Cambridgeshire List of places in Cheshire List of places in Cleveland List of places... The boundaries of Buckinghamshire have changed considerably over a number of years. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Milton Keynes (pronunciation ; IPA [ˌmɪltənˈkiːnz]) is a large town in South East England, about 45 miles (75 km) north-west of London. It is also the principal town of the Borough of Milton Keynes, itself part of ceremonial Buckinghamshire. It was formally designated as a new town on 23 January 1967. Its 34 square miles (88 km²) area incorporated the existing towns of Bletchley, Wolverton and Stony Stratford along with another fifteen villages and farmland in between. It took its name from the existing village of Milton Keynes, a few miles east of the planned city centre. Uniquely for the United Kingdom, the urban form uses a 1 km grid for the top level of street hierarchy: the local form of most districts is more conventional. Image File history File links En-uk-MiltonKeynes. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ... Below is a list of some of the new towns in the United Kingdom created under the various New Town Acts of the 20th century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Bletchley is the name of more than one place. ... , Wolverton is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ... Location within the British Isles. ... All Saints Church, Middleton Middleton is a district and civil parish in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ... Central Milton Keynes is the central area of Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, England. ... A street hierarchy is a system of urban design that completely separates through automobile traffic from developed areas. ...


At the 2001 census the population of the Milton Keynes urban area, including the adjacent town of Newport Pagnell, was 184,506, and that of the wider Borough, which has been a unitary authority independent of Buckinghamshire since 1997, was 207,063 (compared to a population of around 53,000 for the same area in 1961[1]). Newport Pagnell is a town in the Borough of Milton Keynes (traditional Buckinghamshire), England. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ...

Contents

History

The History of Milton Keynes details the development of Milton Keynes, from the earliest human settlements, through the plans for a new city in North Buckinghamshire and its subsequent urban design and development by the Milton Keynes Development Corporation, to its subsequent development to the present day. ...

Birth of a "New City"

In the 1960s, the Government decided that a further generation of new towns in the South East was needed to relieve housing congestion in London. Below is a list of some of the new towns in the United Kingdom created under the various New Town Acts of the 20th century. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Since the 1950s, overspill housing for several London boroughs [2] [3] [4] had been constructed in Bletchley. Further studies [5] [6] in the 1960s identified north Buckinghamshire as a possible site for a large new town, a new city,[7] encompassing the existing towns of Bletchley, Stony Stratford and Wolverton. The New Town (informally, "New City") was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000. [8] The designated area was 25,200 acres (102 km²). The name "Milton Keynes" was taken from the existing village of Milton Keynes on the site.[9] The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... Bletchley is a town in what is now Milton Keynes new city. ... Location within the British Isles. ... Wolverton is a town in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ... All Saints Church, Middleton Middleton is a district and civil parish in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ...


The site was deliberately located equidistant from London, Birmingham, Leicester, Oxford and Cambridge with the intention[10] that it would be self-sustaining and eventually become a major regional centre in its own right. Planning control was taken from elected local authorities and delegated to the Milton Keynes Development Corporation (MKDC). This article is about the British city. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... A region can be any area that has some unifying feature. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Milton Keynes Development Corporation was established in 1969 to provide the vision and execution of a new city, Milton Keynes, that would be the modern interpretation of the Garden city movement concepts first expressed by Ebenezer Howard 60 years earlier. ...


The Corporation's strongly modernist designs featured regularly in the magazines Architectural Design and the Architects' Journal. MKDC was determined to learn from the mistakes made in the earlier New Towns and revisit the Garden City ideals. They set in place the characteristic grid roads that run between districts and the intensive planting, lakes and parkland that are so appreciated today. Central Milton Keynes was not intended to be a traditional town centre but a business and shopping district that supplemented the Local Centres in most of the Grid Squares.[9] This non-hierarchical devolved city plan was a departure from the English New Towns tradition and envisaged a wide range of industry and diversity of housing styles and tenures across the city. The largest and almost the last of the British New Towns, Milton Keynes has stood the test of time far better than most, and has proved flexible and adaptable.[11] The radical grid plan was inspired by the work of Californian urban theorist Melvin M Webber (1921-2006), described by the founding architect of Milton Keynes, Derek Walker, as the "father of the city".[12] Webber thought that telecommunications meant that the old idea of a city as a concentric cluster was out of date and that cities which enabled people to travel around them readily would be the thing of the future achieving "community without propinquity" for residents.[13] With both car ownership and ever more emphasis on e-commerce, his ideas, launched in the 1960s, have proved far-sighted, rarely more so than in Milton Keynes. Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Architectural Design, also known as AD, is a UK-based architectural journal first launched in 1930. ... The Architects Journal is a weekly architectural magazine published in London by Emap Construct. ... A New town or planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... Ebenezer Howards 3 magnets diagram which addressed the question Where will the people go?, the choices being Town, Country or Town-Country The garden city movement is an approach to urban planning that was founded in 1898 by Ebenezer Howard in England. ... The town centre is usually the commercial or geographical centre of a town. ... Melvin M Webber (1921-2006) was an urban designer and theorist associated for most of his career with the University of California at Berkeley but whose work was internationally important. ... Automobile ownership is the sum of all the aspects associated with owning an automobile. ... Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. ...


Moving to maturity

The Government wound up MKDC in 1992, transferring control to the Commission for New Towns (CNT) and then finally to English Partnerships, with the planning function returning to local authority control (since 1974 and the Local Government Act 1972, the Milton Keynes Borough Council, which was subsequently made a unitary authority in the 1990s). Most recently, the Government has assigned significant planning control to English Partnerships, charging it with increasing the population beyond to 300,000 by 2030. The Milton Keynes Partnership has also been formed, charged with co-ordinating the necessary and sometimes conflicting interests across the community as Milton Keynes enters its next phase. English Partnerships (or EP) is a regeneration agency for England, performing a similar role on a national level to that fulfilled by Regional Development Agencies on a regional level. ... The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... English Partnerships (or EP) is a regeneration agency for England, performing a similar role on a national level to that fulfilled by Regional Development Agencies on a regional level. ... In January 2004, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced[1] the United Kingdom governments Expansion plans for Milton Keynes He proposed that the population of Milton Keynes should double in the subsequent 20 years. ...


Along with many other towns and boroughs, Milton Keynes competed for formal city status in the 2000 and 2002 competitions, but was not successful. Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ...


Prior history

Reproductions of the Milton Keynes Hoard (Milton Keynes Museum)
Reproductions of the Milton Keynes Hoard (Milton Keynes Museum)

The area that was to become Milton Keynes encompassed a landscape that has a rich historic legacy. The area to be developed was largely farmland and undeveloped villages, but with evidence of permanent settlement dating back to the Bronze Age. Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of south-central England. There is evidence of Iron Age, Romano-British, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, Medieval and Industrial revolution settlements. Collections[3] of oral history covering the 20th century completes a picture that is described in detail at the main article. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 154 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Milton Keynes Kents Hill, Monkston and Brinklow History of Milton Keynes Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 154 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Milton Keynes Kents Hill, Monkston and Brinklow History of Milton Keynes Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... The History of Milton Keynes details the development of Milton Keynes, from the earliest human settlements, through the plans for a new city in North Buckinghamshire and its subsequent urban design and development by the Milton Keynes Development Corporation, to its subsequent development to the present day. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... The History of Milton Keynes details the development of Milton Keynes, from the earliest human settlements, through the plans for a new city in North Buckinghamshire and its subsequent urban design and development by the Milton Keynes Development Corporation, to its subsequent development to the present day. ...


When the boundary of Milton Keynes was defined, some 40,000 people[14] lived in three towns and seven villages in the "designated area" of 21,833 acre (88.4 km²).


Urban design

The concepts that heavily influenced the design of the town are described in detail in article urban planning - see 'cells' under Planning and aesthetics (referring to grid squares).See also article single-use zoning.

Since the radical plan form and large scale of Milton Keynes attracted international attention, early phases of the town include work by celebrated architects, including (Sir) Richard MacCormac, (Lord) Norman Foster, Henning Larsen, Ralph Erskine, John Winter, and Martin Richardson.[15] The Corporation itself attracted talented young architects led by the young and charismatic Derek Walker. Though strongly committed to sleek "Miesian" minimalism inspired by the German/ American architect Mies van der Rohe they also developed a strand of contextualism in advance of the wider adoption of commercial Post-Modernism as an architectural style in the 1980s. In the Miesian tradition were the Pineham Sewage Works, which Derek Walker regarded as his finest achievement, and the Shopping Building designed by Stuart Mosscrop and Christopher Woodward, which is widely regarded[attribution needed] as the finest twentieth century retail building in Britain (due for major redevelopment in 2007, following the failure of attempts to have it protected as a Listed building). The contextual tradition that ran alongside it is best exemplified by the Corporation's infill scheme at Cofferidge Close, Stony Stratford, designed by Wayland Tunley, which carefully inserts into a historic stretch of High Street a modern retail facility, offices and car park. The Development Corporation also led an ambitious Public art programme. Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Single-use zoning is a practice of urban planning where everyday uses are separated from each other and where land uses of the same type are grouped together. ... The restored Reichstag in Berlin, housing the German parliament. ... The Copenhagen Opera House Henning Larsen (born August 20, 1925) is an internationally known visionary, Danish architect. ... Ralph Erskine (March 18, 1685 - November 6, 1752), was a Scottish churchman. ... John Winter can mean: The pseudonym used in the 1980s by German racing driver and businessman Louis Krages. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was an architect and designer. ... In philosophy, contextualism describes a collection of views in the philosophy of language which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance or expression can only be understood within that context. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... The Forth Bridge, designed by Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir John Fowler, opened in 1890, and now owned by Network Rail, is designated as a Category A listed building by Historic Scotland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the United Kingdom, Development Corporations are bodies set up by national government and charged with the urban development of an area, outside the usual system of Town and Country Planning in the United Kingdom. ... Milton Keynes has a strong collection of modern art, primarily sculpture, in its public buildings and open spaces. ...


Grid squares

Milton Keynes Development Corporation planned the major road layout according to street hierarchy principles, using a grid pattern of approximately 1 km interval, rather than on the more conventional radial pattern found in older settlements. Major roads within the town run between communities, rather than through them: the major roads are known locally as grid roads and the spaces between them are known as grid squares.[16] Intervals of 1 km were chosen so that people would always be within walking distance of a bus stop. Consequently each grid square is a semi-autonomous community, making a unique collective of 100 clearly identifiable neighbourhoods within the overall urban environment. The grid squares have a variety of development styles, ranging from conventional urban development and industrial parks to original rural and modern urban and pseudo-rural developments. Most grid squares have Local Centres, intended as local retail hubs and most with community facilities as well. Originally intended under the Master Plan to sit alongside the Grid Roads, the Local Centres were mostly in fact built embedded in the communities and some are becoming unviable as a result of this and pressure from the new hypermarkets. A street hierarchy is a system of urban design that completely separates through automobile traffic from developed areas. ... A simple grid plan road map (Windermere, Florida). ... Look up radial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bus stop or omnibus stop is a designated place where a public transport bus stops for the purpose of allowing passengers to board or leave the bus. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ...


Roads and cycleways

Roundabout junctions were built at intersections since the grid roads were intended to carry large volumes of traffic: this type of junction is efficient at dealing with these volumes. The major roads are dual carriageway, the others are single carriageway. Along one side of each single-carriageway grid road, there is a (grassed) reservation to permit dualling or additional transport infrastructure at a later date. The edges of each grid square are landscaped and densely planted, some additionally have berms. The purpose of the berms is to reduce traffic noise for adjacent residents but traffic noise can be significant at many locations, even some distance from the grid lanes. Traffic movements are fast, with little congestion since there are many alternative routes to a particular destination.[citation needed] The national speed limit applies on dualled sections of the grid roads (70 mph) and most single carriageway grid roads (60 mph), although some single carriageway speed limits have now been reduced to 40 mph. Consequently the risk to unwary pedestrians and turning traffic is significant, although pedestrians rarely need to cross grid roads at grade, as underpasses exist in several places along each stretch of all of the grid roads. Some pedestrians avoid some of the underpasses through fear or inconvenience, though this is not typical.[citation needed] Monitoring station data[17] shows that pollution is lower than in other settlements of a similar size. This can be partially attributed to the large number of trees, particularly to the fact that trees line grid roads in most places. The Milton Keynes Grid Road System is a network of national speed limit fully landscaped primary routes that form the principal transport network both for private and public transport in the new town of Milton Keynes. ... The Milton Keynes redway system is a 200km network of cycleways/paths for cyclists and pedestrians in Milton Keynes, England. ... Cycleway, Bicycle street and Pedestrian/Cyclist bridge in Nuremberg, Germany Segregated cycle facilities may consist of separate roads, tracks, paths or lanes designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... A roundabout is a type of road junction at which traffic enters a one-way stream around a central island. ... This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... Look up Berm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An Example of a United Kingdom National speed limit roadsign. ... A road speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. ... An at-grade intersection is a junction at which two or more transport axes cross at the same level (or grade). ... An underground pedestrian tunnel between buildings at MIT. Note the utility pipes running along the ceiling. ...


There is a separate cycleway network (the "redways") that runs through the grid-squares and sometimes runs alongside the grid-road network. These were designed to segregate slow moving cycle and pedestrian traffic from fast moving motor traffic. In practice, they are mainly used for leisure cycling rather than commuting, mainly because they need to duck under the grid-roads regularly at the underpasses and because they take meandering scenic routes rather than straight lines. Despite what appears to be a desirable facility, rates of cycle commuting in Milton Keynes are well below the national average for urban areas. The detailed article includes a critical appraisal. This article or section should include material from Cycle path debate Segregated cycle facilities may consist of a separate road, track, path or lane that is designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... The Milton Keynes redway system is a 200km network of cycleways/paths for cyclists and pedestrians in Milton Keynes, England. ... The Milton Keynes redway system is a 200km network of cycleways/paths for cyclists and pedestrians in Milton Keynes, England. ...


Height

The original design guidance declared that "no building [be] taller than the tallest tree". However, the Milton Keynes Partnership, in its expansion plans for Milton Keynes, believes that Central Milton Keynes (and elsewhere) needs "landmark buildings" and has recently lifted the height restriction for the area. As a result, 14-storey buildings are now being built in the town centre. Some of the pedestrian underpasses are being closed in order to 'normalise' the townscape of Central Milton Keynes and the character of the area is set to change under government pressure to increase densities of development. English Partnerships (or EP) is a regeneration agency for England, performing a similar role on a national level to that fulfilled by Regional Development Agencies on a regional level. ... In January 2004, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced[1] the United Kingdom governments Expansion plans for Milton Keynes He proposed that the population of Milton Keynes should double in the subsequent 20 years. ... Central Milton Keynes is the central area of Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, England. ... This article is about the floor of a room or building. ...


Linear parks

Caldecotte Lake, Milton Keynes
Caldecotte Lake, Milton Keynes

The flood plains of the Great Ouse and of its tributaries (the Ouzel and some brooks) have been protected as linear parks that run right through the town. The Grand Union Canal is another green route (and demonstrates the level topology of the town - there is just one minor lock in its entire 10 mile route through from Fenny Stratford to the "Iron Trunk" Aqueduct over the Ouse at Wolverton. The Milton Keynes redway system of cycleways and footpaths uses these and other routes. The Park system was designed by landscape architect Peter Youngman, who also developed landscape precepts for the whole town; groups of grid squares were to be planted with different selections of trees and shrubs in order to give them distinct identities. However, the landscaping of parks and of the grid roads was evolved under the leadership of Neil Higson, who from 1977 took over as Chief Landscape Architect and made the original grand but not entirely practical landscape plan more subtle. A policy of creating "settings, strings, beads" for landscape features was introduced: 'settings' for historic villages and landscape features, 'strings' of landscape to make the linear parks hang together and 'beads' of public space where residents might linger. Higson also made the landscaping of the Grid Roads, one of the glories of Milton Keynes, more subtle, with 'windows' cut into the roadside planting so that motorists travelling through had a sense of the major town they were in; early critics had said of Milton Keynes 'there is no there there', as the town could not be seen by the motorist just passing through. The skill and lavish scale of the Grid Road planting makes, now that the trees and shrubs have matured, a dramatic and welcome change from the monotony of many British towns. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Floodplain. ... For other Rivers named Ouse, see Ouse The River Great Ouse is a river in the east of England. ... See also Lovat River (Russia). ... The canal at Braunston The Grand Union Canal is a canal in England and part of the British canal system. ... Fenny Stratford is a town that is now part of Milton Keynes, ceremonial Buckinghamshire, England and in the Civil Parish of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ... , Wolverton is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ... The Milton Keynes redway system is a 200km network of cycleways/paths for cyclists and pedestrians in Milton Keynes, England. ... The Country of London Park System, planned by Patrick Abercrombie in 1943-4 A park system, also known as an open space system, is a network of open spaces which are connected by public walkways, bridleways or cycleways. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Landscape architecture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gathering place. ...


"City in the forest"

The original Development Corporation design concept aimed[18] for a "forest city" and its foresters planted millions of trees from its own nursery in Newlands in the following years. As of 2006, the urban area has 20 million trees. Following the winding up of the Development Corporation the lavish landscapes of the Grid Roads and of the major parks were transferred to The Parks Trust, a charity which is independent from the municipal authority and which was intended to resist pressures to build on the parks over time. The Parks Trust is endowed with a portfolio of commercial properties, the income of which pay for the upkeep of the green spaces, a town-wide maintenance model which has attracted international attention.[19] Winding up redirects here. ... A charitable foundation is a legal categorization of nonprofit organizations that either donate funds and support to other organizations, or provide the sole source of funding for their own activities. ...


Further development plans

In January 2004, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced[20] the Government's plan to double the population of Milton Keynes by 2025. He appointed English Partnerships to do so, taking planning controls away from Milton Keynes Borough Council and making EP the statutory planning authority. Their proposal for the next phase of expansion moves away from grid squares to large scale, mixed use, higher density development. The more detailed article expands on the details of their proposals. As the first stage in that plan, the Government expanded[21] the boundaries of the designated area, adding large green-field expansion sites to the east and west that are to be developed by 2015. In January 2004, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced[1] the United Kingdom governments Expansion plans for Milton Keynes He proposed that the population of Milton Keynes should double in the subsequent 20 years. ... A Deputy Prime Minister is a member of a nations cabinet who can take the position of acting Prime Minister when the real Prime Minister is temporarily absent. ... For other persons named John Prescott, see John Prescott (disambiguation). ... English Partnerships (or EP) is a regeneration agency for England, performing a similar role on a national level to that fulfilled by Regional Development Agencies on a regional level. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. ... In January 2004, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced[1] the United Kingdom governments Expansion plans for Milton Keynes He proposed that the population of Milton Keynes should double in the subsequent 20 years. ...


As might be anticipated, these plans are controversial — especially as planning control has been removed again from elected local authorities and placed in a central-government appointed body. Changes to Central Milton Keynes have been especially controversial and include the redevelopment of the shopping building, the finest monument of the "new city".


Milton Keynes is at the centre of the South Midlands area identified by the government for growth. [22] The South Midlands and Milton Keynes area The South Midlands is an area of England. ...


Culture

65,000 capacity National Bowl

The open air National Bowl is a 65,000 capacity venue for large scale concerts. It is situated off the A5 near Furzton. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Spectators watch Green Day from the grass slopes Thunder perform at the 2006 Monsters of Rock festival The National Bowl is a 65,000 capacity entertainment venue in Milton Keynes, England. ... Spectators watch Green Day from the grass slopes Thunder perform at the 2006 Monsters of Rock festival The National Bowl is a 65,000 capacity entertainment venue in Milton Keynes, England. ...


The 1,400 seat Milton Keynes Theatre [4] (Blonski-Heard) opened in 1999. Its high booking rate allows it to lay claim to the title "Britain's most popular theatre".[citation needed] The theatre has an unusual feature: the ceiling can be lowered closing off the third tier (gallery) to create a more intimate space for smaller scale productions. There are further performance spaces in Bletchley, Leadenhall, Shenley Church End, Stantonbury and Walton Hall. Milton Keynes Theatre opened on 4 October 1999, 25 years after the campaign for a new theatre first started and has placed Milton Keynes firmly on the countrys cultural map. ... Woughton is a civil parish in south central Milton Keynes, England. ... Shenley Church End is a village, district and civil parish in Milton Keynes England. ... Stantonbury is an area of Milton Keynes, England. ... Walton Hall is a district in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire and is the location of the campus and offices of the Open University. ...

Milton Keynes Gallery, surface by Michael Craig-Martin
Milton Keynes Gallery, surface by Michael Craig-Martin

The municipal (art) gallery (Milton Keynes Gallery, next to the main theatre) hosts various exhibitions. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 370 KB) MIlton Keynes Gallery the central art gallery of the city. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 370 KB) MIlton Keynes Gallery the central art gallery of the city. ... Picture of Oak Tree hanging in the Tate Modern The artist Michael Craig-Martin was born in Dublin,Ireland in 1941. ...


In Wavendon, on the southeast edge of the town, The Stables provides a venue for jazz, blues, folk, rock, classical, pop and world music. It is closely associated with jazz artists Cleo Laine and John Dankworth. The venue also hosts an annual summer camp for young musicians. Wavendon is an area of Milton Keynes, in the County of Milton Keynes, England. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blues music redirects here. ... Folk song redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For other uses, see Pop music (disambiguation). ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... Dame Cleo Laine, Lady Dankworth DBE, (born Clementina Dinah Campbell on October 28, 1927 in Middlesex, England) is a scat and jazz singer and an actor. ... Sir John Dankworth CBE Born in London, England, in 1927, was brought up in a musical environment amongst a family of musicians. ... Summer camp is a supervised program for children and/or teenagers conducted (usually) during the summer months in some countries. ...


Another music venue is The Pitz Club in the Woughton Centre, Leadenhall. It usually features a mixture of punk, alternative rock, and heavy metal. A music venue is any location of a musical performance. ... Woughton is a civil parish in south central Milton Keynes, England. ... Punk Rock is an anti-establishment music movement that began about 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified by The Ramones,the Misfits, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ...


There are two museums, the Bletchley Park museum of wartime cryptography, and the Milton Keynes Museum, which includes the Stacey Hill Collection of rural life that existed before the foundation of the new town. The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ...


The town also has a literature scene, with groups like Speakeasy meeting regularly and hosting performance events, and the town's only poetry magazine, Monkey Kettle coming out three times a year. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the art form. ... Monkey Kettle is a poetry, prose and arts magazine based in Milton Keynes. ...


Education

The Open University's headquarters are based in the Walton Hall district, though as this is a distance learning institution, the only students resident on campus are approximately 200 postgraduates. Cranfield University, another postgraduate school, is located just outside the town, in Cranfield, Bedfordshire. Milton Keynes College provides further education to Foundation Degree level. Affiliations Alliance of Non-Aligned Universities, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European Association of Distance Teaching Universities, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Website http://www. ... Walton Hall is the name of several places: Walton Hall, Cheshire Walton Hall, Liverpool Walton Hall, Milton Keynes Walton Hall, Warwickshire Walton Hall, West Yorkshire This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Distance Learning is learning carried out apart from the usual classroom setting; in an asynchronous setting. ... Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ... Cranfield University is a British postgraduate university based on three campuses. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... Milton Keynes College is the largest provider of further education and training in the Borough of Milton Keynes and also serves the surrounding areas (northern Aylesbury Vale, south Northamptonshire, north east Bedfordshire and north west Oxfordshire). ... Further education (often abbreviated FE) is post-secondary, post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school). ... The Foundation Degree is a vocational qualification introduced by the UK government in September 2001. ...


In the early 1990s a purpose built Polytechnic was opened at Kents Hill in Milton Keynes, opposite the Open University's Walton Hall site. At around the time the existing Polytechnics converted to Universities, "MK Poly" merged with the former Leicester Polytechnic, De Montfort University and the site was rebranded the DMU MK site. However in recent years, DMU closed the MK site and the Open University has expanded to take over the buildings. The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... De Montfort University (DMU) is a British university situated in Leicester, England. ...


Milton Keynes Council has identified the lack of a conventional local university as a problem.[23] As an attempt to rectify this situation, a consortium of surrounding universities including De Montfort and Northampton, plus the Open University and Milton Keynes College have formed Universities for Milton Keynes.[24] Montfort can refer to: // Amaury I de Montfort (c. ... Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ... Affiliations Alliance of Non-Aligned Universities, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European Association of Distance Teaching Universities, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Website http://www. ... Milton Keynes College is the largest provider of further education and training in the Borough of Milton Keynes and also serves the surrounding areas (northern Aylesbury Vale, south Northamptonshire, north east Bedfordshire and north west Oxfordshire). ...


Like many parts of the UK, the state secondary schools in Milton Keynes are Comprehensive schools, although schools in the rest of Buckinghamshire still use the Tripartite System. Results are above the national average, though below that of the rest of Buckinghamshire — but the demography of Milton Keynes is also far closer to the national average than is the latter. A comprehensive school is a secondary school that does not select children on the basis of academic attainment or aptitude. ... The Tripartite System, known colloquially as the grammar school system, was the structure by which Britains secondary education was organised between the 1944 Butler Education Act and 1976. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ...


Communications and media

Milton Keynes has one major commercial radio station dedicated to the area, Horizon Radio, a member of the G-Cap Media Group. The local BBC radio station is BBC Three Counties Radio, which covers Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, but has different programming from the Bow Brickhill transmitter at breakfast and lunchtime. Cable Radio Milton Keynes - 89.8fm(CRMK) is a voluntary cable radio station broadcasting on the Virgin Media Cable Network for Milton Keynes and on the Internet. Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Horizon Radio is the name of the pop-format Independent Local Radio station for Milton Keynes and North Buckinghamshire. ... BBC Radio is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927. ... It has been suggested that BBC Radio Bedfordshire be merged into this article or section. ... The church at Bow Brickhill, hidden in the trees from every approach until you enter the churchyard. ... Cable radio or cable FM is a complementary concept to that of cable television, bringing radio transmissions into homes and businesses via coaxial cable. ...


For television, the area is in the overlap between the Oxford and the Sandy transmitters and so receives BBC South and BBC East, and ITV Central and Anglia. Signal quality is weak in many areas due to distance and "terrain shadow". It was for this reason among others that Milton Keynes has one of the first Cable TV networks in the UK. However, the cable network is now ageing and in need of modernisation to cope with the imminent digital TV switchover due by 2012; many residents have already opted for roof-top aerials and satellite dishes. This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Sandy is a small market town in northern Bedfordshire, England. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Central TV logo, 1985_1998 Central Independent Television, or to give it its familiar name, Central Television or Central, is a British Independent Television company that took over from ATV on 1 January 1982. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ...


Milton Keynes has two free-to-residents local newspapers, the Milton Keynes Citizen[5], which is twice-weekly, and the MK News[6], a weekly.


Economy, Demographics

This data is collected at the Borough level and can be found at Economy of the Borough and Demographics of the Borough. However, since the urban area is predominant in the Borough, it is reasonable to assume that the figures are broadly the same. Milton Keynes is one of the most successful (per capita) economies in the South East, itself the economic powerhouse of the United Kingdom. The population is significantly younger than the national averages. The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. ...


Sport

The Milton Keynes Xscape seen from across Secklow Gate
The Milton Keynes Xscape seen from across Secklow Gate
The East Stand of the new 32,000 Stadium:mk
The East Stand of the new 32,000 Stadium:mk

Milton Keynes has professional teams in football (Milton Keynes Dons F.C.), ice hockey (Milton Keynes Lightning) and in basketball (Milton Keynes Lions). It is represented at amateur level in many sports, some at national level. For details see Sport in Milton Keynes. Milton Keynes is also home to the Xscape indoor ski slope. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1536 pixel, file size: 360 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1536 pixel, file size: 360 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Xscape buildings (named after the company that developed them) are large, strikingly designed and unusually shaped buildings. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sport in Milton Keynes covers a range of professional and amateur sport in the Borough of Milton Keynes. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... Milton Keynes Dons Football Club is a football club from Milton Keynes, England. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... League: EPIHL Founded: 2002 Home Ice: Planet Ice Arena Capacity: 2500 Ice Size: 197ft x 98ft City: Milton Keynes, United Kingdom Colours: Black and Gold Head Coach: Nick Poole Ownership: Unknown The Milton Keynes Lightning are an ice hockey team from Milton Keynes, England. ... This article is about the sport. ... The Milton Keynes Lions is a basketball team which plays in the British Basketball League, the top level mens basketball league in the United Kingdom. ... Sport in Milton Keynes covers a range of professional and amateur sport in the Borough of Milton Keynes. ... Xscape buildings (named after the company that developed them) are large, strikingly designed and unusually shaped buildings. ...


Senior football was a relatively late arrival in Milton Keynes. There had been several non-league teams based in the area over the years, but it wasn't until the late 1990s that it looked as though Milton Keynes would have a senior side. Businessman Pete Winkelman approached several clubs in and near London about a move to Milton Keynes, as it was by now the largest town or city in England to be without a professional club. He got his wish in May 2002 when Wimbledon FC were given permission to relocate to Milton Keynes - 62 miles away from their home borough of Merton. Wimbledon moved into the National Hockey Stadium in September 2003 as a temporary home until a new, larger stadium could be built. A year later, Wimbledon FC became Milton Keynes Dons, and three years after that they moved into a new 22,000-seat stadium:mk in the Denbigh district of south Milton Keynes. They hope to have a 32,000 capacity by 2009. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Pete Winkelman is currently chairman of franchise F.C. He has received much criticism from football fans for playing his part in the theft of a league place from Wimbledon Football Club to Milton Keynes. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Wimbledon F.C. crest This article refers to the original club from London which existed until 2003. ... Merton may refer to: // People Gerald Merton, English astronomer (1893–1983) [1] [2] Paul Merton (1957–), British actor and comedian Robert Carhart Merton (1944–), American economist Robert King Merton (1910–2003), American sociologist Thomas Merton (1915–1968), American Cistercian monk and author Walter de Merton (ca. ... The National Hockey Stadium is a sports stadium in Milton Keynes, England, with a capacity of around 9,000 seats. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Denbigh is a district in Milton Keynes, England, to the north of Fenny Stratford and on the eastern side of the West Coast Main Line and northern side of the Marston Vale Line, from Bletchley proper. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Centre

The Point in CMK
The Point in CMK

As a key element of the "New City" vision, Milton Keynes has a purpose built centre, with a very large "covered high street" shopping centre, theatre, art gallery, two multiplex cinemas, hotels, business district, ecumenical church, Borough Council offices and central railway station. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 1994 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 1994 pixel, file size: 1. ... Central Milton Keynes is the central area of Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, England. ... Central Milton Keynes Shopping Centre is a regional shopping centre located in Milton Keynes, England which is 46 miles north-west of London. ... Milton Keynes Central is a railway station that serves the central area of Milton Keynes. ... For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see pedestrian street or promenade. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. ... Milton Keynes Central is a railway station that serves the central area of Milton Keynes. ...


Other amenities

Liz Leyh's iconic "Concrete Cows"
Liz Leyh's iconic "Concrete Cows"
Part of the Blue Lagoon
Part of the Blue Lagoon

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1023x629, 160 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Milton Keynes Stantonbury User:Concrete Cowboy Concrete Cows ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1023x629, 160 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Milton Keynes Stantonbury User:Concrete Cowboy Concrete Cows ... The Concrete Cows in Milton Keynes, England are an iconic work sculpture, created in 1978 by Canadian-born artist, Liz Leyh. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2081x1829, 792 KB) Summary I took the photo on a visit to the lagoon Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2081x1829, 792 KB) Summary I took the photo on a visit to the lagoon Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Cycleway, Bicycle street and Pedestrian/Cyclist bridge in Nuremberg, Germany Segregated cycle facilities may consist of separate roads, tracks, paths or lanes designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... A cyclist is a person who engages in cycling whether as a sport or rides a bicycle for recreation or transportation. ... The Milton Keynes redway system is a 200km network of cycleways/paths for cyclists and pedestrians in Milton Keynes, England. ... Swans Way is a long distance footpath in Buckinghamshire, England running 65 miles (105 kilometres) from Salcey Forest to Goring-On-Thames. ... Long-distance trails (or long-distance tracks, paths, footpaths or greenways) are trails or footpaths covering large distances, typically 50 kilometers (31 miles) or more, used for rambling (that is, hiking or backpacking). ... This article is about the sport. ... The National Hockey Stadium is a sports stadium in Milton Keynes, England, with a capacity of around 9,000 seats. ... Denbigh is a district in Milton Keynes, England, to the north of Fenny Stratford and on the eastern side of the West Coast Main Line and northern side of the Marston Vale Line, from Bletchley proper. ... Bletchley is a town in what is now Milton Keynes new city. ... Milton Keynes Dons Football Club is a football club from Milton Keynes, England. ... Rockefeller Centre ice rink An ice rink is a frozen body of water where people can ice skate or play winter sports. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Sport in Milton Keynes covers a range of professional and amateur sport in the Borough of Milton Keynes. ... A standard skateboard An old-school skateboard A skateboard is a four wheeled platform used for the activity of skateboarding. ... HMP Woodhill is a Category A (high security) prison on the western edge of Milton Keynes, with a remand unit for local magistrate court use. ... Willen is a district of Milton Keynes, England and is also one of the ancient villages of Buckinghamshire to have been included in the designated area of the New City in the 1960s. ... Water sport most commonly refers to a sport which is played in the water. ... North Lake may refer to: North Lake, a lake in Goodhue County, Minnesota North Lake, a lake in Martin County, Minnesota North Lake, a lake in Dallas, Texas This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... ... The Blue Lagoon Local Nature Reserve is a Local Nature Reserve in Bletchley, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom. ... Official WiMax logo WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ... Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide. ... Broadband in telecommunications is a term that refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. ... BT Group plc (which trades as just BT, and is commonly known by its former name, British Telecom) is the privatised former British state telecommunications operator. ...

Original towns and villages

During World War II, British, Polish and American cryptographers at Bletchley Park broke a large number of Axis codes and ciphers, including the German Enigma machine.
During World War II, British, Polish and American cryptographers at Bletchley Park broke a large number of Axis codes and ciphers, including the German Enigma machine.
The 1815 windmill near Bradwell village, beside the playing fields
The 1815 windmill near Bradwell village, beside the playing fields
Stony Stratford high street in festive mood
Stony Stratford high street in festive mood
The Peace Pagoda
The Peace Pagoda

The historical settlements have been focal points for the modern development of the new city. Every grid square has historical antecedents, if only in the field names. The more obvious ones are listed below and most have more detailed articles. Download high resolution version (2041x1101, 322 KB)The Bletchley Park mansion. ... Download high resolution version (2041x1101, 322 KB)The Bletchley Park mansion. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... For a discussion of how Enigma-derived intelligence was put to use, see Ultra (WWII intelligence). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 186 KB) Summary {{Information |Description=grain millers wind mill in Bradwell, Milton Keynes |Source=picture taken by author |Date=10 September 2006 |Author=Concrete Cowboy |Permission=[[GFDL] |other_versions= }} Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 186 KB) Summary {{Information |Description=grain millers wind mill in Bradwell, Milton Keynes |Source=picture taken by author |Date=10 September 2006 |Author=Concrete Cowboy |Permission=[[GFDL] |other_versions= }} Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Bradwell is the name of more than one place. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1536, 418 KB) en:en:Stony Stratford in Milton Keynes, High street no:no:Stony Straftford i Milton Keynes, hovedgaten Photo Cnyborg, July 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Milton Keynes Stony Stratford ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1536, 418 KB) en:en:Stony Stratford in Milton Keynes, High street no:no:Stony Straftford i Milton Keynes, hovedgaten Photo Cnyborg, July 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Milton Keynes Stony Stratford ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1536, 661 KB) Milton Keynes, the Peace Pagoda, a buddhist shrine devoted to world peace. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1536, 661 KB) Milton Keynes, the Peace Pagoda, a buddhist shrine devoted to world peace. ...


Bletchley was first recorded in the 12th century as Blechelai. Its station was a major Victorian junction (the London and North Western Railway with the Oxford-Cambridge Varsity Line), leading to the substantial urban growth in the town in that period. It expanded to absorb the villages of Water Eaton and Fenny Stratford. Bletchley is a town in what is now Milton Keynes new city. ... Bletchley railway station is a railway station that serves the Bletchley area of southern Milton Keynes. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The London and North Western Railway (LNWR) was formed in 1846 by the merger of three railway companies - the Grand Junction Railway, London and Birmingham and Manchester and Birmingham. ... Varsity Line (or Oxford and Cambridge Line) is an informal name for the railway service which formerly linked the university cities of Oxford and Cambridge, operated by the London and North Western Railway and then British Railways. ... Water Eaton is an area of Milton Keynes, England. ... Fenny Stratford is a town that is now part of Milton Keynes, ceremonial Buckinghamshire, England and in the Civil Parish of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford. ...

The Benedictine Priory at Bradwell was of major economic importance in this area of north Buckinghamshire before the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The routes of the medieval trackways converge on the site from some distance (many of which are now Redways or bridleways). Nowadays, there is only a small medieval chapel and a manor house occupying the site. During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (previously named the Government Code and Cipher School (GC&CS)) is the main British intelligence service providing signals intelligence (SIGINT). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... In the history of cryptography, the Enigma was a portable cipher machine used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. ... This article is about the machine. ... Computing hardware has been an important component of the process of calculation and computer data storage since it became useful for numerical values to be processed and shared. ... The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... A priory is an ecclesiastical circumscription run by a prior. ... Bradwell is a historic village (map) that is now integrated into Milton Keynes, but its existence remains evident in the older houses. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ...


New Bradwell, to the north of the medieval Bradwell (Abbey) and just across the canal and the railway to the east of Wolverton, was built specifically for railway workers. It has a working windmill. The level bed of the old railway from Newport Pagnell to Wolverton ends here and has been converted to a redway, making it a favourite route for cycling. New Bradwell is (mainly) a Victorian new town that is now part of Milton Keynes new city, on its northern edge. ... A Dutch tower windmill, sporting sails, surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ... Newport Pagnell is a town in the Borough of Milton Keynes (traditional Buckinghamshire), England. ... , Wolverton is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ...


Great Linford appears in the Domesday Book as Linforde, and features a church to Saint Andrew dating from 1215. Today, the outer buildings of the seventeenth-century manor house form an Arts Centre, and Linford Manor is a prestigious recording studio. Great Linford is a village in the Unitary District of Milton Keynes, England. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Ightham Mote For the London district, see Manor House, London. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Linford Manor is an old mansion or manor house converted into a recording studio complex, in Great Linford, Milton Keynes, England. ... ==Individual Studio== A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. ...


Milton Keynes Village is the original village to which the New "City" owes its name. The original village is still evident, with a pleasant thatched pub, village hall, church and traditional housing. The area around the village has reverted to its original name of Middleton, as shown on old maps of the 1700s. The oldest[27] surviving domestic building in the area, a fourteenth century manor house, is here. All Saints Church, Middleton Middleton is a district and civil parish in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ... Thatching is the art or craft of covering a roof with vegetative materials such as straw, reed or sedge. ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada... A village hall is a building within a village which is owned by and run for the local community. ... All Saints Church, Middleton Middleton is a district and civil parish in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ...


There has been a market in Stony Stratford since 1194 (by charter of King Richard I). The Rose and Crown Inn at Stratford is reputedly the last place the Princes in the Tower were seen alive. Location within the British Isles. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473 – 1483...


The manor house of Walton village, Walton Hall, is the headquarters of the Open University and the tiny parish church (deconsecrated) is in its grounds. Walton is a village in the County of Milton Keynes, England. ... Walton Hall is a district in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire and is the location of the campus and offices of the Open University. ... Affiliations Alliance of Non-Aligned Universities, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European Association of Distance Teaching Universities, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Website http://www. ... A parish church is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. ...


The tiny Parish Church (1680) at Willen contains the only unaltered building by the architect and physicist Robert Hooke. Nearby, there is a Buddhist Temple and a Peace Pagoda. The district borders the River Ouzel: there is a large balancing lake here, to capture flash floods before they cause problems down stream on the River Great Ouse. The north basin is a wild-life sanctuary and a favourite of migrating aquatic birds. The south basin is for leisure use, favoured by wind surfers and dinghy sailors. The circuit of the lakes is a favoured "fun run". Willen is a district of Milton Keynes, England and is also one of the ancient villages of Buckinghamshire to have been included in the designated area of the New City in the 1960s. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A Peace Pagoda is a Buddhist stupa designed to provide a focus for people of all races and creeds to help unite them in their search for world peace. ... See also Lovat River (Russia). ... A Balancing lake (also flood basin) is an essential element of an urban drainage system, as a means of flood storage and thus control. ... Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ... For other Rivers named Ouse, see Ouse The River Great Ouse is a river in the east of England. ...


The original Wolverton was a medieval settlement just north and west of today's town. The Ridge and Furrow pattern of agriculture can still be seen in the nearby fields and the Saxon (rebuilt in 1819) Church of the Holy Trinity still sits next to the Norman Motte and Bailey site. Modern Wolverton was a 19th century New Town built to house the workers at the Wolverton railway works (which built engines and carriages for the London and North Western Railway). , Wolverton is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ... Ridge and Furrow in Grendon, Northamptonshire The term ridge and furrow is often used by archaeologists and others to describe the pattern of peaks and troughs created in a field and caused by the system of ploughing used during the Middle Ages in Britain. ... Model of a motte-and-bailey Plan of Windsor Castle in 1743 by Batty Langley The remains of a motte, at Brinklow in Warwickshire, England The motte, at Knockgraffon, New Inn in County Tipperary, Ireland The remains of a Motte situated in Callan, Co Kilkenny, Ireland A motte-and-bailey... Wolverton railway works was established in Wolverton by the London and Birmingham Railway Company in the 1830s at the midpoint of the 112 mile-long route from London to Birmingham. ... The London and North Western Railway (LNWR) was formed in 1846 by the merger of three railway companies - the Grand Junction Railway, London and Birmingham and Manchester and Birmingham. ...


Politics, demographics and economics

Political, demographic and economic data are collected at Borough level and are documented in the Borough of Milton Keynes article. In summary, there is effective full employment and economic activity per capita is among the highest in the South East region. Economic data are usually numerical time-series, i. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. ... In economics, full employment has more than one meaning. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ...


Modern parishes and districts

The Borough of Milton Keynes is fully parished. These are the parishes, and the districts they contain, within Milton Keynes itself. For a list of parishes in the Borough, see Borough of Milton Keynes (Rest of the borough) A civil parish (usually just parish) in England is a subnational entity forming the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. ...

Bletchley and Fenny Stratford is a civil parish with a town council, in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ... Bletchley is a town in what is now Milton Keynes new city. ... Denbigh North is an area in the English town of Milton Keynes. ... Fenny Stratford is a town that is now part of Milton Keynes, ceremonial Buckinghamshire, England and in the Civil Parish of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford. ... Water Eaton is an area of Milton Keynes, England. ... Bradwell is a historic village (map) that is now integrated into Milton Keynes, but its existence remains evident in the older houses. ... Bradwell Abbey was once the location[1] of a Benedictine priory, founded in 1155, called Bradwell Abbey, in Milton Keynes and ceremonial Buckinghamshire, England. ... Broughton and Milton Keynes (village) is parish grouping in Milton Keynes, England. ... Broughton is a village in the county of Milton Keynes, England. ... All Saints Church, Middleton Middleton is a district and civil parish in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ... Campbell Park could be Campbell Falls State Park Reserve, in the United States Campbell Park, Milton Keynes, in England This article consisting of geographical locations is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Willen is a district of Milton Keynes, England and is also one of the ancient villages of Buckinghamshire to have been included in the designated area of the New City in the 1960s. ... Great Woolstone and Little Woolstone are two historic villages in the New City of Milton Keynes, now called jointly Woolstone or The Woolstones. ... Central Milton Keynes is the central area of Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, England. ... Great Linford is a village in the Unitary District of Milton Keynes, England. ... Kents Hill, Monkston and Brinklow is a civil parish in Milton Keynes and ceremonial Buckinghamshire, England England. ... Kents Hill is the name of more than one location Kents Hill, Milton Keynes is a district in Milton Keynes, England. ... Loughton is one of the many villages in Buckinghamshire that became swallowed up by the urban sprawl of Milton Keynes in the 1960s. ... Spectators watch Green Day from the grass slopes Thunder perform at the 2006 Monsters of Rock festival The National Bowl is a 65,000 capacity entertainment venue in Milton Keynes, England. ... New Bradwell is (mainly) a Victorian new town that is now part of Milton Keynes new city, on its northern edge. ... Shenley (which consists of the villages/areas named Shenley Wood, Shenley Lodge, Shenley Brook End, and Shenley Church End) is one of the parts of Buckinghamshire that went into the urban sprawl of Milton Keynes in the 1960s. ... Tattenhoe is an area of Milton Keynes, in the County of Milton Keynes, England. ... Westcroft is an area within the town of Milton Keynes, United Kingdom. ... Shenley Church End is a village, district and civil parish in Milton Keynes England. ... Simpson is a village in the Unitary District of Milton Keynes. ... Stantonbury is an area of Milton Keynes, England. ... Bancroft may refer to: Bancroft, Ontario Bancroft, Idaho Bancroft, South Dakota Bancroft, Nebraska Bancroft, Michigan Bancroft, Iowa Hubert Howe Bancroft Bancroft Library at UC Berkeley, named in Hubert Howe Bancrofts honor and started with his collection Bancroft, West Virginia Bancroft, Maine Bancroft, Kentucky George Bancroft Bancroft (crater) Bancroft School... The Blue Bridge is a curved, downward sloping pedestrian bridge connecting the east and west halves of the Reed College campus. ... Location within the British Isles. ... Walton is a village in the County of Milton Keynes, England. ... Caldecotte is an area of Milton Keynes that sourrounds the site of an ancient village of that name. ... Walton Hall is a district in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire and is the location of the campus and offices of the Open University. ... West Bletchley is a civil parish in the borough of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, covering the western part of Bletchley, including Far Bletchley. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... Wolverton and Greenleys is a civil parish with a Town Council in the borough of Milton Keynes, England. ... , Wolverton is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ... Wolverton may mean the following. ... Woughton is a civil parish in south central Milton Keynes, England. ... Spectators watch Green Day from the grass slopes Thunder perform at the 2006 Monsters of Rock festival The National Bowl is a 65,000 capacity entertainment venue in Milton Keynes, England. ... Woughton on the Green is a former village of the old county of Buckinghamshire that is now part of the town of Milton Keynes in England. ...

Notable people

Errol Barnett at the 76th Academy Awards Errol Barnett anchors for Channel One News. ... Channel One News is a United States television news program that public and private schools agree to show their students in exchange for the loan of TV equipment. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary/elementary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capdown are a band from Milton Keynes, United Kingdom. ... Clare Nasir Clare Nasir (born June 20, 1970 in Milton Keynes, England) is a meteorologist, GMTV presenter, and producer. ... a Radio Personality is the modern incarnation of the disk jockey, or DJ. In the 1990s, successful radio stations began to focus less on the musical expertise of their hosts and more on the individual hosts personalities. ... Mark Randall (born September 28, 1989 in Milton Keynes) is an English footballer who currently plays for FA Premier League side Arsenal. ... Arsenal Football Club (also known as Arsenal, The Arsenal or The Gunners) are an English professional football club based in Holloway, north London. ... James Hildreth (September 9, 1984 - ) - One of the most talented young England batsmen around and he has impressed for both the Under 19s and his county Somerset. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Christopher David Moyles (born February 22, 1974 in Leeds[1]) is an English disc jockey. ... Chiltern Radio is a brand used by GCap Media for two stations in Bedfordshire. ... Gordon Moakes (born 22 June 1976), educated at Ousedale School, Newport Pagnell, Milton Keynes, and formerly of Tilehurst, Reading, is the bassist and backing singer for English art rock band Bloc Party. ... Bloc Party are an English indie rock band. ... Craig Pickering (born 16 October 1986, Crawley) is a British sprinter, currently based at the Marshall Milton Keynes Athletics Club; however, he also runs for Bath University and Newham and Essex Beagles. ... Sarah Pinborough is an English born horror writer whose books have found success in the United States. ...

Transport

the Grand Union Canal passes over Grafton Street at Bradwell via the modern Bradwell Aqueduct
the Grand Union Canal passes over Grafton Street at Bradwell via the modern Bradwell Aqueduct

The Grand Union Canal between London and Birmingham provides a major axis in the design of Milton Keynes. Milton Keynes is situated on the West Coast Main Line, which served Bletchley railway station and Wolverton railway station before the development of Milton Keynes. These stations are now only served by local services, and the Milton Keynes Central station has been developed between these and serves the town centre. The Marston Vale Line branches from the WCML at Bletchley, and has two stations : Fenny Stratford railway station and Bow Brickhill railway station. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 146 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Grand Union Canal Bradwell, Milton Keynes Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 146 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Grand Union Canal Bradwell, Milton Keynes Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... The canal at Braunston The Grand Union Canal is a canal in England and part of the British canal system. ... The canal at Braunston The Grand Union Canal is a canal in England and part of the British canal system. ... The WCML running alongside the M1 motorway at Watford Gap in Northamptonshire A Virgin Pendolino and freight train on the WCML The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... Bletchley railway station is a railway station that serves the Bletchley area of southern Milton Keynes. ... Wolverton railway station serves northern Milton Keynes, especially Stony Stratford, Wolverton and New Bradwell. ... Milton Keynes Central railway station is a railway station that serves the central area of Milton Keynes. ... The Marston Vale Line is the railway line from Bletchley to Bedford. ... Fenny Stratford railway station is a railway station that serves the Fenny Stratford area of Milton Keynes. ... Bow Brickhill railway station is a railway station that serves the village of Bow Brickhill in the Borough of Milton Keynes, and the Caldecotte, Tilbrook and Walton areas of south-east Milton Keynes itself. ...


The M1 motorway runs to the east of the town, and is served by junctions 13, 14, and 15A. The A5 road runs through the west of the town. Other main roads include the A509, which links Milton Keynes with Wellingborough and Kettering, and the A421 which goes west to Buckingham and east to Bedford. The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ... The A5 is a major road in the United Kingdom. ... The A509 is a short (about 30 miles/50 km) A-class road for north/south journeys in south cental England, forming the route from Wellingborough in Northamptonshire to the M1 and A5 in Milton Keynes. ... The A421 is an important road for east/west journeys across the southern midlands of England. ... Statistics Population: 11,572 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SP695335 Administration District: Aylesbury Vale Shire county: Buckinghamshire Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Buckinghamshire Historic county: Buckinghamshire Services Police force: Thames Valley Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South Central Post office... This article is about the English county town. ...


Many coaches stop at the Milton Keynes Coachway, beside M1 Junction 14, near a park and ride car park, about 3 miles (5 km) from the centre (3.5 miles from Milton Keynes Central station). a park-and-ride bus in Oxford Park and ride terminals are public transport stations that allow commuters to drive short distances in their personal automobiles to catch a ride on a bus or railroad system (usually classified as light rail or the heavier commuter rail). ...


Milton Keynes is served by routes 6 and 51 on the National Cycle Network. The Milton Keynes redway system is a 200km network of cycleways/paths for cyclists and pedestrians in Milton Keynes, England. ... The first section of the NCN to be built was the Bristol and Bath Railway Path, opened in 1984. ...


The nearest international airport is London Luton Airport which is accessible by route VT99 from MK Central station, this service runs with wheelchair accessible coaches. There is a direct rail connection to Birmingham International Airport. There is an aerodrome at Cranfield, 6 miles (10 km) from the centre. An International airport is an airport where flights from other countries land and/or take off. ... London Luton Airport (IATA: LTN, ICAO: EGGW) (previously called Luton International Airport)[3] is an international airport located on the edge of the town of Luton, Bedfordshire, England approximately north of London. ... Birmingham International Airport (IATA: BHX, ICAO: EGBB) is a major airport located 5. ... Cranfield Airport (IATA: N/A, ICAO: EGTC) is an airfield just outside the village of Cranfield in Bedfordshire. ...


See also

Central Milton Keynes is the central area of Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, England. ... All Saints Church, Middleton Middleton is a district and civil parish in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England. ...

References

  1. ^ Vision of Britain: historic census populations for modern Milton Keynes UA Accessed October 11, 2006
  2. ^ [1] Accessed October 10, 2006
  3. ^ [2] Accessed October 10, 2006
  4. ^ Need for more planned towns in the South-East.The Times. December 2, 1964 Accessed 2006-09-21
  5. ^ South East Study 1961-1981 HMSO 1964, cited in The Plan for Milton Keynes. Accessed September 25, 2006
  6. ^ Urgent action to meet London housing needs. The Times. February 4, 1965. Accessed 2006-09-21
  7. ^ Volume 1 of The Plan for Milton Keynes (Milton Keynes Development Corporation March, 1970 ISBN 0-903379-00-7 begins (in the Foreword by Lord ("Jock") Campbell of Eskan): "This plan for building the new city of Milton Keynes ..." (page xi) Accessed September 25, 2006
  8. ^ Area of New Town Increased by 6000 acres (24 km²). The Times. January 14, 1966. Accessed September 21, 2006
  9. ^ a b Llewelyn-David et al The Plan for Milton Keynes 1968. Accessed 2007-01-11
  10. ^ The South East Study 1961-1981 HMSO London, 1964: "A big change in the economic balance within the south east is needed to modify the dominance of London and to get a more even distribution of growth". Accessed 2006-11-27
  11. ^ Jeff Bishop Milton Keynes — the Best of Both Worlds? Public and professional views of a new city. University of Bristol School for Advanced Urban Studies 1981. Accessed 2007-02-13
  12. ^ Walker The Architecture and Planning of Milton Keynes, Architectural Press, London 1981. Accessed 2007-02-13
  13. ^ M Webber (1963) 'Order in Diversity: Community Without Propinquity, in L Wingo (ed.) 'Cities and Spaces Hopkins, Baltimore. Accessed 2007-02-13
  14. ^ http://www.mkweb.co.uk/Milton_Keynes_General/DisplayArticle.asp?ID=285. Subsequent census data is 1971:46,500; 1981:95,800; 1991:144,700; 2001:177,500. Accessed May 21, 2006
  15. ^ Jef Bishop Milton Keynes — the Best of Both Worlds? Public and professional views of a new city. University of Bristol School for Advanced Urban Studies. Accessed 2007-02-13.
  16. ^ Walker, Derek (1982). The Architecture and Planning of Milton Keynes. London: Architectural Press, p. 8.  cited in Clapson, Mark (2004). A Social History of Milton Keynes: Middle England/Edge City. London: Frank Cass, p. 40. 
  17. ^ http://www.mkweb.co.uk/environmental-health/DisplayArticle.asp?ID=17335 Accessed August 16, 2006
  18. ^ Walker The Architecture and Planning of Milton Keynes, Architectural Press, London 1981. Accessed 2007-02-13
  19. ^ http://www.theparkstrust.com/parks-trust/DisplayArticle.asp?ID=33214 Accessed October 30, 2006
  20. ^ http://society.guardian.co.uk/urbandesign/story/0,11200,1116879,00.html?=rss Accessed March 27, 2006
  21. ^ http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2004/uksi_20040932_en.pdf Accessed 2006-12-08
  22. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/4358065.stm Accessed 2006-10-12
  23. ^ Memorandum by Milton Keynes Council (NT 20). Select Committee on Transport, Local Government and the Regions (16 April 2002). Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  24. ^ About Universities for Milton Keynes. Universities for Milton Keynes. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  25. ^ Miles, Stuart. "WiMax in MK Milton Keynes to get blanket WiMax coverage", Pocket-lint.co.uk, 2006-08-18. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. 
  26. ^ Head, Will. "Milton Keynes sets Wi-Fi free", vnunet.com, 2006-10-19. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. 
  27. ^ http://www.mkweb.co.uk/statistics/DisplayArticle.asp?ID=11415 Accessed March 11, 2006

is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Milton Keynes Development Corporation was established in 1969 to provide the vision and execution of a new city, Milton Keynes, that would be the modern interpretation of the Garden city movement concepts first expressed by Ebenezer Howard 60 years earlier. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Bristol is a university in Bristol, England. ... Urban Studies is the scientific discipline that studies all aspects of cities, their suburbs, and other urban areas. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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