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Encyclopedia > Millennium

A millennium (pl. millennia) is a period of time equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). The term may implicitly refer to calendar millennia; periods tied numerically to a particular dating system, specifically ones that begin at the starting (initial reference) point of the calendar in question (typically the year 0 or the year 1) or in later years which are whole number multiples of a thousand years after it. A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ...


The term can also refer to an interval of time beginning on any date. Frequently in the latter case (and sometimes also in the former) it may have religious or theological implications (see Millenarianism). Especially in religious usage such an interval may be interpreted less precisely, being not necessarily exactly 1,000 years long. Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ...

Contents

Counting years

Ordinal

The original method of counting years was ordinal, whether 1st year A.D. or regnal 10th year of King Henry VIII. This ordinal numbering is still present in the names of the millennia and centuries, for example 1st Millennium or the 20th century, and sometimes in the names of decades, e.g. 1st decade of the 21st century. In set theory, ordinal, ordinal number, and transfinite ordinal number refer to a type of number introduced by Georg Cantor in 1897, to accommodate infinite sequences and to classify sets with certain kinds of order structures on them. ... Look up AD in Wiktionary, the free dictionary AD or ad may stand for: ad or advertisement, see advertising ad- prefix Administrative domain Air Defence Andorra, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code Anno Domini (In the Year of [Our] Lord). This year is A.D. 2005. ... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


Cardinal

In recent years, most people have moved to expressing individual years as cardinal numbers, for example 1945 or 1998. The usage 1999th year A.D. is no longer found. This follows scientific usage, for example astronomical year numbering. As a result, some other calendar names have also moved to cardinals, e.g. 1980s is an acceptable name for a particular decade. However, 1600s could be understood as either a decade or a century. Aleph-0, the smallest infinite cardinal In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalized kind of number used to denote the size of a set. ... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ...


Ranges

A change from ordinals to cardinals is incomplete and might not ever be completed; the main issues arise from the content of the various year ranges. Similar issues affect the contents of decades and centuries.


Those following ordinal year names naturally choose

  • 2001–2010 as the current decade
  • 2001–2100 as the current century
  • 2001–3000 as the current millennium

Those following cardinal year names equally naturally choose

  • 2000–2009 as the current decade
  • 2000–2099 as the current century
  • 2000–2999 as the current millennium

Debate over millennium celebrations

The common Western calendar, i.e. the Gregorian calendar, lacks a year numbered zero and begins instead with the year 1. For others, the year zero exists since 1582, with the changes introduced by the Papacy. Accordingly, each period of 1000 years concludes at the end of a year with three zeroes, e.g. the first thousand years in the Western calendar included the year 1000. However, there are two viewpoints about how millennia should be thought of in practice, one which relies on the formal operation of the calendar and one which appeals to other notions that attract popular sentiment. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...


There was a popular debate leading up to the celebrations of the year 2000 as to whether the beginning of that year should be understood (and celebrated) as the beginning of a new millennium. Historically, there has been debate around the turn of previous decades, centuries, and millennia.


Arbitrariness

As a side-note to the debate on timing of the turn of the millennium, the arbitrariness of the era itself can be raised. The Gregorian calendar is a (secular) de facto standard, based on a significant Christian event, the birth of Jesus; thus the foundation of the calendar has little or no meaning to any non-Christian celebrants. The calendar is one amongst many still in use and those used historically. Adjustments and errors in the calendar (such as Dionysius Exiguus's incorrect calculation of A.D. 1) make the particular dates we use today arbitrary. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ...


However, given that the Gregorian calendar is an accepted standard, it is valid to discuss the significant dates within it, be it the timing of religious festivals (such as the moving date of Easter which Dionysius Exiguus was involved in calculating) or the delineation of significant periods of time, such as the end of a millennium. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Easter, the Sunday of...


Viewpoint 1: xx01–xx00

Those holding that the arrival of new millennium should be celebrated in the transition from 2000 to 2001 (i.e. December 31, 2000), argued that since the Gregorian Calendar has no year zero, the millennia should be counted from A.D. 1. Thus the first period of one thousand complete years runs from the beginning of A.D. 1 to the end of A.D. 1000, and the beginning of the second millennium took place at the beginning of 1001. The second millennium thus ends at the end of the year 2000. Then again, those who defend the opposite idea state that the new millennium started with the year 2000 (because of the changes made to the Gregorian calendar in 1582, or because the first millennium started in 1 A.D. and ended in 999 A.D., being the only millennium (along with the last millennium b.c.) not with 1000 years, but with 999 years). is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Illustration of years with a 00-01 demarcation
2 BC 1 BC AD 1 AD 2 3 4 5 ... 998 999 1000 1001 1002 ... 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ... 2998 2999 3000 3001 3002
First one thousand years (millennium) Second millennium Third millennium

Arthur C. Clarke gave this analogy (from a statement received by Reuters): "If the scale on your grocer's weighing machine began at 1 instead of 0, would you be happy when he claimed he'd sold you 10 kg of tea?". This statement illustrates the common confusion about the calendar. Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same name. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ...


If one counts from the beginning of A.D. 1 to the ending of A.D. 1000, one would have counted 1000 years. The next 1000 years (millennium) would begin on the first day of 1001. In other words, the calendar is not 'cheating' anyone out of a year.


In other words, the argument is based on the fact that the last year of the first two thousand years in the Gregorian Calendar was 2000, not 1999.


Viewpoint 2: xx00–xx99

The "year 2000" has also been a popular phrase referring to an often utopian future, or a year when stories in such a future were set, adding to its cultural significance. There was also media and public interest in the Y2K bug. Thus, the populist argument was that the new millennium should begin when the zeroes of 2000 "rolled over", i.e. December 31, 1999. People felt that the change of hundred digit in the year number, and the zeros rolling over, created a sense that a new century had begun. This is similar to the common demarcation of decades by their most significant digits, e.g. naming the period 1980 to 1989 as the 1980s or "the eighties". Similarly, it would be valid to celebrate the year 2000 as a cultural event in its own right, and name the period 2000 to 2999 as "the 2000s". Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ... The year 2000 problem (also known as the Y2K problem and the millennium bug) was a flaw in computer program design that caused some date-related processing to operate incorrectly for dates and times on and after January 1, 2000. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


Most historians agree that Dionysius nominated Christ's birth as 25th December of the year before AD 1 (ref History Today June 1999 p60 Letters, Darian Hiles: "Of Dates and Decimals"). This corresponded with the belief that the birth year itself was considered too holy to mention. Similarly in AD 1000 the church actively discouraged any mention of that year and in modern times it labelled AD 2000 as the "Jubilee Year 2000" marking the 2000th anniversary of the birth of Christ. Year 0 has always been there, it just didn't have a name in the AD system. Thus the unnamed year 0 marked the start of the first Christian millennium, 1000 the second and 2000 the third.

Illustration of years with a 99-00 demarcation using Year zero (ISO 8601 and astronomical numbering system)
−1  0   1   2   3   4   5   ...   998   999  1000 1001 1002 ... 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ... 2998 2999 3000 3001 3002
First millennium (1000 years) Second millennium Third millennium
Illustration of years with a 99-00 demarcation (starting AD 1)
1 BC AD 1 2 3 4 5 ... 998 999 1000 1001 1002 ... 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ... 2998 2999 3000 3001 3002
First millennium (999 years only) Second millennium Third millennium

For the Nine Inch Nails album, see Year Zero (album). ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...

Popular approach

The majority popular approach was to treat the end of 1999 as the end of a millennium, and to hold millennium celebrations at midnight through December 31, 1999 to January 1, 2000, as per viewpoint 2. The cultural and psychological significance of the events listed above combined to cause celebrations to be observed one year earlier than the formal Gregorian date. This does not, of course, establish that insistence on the formal Gregorian date is "incorrect", though it is widely viewed as pedantic (as in the comment of Douglas Adams mentioned below). For other uses, see Midnight (disambiguation) Midnight, literally the middle of the night, is a time arbitrarily designated to determine the end of a day and the beginning of the next in some, mainly Western, cultures. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some event organisers hedged their bets by calling their 1999 celebrations things like "Click" referring to the odometer like rolling over of the nines to zeros. A modern non-digital odometer A Smiths speedometer from the 1920s showing odometer and trip meter An odometer is a device used for indicating distance traveled by an automobile or other vehicle. ...


Commentary

Stephen Jay Gould noted in his essay Dousing Diminutive Dennis' Debate (or DDDD = 2000) (Dinosaur in a Haystack) that celebrations and media announcements marked the turn into the twentieth century along the 1900–1901 border (citing, amongst other examples, the New York Times headline "Twentieth Century's Triumphant Entry"). He also included comments on adjustments to the calendar, such as those by Dionysius Exiguus (the eponymous Diminutive Dennis), the timing of celebrations over different transitional periods, and the "high" versus "pop" culture interpretation of the transition. Further of his essays on this topic are collected in Questioning the Millennium: A Rationalist's Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown. Natural History magazine Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... A collection of essays on evolution by science writer Stephen Jay Gould which originally appeared in Natural History. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ...


In the editorial to 2002's Best American Essays Gould highlights the use of historical events, rather than transitional dates, to delineate periods of history: "Many commentators have stated — quite correctly in my view — that the twentieth century did not truly begin in 1900 or 1901, by any standard of historical continuity, but rather at the end of World War I, the great shatterer of illusions about progress and human betterment... I suspect that future chroniclers will date the inception of the third millennium from September 11, 2001." “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


(Similarly, some commentators delineate the Middle Ages from the Fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Fall of Constantinople.) The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Loukas Notaras Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] - The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine capital by...


Douglas Adams highlighted the sentiment that those in favour of a 2001 celebration were pedantic spoilsports in his short web-article Significant Events of the Millennium. This sentiment was also demonstrated when, in 1997, Australian Prime Minister John Howard made a point in favour of the 2001 celebration and was named "the party pooper of the century" by local newspapers. Douglas Noël Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, comic radio dramatist, and musician. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ...


In an episode of the American sitcom Seinfeld entitled "The Millennium", it is revealed that the character Newman specifies the date of the millennium party that he is planning to be for the "millennium new year," meaning December 31, 2000. Thus Newman's party does not conflict with the party Kramer is planning for December 31, 1999, but will be perceived as "quite lame" according to Jerry, as the majority of people will be celebrating the new millennium on December 31, 1999. Seinfeld is an Emmy Award-winning American sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5, 1989, to May 14, 1998, running a total of 9 seasons. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


In TV show The X-Files episode called Millennium, continuing the TV series of the same name, Scully mentions that the new millennium doesn't start until January 1, 2001. She is made fun of, but not suggested to be incorrect, when Mulder responds, "No one likes a math geek, Scully." The X-Files is a Peabody- and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on September 10, 1993, and ended on May 19, 2002. ... Millennium is a grim, suspenseful American television series, produced by Chris Carter (creator of The X-Files), and set during the years leading up to the dawn of the new millennium. ... Special Agent Dana Katherine Scully (born February 23, 1964) is a fictional character on the FOX television series The X-Files, played by Gillian Anderson. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Special Agent Fox William Mulder (born October 13, 1961), nicknamed Spooky Mulder, is a fictional character played by David Duchovny on the 1993-2002 television series, The X-Files. ...


The Headless Bust: A Melancholy Meditation on the False Millennium by Edward Gorey takes place on December 31 1999 and refers to the next coming year as the start of the new millennium, despite the fact that the title of the book calls it the "False Millenium." This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Jeopardy! game show host Alex Trebek proudly welcomed his guests and contestants to the "first day of the twenty-first century" on the January 1, 2001 episode. Jeopardy! is an international television quiz game show, originally devised by Merv Griffin. ... Alex Trebek, with his once-iconic mustache, hosting a 1986 episode of Jeopardy! George Alexander Trebek (born as Giorgi Suka-Alex Trebek [1] on July 22, 1940) is an Emmy Award-winning Canadian-American television personality and game show host whos best known as the host of the game... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Although popular culture generally observed the start of the 21st century and 3rd millennium on January 1, 2000, the start of the 20th century was generally observed on January 1, 1901 (newspapers dated January 1, 1900 generally make little mention of the change of digit). is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


Millenium

Millenium (pl. millenia) is a common misspelling of millennium (pl. millennia), found in many advertisements near the end of 1999. Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


See also

Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book... Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... (2nd millennium – 3rd millennium – 4th millennium – other millennia) The third millennium is the third period of one thousand years in the Common Era. ... The White House Millennium Council was an American organization established in 1998 by President Bill Clinton to commemorate the millennium. ...

External links

  • Full text of DDDD = 2000 Beware of errors that invalidate the points intended to be supported by the text.
  • http://www.millenniummistake.net/

  Results from FactBites:
 
Millennium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1239 words)
Those holding that the new millennium should be celebrated in the transition from 2000 to 2001 (i.e.
The majority of "millennium" celebrations were held at midnight on December 31, 1999 / January 1, 2000 reflecting the popular mood.
In an episode of the American sitcom Seinfeld entitled "The Millennium", it is revealed that the character Newman specifies the date of the millennium party that he is planning to be for the "millennium new year," meaning December 31, 2000.
Millennium (TV series) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2043 words)
Millennium is a grim, suspenseful television series, produced by the creators of The X-Files and set during the run-up to the new millennium, premiering in 1996, but ultimately cancelled in 1999 (see below).
Chris Carter's original idea for Millennium was a series that would present a more mature point of view of the world from the perspective of a law enforcement officer than offered in his companion series The X-Files.
Episode 7#05 of The X-Files, entitled "Millennium", saw Lance Henriksen and Brittany Tiplady (in a cameo appearance) reprise their roles as Frank and Jordan alongside Mulder and Scully in a tale of necromancy and zombification of former Millennium Group members on the cusp of 1999/2000.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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