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Encyclopedia > Millennialism

Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means "thousand years", is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where "Christ will reign" prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book of Revelation 20:1-6. Millennialism as such is a specific form of Millenarianism. A millennium is a period of time, equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ whom they believe is the saviour of the world. ... A religious denomination, (also simply denomination) is a large, long-established subgroup within a religion that has existed for many years. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... Paradise, by Jan Bruegel The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. ... Earth (often referred to as The Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth in order of size. ... Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ...


In Christianity, this is not the "end of the world", but the penultimate age, prior to when it is believed that the world will end. Some believe that between the millennium and the final end of the world there will be a brief period to allow a final battle with Satan, or a time of the Anti-Christ, followed by the last judgment. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist is a person or other entity that is the embodiment of evil and utterly opposed to truth. ... In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgment or Judgment Day is the ethical-judicial trial, judgment, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven or to hell) by a divine tribunal (God) at the end of time, following the destruction of humans present earthly existence. ...


Millennialism is also a doctrine of Zoroastrianism concerning successive thousand-year periods, each of which will end in a cataclysm of heresy and destruction, until the final destruction of evil and of the spirit of evil by a triumphant king of peace at the end of the final millennial age (supposed by some to be the year 2000). "Then Saoshyant makes the creatures again pure, and the resurrection and future existence occur" (Zand-i Vohuman Yasht 3:62). Zoroastrianism (Persian: آيين زرتشتی) also known as Mazdaism by some followers and Zarathustrianism by others, is a monotheistic religion. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... In the Zoroastrian religion, saoshyant refers to one who will make existence brilliant. Since He is (the One) to be chosen by the world therefore the judgment emanating from truth itself (to be passed) on the deeds of good thought of the world, as well as the power, is committed...


Various other social and political movements, both religious and secular, have also been linked to millennialist metaphors by scholars.

Contents


The early church and premillennialism (chiliasm)

"Millenarianism became the general belief of the time and met with almost no other opposition than that given by the Gnostics." - Gieseler, Church History, vol.1, p.166[1] Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler (March 3, 1792-July 8, 1854), was a German church historian. ...


"...the early Fathers lived in expectation of our Lord's speedy return. . . . They distinguish between a first resurrection of the saints and a second or general resurrection. These they supposed would be separated by a period of a thousand years, during which Christ should reign over the saints in Jerusalem. . . . While the church was alternately persecuted and contemptuously tolerated by the Roman Empire, the belief in Christ's speedy return and his millennial reign was widely entertained. . . . When the Church was recognized and patronized by the state, the new order of things seemed so desirable that the close of the dispensation ceased to be expected or desired." - Crispen, History of Doctrine, p.231-232[1]


"Immediately after the triumph of Constantine, Christianity having become dominant and prosperous, Christians began to lose their vivid expectation of our Lord's speedy advent, and to look upon the temporal supremacy of Christianity as a fulfillment of the promised reign of Christ on earth." - Smith, New Testament History, p.273[1]


Tertullian, Commodian, Lactantius, Methodius, and Apollinaris of Laodicea all advocated premillennial doctrine. [1] In addition, according to religious scholar Rev. and Dr. Francis Nigel Lee the following is true, "Justin's 'Occasional Chiliasm' sui generis which was strongly anti-pretribulationistic was followed possibly by Pothinus in A.D. 175 and more probably (around 185) by Irenaeus. Around 220, there were some similar influences on Tertullian though only with very important and extremely optimistic (if not perhaps even postmillennial modifications and implications). On the other hand, 'Christian Chiliastic' ideas were indeed advocated in 240 by Commodian; in 250 by the Egyptian Bishop Nepos in his Refutation of Allegorists; in 260 by the almost unknown Coracion; and in 310 by Lactantius. [2] Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicized as Tertullian, (ca. ... Commodianus was a Christian Latin poet, who flourished about A.D. 250. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ... The Church Father and Saint Methodius of Olympus (? – c. ... Apollinarism or Apollinarianism was a view proposed by Apollinaris of Laodicea that Jesus had a human body but a divine mind. ... Pothinus (early 1st Century BC - 48 or 47 BC) was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... An engraving of Saint Irenaeus (ca. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicized as Tertullian, (ca. ... Commodianus was a Christian Latin poet, who flourished about A.D. 250. ... The Book of Nepos is one of the texts of the New Testament apocrypha, written by an egyptian bishop, Nepos. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ...


Melito of Sardis is frequently listed as a second century proponent of premillennialism. [2]. The support usually given for the supposition is that Jerome [Comm. on Ezek. 36 ] and Gennadius [De Dogm. Eccl., Ch. 52] both affirm that he was a decided millenarian.”[3].[3] Melito of Sardis, or Melito of Sardes, a Christian saint, was the was the bishop of Sardis in Asia Minor. ... Jerome (ca. ... Gennadius refers to: Gennadius I: 5th century Patriarch of Constantinople Gennadius II: 15th century Patriarch of Constantinople Gennadius of Massilia: 5th century historian This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Christian millennialism following the Reformation

Christian views on the future order of events diversified after the Protestant reformation. In particular, new emphasis was placed on the passages in the Book of Revelation which seemed to say that Satan would be locked away for 1000 years, but then released on the world in a final battle (Rev. 20:1-6). Previous Catholic and Orthodox theologians had no clear or consensus view on what this actually meant (only the concept of an end of the world coming unexpected, "like a thief in a night", and the concept of "the antichrist" were almost universally held). Millennialist theories try to explain what this "1000 years of Satan in chains" would be like. Visions of John the Evangelist, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Various types of millennialism exist with regard to Christian Eschatology, especially within Protestantism, such as Premillennialism, Postmillennialism, and Amillennialism. The first two refer to different views of the relationship between the "millennial Kingdom" and Christ's second coming. Premillennialism sees Christ's second advent as preceding the millennium, thereby separating the second coming from the final judgment. In this view, "Christ's reign" will be physical. Postmillennialism see's Christ's second coming as subsequent to the millennium and consequent with the final judgment. In this view "Christ's reign" (during the millennium) will be spiritual in and through the church. Amillennialism basically denies a future literal 1000 year Kingdom and sees the church age metaphorically described in Rev. 20:1-6. In this view, "Christ's reign" is current in and through the church. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article specifically relates to Premillennialism in Christian eschatology; for political millenarianism and other uses of the word see Millenarianism Premillennialism in Christian eschatology is the interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation in the Bible which sees Christs second coming as occurring before or pre- his... In Christian eschatology, postmillennialism is an interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation which sees Christs second coming as occurring after or post- the thousand year millennium. Although some postmillennialists hold to a literal millennium of 1,000 years, most postmillennialists see the thousand years more as... Amillenialism [A, Latin meaning in (rather than the commoner none), and Millennialism, referring to the binding of the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan for 1,000 years as described in Revelation chapter 20 verse 2] (also nunc-millennialism or positively realized millennialism) in Christian eschatology...


Pre-Christian millennialism

Although never officially recognized by the Catholic Church (and actually pronounced a heresy as early as 431 AD), millennialism, which had clearly already existed in Jewish thought, received a new interpretation and fresh impetus with the arrival of Christianity. A millennium is a period of one thousand years, and, in particular, Christ's thousand-year rule on this earth, either directly preceding or immediately following the Second Coming (and the Day of Judgement). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Roman Catholic Church. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The millennium reverses the previous period of evil and suffering; it rewards the virtuous for their courage while punishing the evil-doers, with a clear separation of saints and sinners. The vision of a thousand-year period of bliss for the faithful, to be enjoyed here on earth ("heaven on earth"), exerted an irresistible power. Although the picture of life in the millennial era is almost willfully obscure and hardly more appealing than that of, say, the Golden Age, what has made the millennium much more powerful than the Golden Age or Paradise myths are the activities of the sects and movements that it has inspired. Throughout the ages, hundreds of sects were convinced that the millennium was imminent, about to begin in the very near future, with precise dates given on many occasions. The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... A sect is generally a small religious or political group that has branched off from a larger established group. ...


Premillennial sects look for signs of Christ's imminent return. Other chiliast sects, such as the prophetic Anabaptist followers of Thomas Müntzer, have believed that the millennium had already begun, with only their own members having realized this fact. Consequently, they have attempted to live out their own vision of millennial life, radically overturning the beliefs and practices of the surrounding society. In doing so, they offered a model of the good life and expressed their hope that soon the rest of the world would follow and live like they did. Anabaptists (Greek ana+baptizo re-baptizers, German: Wiedertäufer) were Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Thomas Müntzer, in a 18th century engraving by C. Van Sichem Thomas Muentzer (or Müntzer, Münzer) (1489 or 1490–27 May 1525) was an early Reformation-era German pastor who was a rebel leader during the Peasants War. ...


See Christian eschatology for a discussion of "premillennialism" and "postmillennialism". To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article specifically relates to Premillennialism in Christian eschatology; for political millenarianism and other uses of the word see Millenarianism Premillennialism in Christian eschatology is the interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation in the Bible which sees Christs second coming as occurring before or pre- his... In Christian eschatology, postmillennialism is an interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation which sees Christs second coming as occurring after or post- the thousand year millennium. Although some postmillennialists hold to a literal millennium of 1,000 years, most postmillennialists see the thousand years more as...


Transition to the Millennium

Millennial sects have typically believed that the transition from the present age to the millennium would be anything but smooth, with the Antichrist having to be defeated and Jesus' reign on earth having to be established. Millennial theories differ as to whether the battle with the Antichrist will occur before or after the 1000 years. Leaders of some movements have seen it as their responsibility to bring about the expected disastrous wars which would bring an end to the present age. Based on Revelation 20:3, some believe Satan's "Millennial Rebellion" will occur after the 1000 year peace. [4] Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ...


On the other hand, those who did not believe in the millennium also imagined the end of the world as chaotic and catastrophic. The word Apocalypse has been used for this final phase of human history as we know it, with Armageddon as the site of the last decisive battle on the Day of Judgement. The end of the world may refer to: Science, religion and the humanities: end of planet Earth ultimate fate of the universe, in cosmology eschatology and end times, the end of the world in religious prophecy and mythology end of civilization, the destruction of civilization or humanity end of the... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Armageddon refers generally to end times or giant, apocalyptic catastrophes in various religions and cultures. ...


An (or the) Apocalypse [from Greek apo "off", "from", "away", "un-" and kalyptein "cover"] is,

  • in the Judeo-Christian tradition, a revelation of God's purposes with the main intention of encouraging an oppressed and suffering minority to have faith in God and of proclaiming his ultimate triumph;
  • in particular, the revelation of the future granted to St John (one of the four evangelists) in the isle of Patmos, written in Greek in the 1st century AD and burning with the conviction that the world is about to be destroyed and that Christ's Second Coming is at hand;

The Book of Revelation is not easy to interpret. Numerous painters and sculptors have produced works of art dealing with the Apocalypse. For example, they portrayed the four horsemen of the Apocalypse, symbolizing pestilence, war, famine, and death. Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicità, Florence) John the Evangelist (? - c. ... Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... Skala viewed from the Monastery of Agios Ioannis Theologos, one of the UN World Heritage Sites. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Visions of John the Evangelist, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The end of the world may refer to: Science, religion and the humanities: end of planet Earth ultimate fate of the universe, in cosmology eschatology and end times, the end of the world in religious prophecy and mythology end of civilization, the destruction of civilization or humanity end of the... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... An Italian Futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (MoMA). ... Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are mentioned in the Bible in chapter six of the Book of Revelation, which predicts that they will ride during the Apocalypse. ... A pestilence is an epidemic or even a pandemic of a virulent and highly contagious disease. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ... A famine is a phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are so undernourished that death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... Death is the cessation of life. ...


Millennialism and Utopianism

The early Christian concept had ramifications far beyond strictly religious concern during the centuries to come, as it was blended and enhanced with ideas of utopia. It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ...


In the wake of early millennial thinking, the Three Ages philosophy (Drei-Reiche-Lehre) developed. Making use of the dogma of the Trinity, the Italian monk and theologian Joachim of Fiore (d. 1202) claimed that all of human history was a succession of three ages: Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... Joachim of Flora (medieval engraving). ...

  1. the Age of the Father (the Old Testament)
  2. the Age of the Son (the New Testament)
  3. the Age of the Holy Spirit (the age of love, peace, and freedom)

It was believed that the Age of the Holy Spirit would begin at around 1260, and that from then on all believers would be living as monks, mystically transfigured and full of praise for God, for a thousand years until Judgement Day would put an end to the history of our planet. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... In various religions, most notably Trinitarian Christianity, the Holy Spirit (also called the Holy Ghost; in Hebrew רוח הקודש Ruah haqodesh) is the third Person of the Holy Trinity. ...


In the Modern Era, with the impact of religion on everyday life gradually decreasing and eventually almost vanishing, some of the concepts of millennial thinking have found their way into various secular ideas, usually in the form of a belief that a certain historical event will fundamentally change human society (or has already done so). For example, the French Revolution seemed to many to be ushering in the millennial age of reason. Also, the philosophies of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (d. 1831) and Karl Marx (d. 1883) carried strong millennial overtones. As late as 1970, Yale law teacher Charles A. Reich coined the term "Consciousness III" in his best seller The Greening of America, in which he spoke of a new age ushered in by the hippie generation. However, these secular theories generally have little or nothing to do with the original millennial thinking, or with each other. Secularity is the state of being free from religious or spiritual qualities. ... Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general and the French Revolution in particular. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770–November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Yale redirects here. ... A singer dresses in a stereotypical hippie outfit. ...


Millennialism and Nazism

The most controversial interpretation of the Three Ages philosophy and of millennialism in general is Hitler's "Third Reich" ("Drittes Reich", "Tausendjähriges Reich"), which, in his vision, would last for a thousand years - but which in reality only lasted for 12 years (1933-1945). Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The phrase "Third Reich" was coined by the conservative German thinker Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, who in 1923 published a book entitled Das Dritte Reich, which eventually became a catchphrase that survived the Nazi regime. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Arthur Moeller van den Bruck (April 23, 1876 – May 30, 1925) was a German cultural historian and writer. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Looking back at German history, two periods were distinguished:

  • the Holy Roman Empire (beginning with Charlemagne in AD 800) (the "First Reich"), and
  • the German Empire under the Hohenzollern dynasty (1871 - 1918) (the "Second Reich").

These were now to be followed -- after the interval of the Weimar Republic (1918 - 1933), during which constitutionalism, parliamentarism and even pacifism ruled -- by: The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great[1]; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Flag of the German Empire, 1871–1918: black-white-red The German Empire is the name conventionally given in English to the German state from the time of the proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871) to the abdication of Wilhelm II (November 9, 1918). ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... Flag of Germany, 1919–1933 This article outlines political events from 1918 until the collapse of the Republic in 1933. ... A constitution is a system, often codified in a written document, which establishes the rules and principles by which an organization is governed. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ...

  • the "Third Reich" of Adolf Hitler.

In a speech held on 27 November 1937, Hitler commented on his plans to have major parts of Berlin torn down and rebuilt: November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Welthauptstadt (World Capital) Germania was the name Adolf Hitler gave to the projected renewal of the German Capital, part of his vision for the future of Germany after the proposed victory in World War II. Albert Speer, the first architect of the Third Reich, produced many of the plans for...

[...] einem tausendjährigen Volk mit tausendjähriger geschichtlicher und kultureller Vergangenheit für die vor ihm liegende unabsehbare Zukunft eine ebenbürtige tausendjährige Stadt zu bauen [...].
[...] to build a millennial city adequate [in splendour] to a thousand year old people with a thousand year old historical and cultural past, for its never-ending [glorious] future [...]

Millennialism and Social Movements

Outside of theology, the Hitler's Nazi movement has been described as Millennial or Millenarian in scholarly works. Millennial social movements are a specific form of Millenarianism that are based on some concept of a one thousand year cycle. Sometimes the two terms are used as synonyms, but this is not entirely accurate for a purist. Millennial social movements need not be religious, but they must have a vision of an apocalypse that can be utopian or distopian. Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Dr. I.M. Haldeman, The History of the Doctrine of Our Lord's Return, pp.14-20,24
  2. ^ Taylor, Voice of the Church, P. 66; Peters, Theocratic Kingdom, 1:495; Walvoord, Millennial Kingdom, p. 120; et al.
  3. ^ Richard Cunningham Shimeall, Christ’s Second Coming: Is it Pre-Millennial or Post-Millennial? (New York: John F. Trow, 1865), p. 67. See also, Taylor, p. 66; Peters, 1:495; Jesse Forest Silver, The Lord’s Return (New York, et al.: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1914), p. 66; W. Chillingworth, The Works of W. Chillingworth, 12th ed. (London: B. Blake, 1836), p.714; et al)

Sources

  • Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages, revised and expanded (New York: Oxford University Press, [1957] 1970).
  • Michael Barkun, Disaster and the Millennium (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974) (ISBN 0300017251)
  • James M. Rhodes, The Hitler Movement: A Modern Millenarian Revolution (Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1980). (ISBN 0817971319)
  • Robert Wistrich, Hitler’s Apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi Legacy (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985). (ISBN 0312388195)
  • Richard K. Fenn, The End of Time: Religion, Ritual, and the Forging of the Soul (Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1997). (ISBN 0829812067 or ISBN 0281049947)
  • Jeffrey Kaplan, Radical Religion in America: Millenarian Movements from the Far Right to the Children of Noah (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997). (ISBN 0815626878 or ISBN 0815603967)
  • Jon R. Stone (ed.), Expecting Armageddon (London & NY: Routledge, 2000). (ISBN 041592331X)
  • Robert Ellwood, ‘Nazism as a Millennialist Movement’, in Catherine Wessinger (ed.), Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2000). (ISBN 0815628099 or ISBN 0815605994)

External links

See also

Concepts of Heaven
Christian Kingdom of Heaven | Empyrean | Eden | Paradise | Pearly gates | New Jerusalem
Islam Jannah | Houri | Sidrat al-Muntaha
Greek mythology Elysium | Hesperides | Arcadia | The Form of the Good
Northern Mythology Valhalla | Avalon
Mythology Tomoanchan | Aaru | Summerland | Myth of Er
Fiction Aman Valinor | Neverland | Divine Comedy | What Dreams May Come | Shangri-La
Related concepts Utopia | Millennialism | Utopianism | Christian anarchism | Golden age | Afterlife

</ref> To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Visions of John the Evangelist, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Rapture is an event in certain systems of Christian eschatology (the study of the end times) whereby it is believed that all Christians will be taken from Earth by Jesus Christ into Heaven. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Apocalypticism is a worldview based on the idea that important matters are hidden from view and they will soon be revealed in a major confrontation of earth-shaking magnitude that will change the course of history. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Preterism is a variant of Christian eschatology which holds that some or all of the biblical prophecies concerning the Last Days (or End Times) refer to events which actually happened in the first century after Christs birth. ... Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... In Christian eschatology, postmillennialism is an interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation which sees Christs second coming as occurring after or post- the thousand year millennium. Although some postmillennialists hold to a literal millennium of 1,000 years, most postmillennialists see the thousand years more as... Amillenialism [A, Latin meaning in (rather than the commoner none), and Millennialism, referring to the binding of the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan for 1,000 years as described in Revelation chapter 20 verse 2] (also nunc-millennialism or positively realized millennialism) in Christian eschatology... The term Earth Changes describes a belief prevalent in certain segments of the New Age movement. ... Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... The Kingdom of Heaven (or the Kingdom of God, Hebrew מלכות השמים, malkhut hashamayim, Greek basileia tou theou) is a key concept detailed in all the three major monotheistic religions of the world including Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... Empyrean (from the Med. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew Gan Ēden, גַּן עֵדֶן) is described by the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man - Adam - and woman - Eve - lived after they were created by God. ... Paradise, by Jan Bruegel The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. ... The Pearly gates, in Christianity, is an informal name for the gateway to Heaven, inspired by the description of the New Jerusalem in Revelation 21:21— The image of the gates in popular culture is a set of large, white, wrought-iron gates in the clouds, guarded by Saint Peter. ... New Jerusalem is the concept of Jerusalem (in the definite or indefinite sense) as being renewed or rebuilt, either in the present day or in the future, either at the Temple Mount or in a different location. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Islam, the houri (Arabic , pl. ... Sidrat al-Muntahā (Arabic: سدرة المنتهى ) is a lote tree that marks the end of the seventh heaven, the boundary where no creation can pass, according to Islamic beliefs. ... // Greek mythology consists in part in a large collection of narratives that explain the origins of the world and detail the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, and heroines. ... In Greek mythology, Elysium was a section of the Underworld (the spelling Elysium is a Latinization of the Greek word Elysion). ... The Fortunate Isles, also called the Isles (or Islands) of the Blessed (makarôn nêsoi). ... Arcadia is a poetical name for fantasy land (having more or less the same notation as Utopia ), named after the Greek land. ... Plato describes The Form of the Good in his book, The Republic, using Socrates as his mouth piece. ... Valhalla as portrayed in the animated film Valhalla In this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript Heimdallr is shown guarding the gate of Valhalla. ... Avalon (probably from the Celtic word abal: apple; see Etymology below) is a legendary island somewhere in the British Isles, famous for its beautiful apples. ... In Aztec Mythology, Tomoanchan is a mythical paradise ruled over by Itzpapalotl. ... In Egyptian mythology, the fields of Aaru (alternatives: Yaaru, Iaru, Aalu), are the heavenly underworld where Osiris ruled. ... Summerland can refer to two different things: The city Summerland, British Columbia Summerland, a 2004 novel by Michael Chabon Summerland, a television series ... The Myth of Er is an analogy used in Platos Republic. ... A map of Aman, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... A fan-created map of Aman and Valinor. ... Neverland is the fictional island featured in J. M. Barries play Peter Pan and subsequent novel Peter and Wendy. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... DVD cover for What Dreams May Come What Dreams May Come is an Academy Award-winning 1998 dramatic film, starring Robin Williams, Cuba Gooding Jr. ... Shangri-La is a fictional place described in the novel, Lost Horizon, written by British writer James Hilton in 1933. ... It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Christian anarchism (also known as Christian libertarianism) is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ...


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Millennialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2255 words)
Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means "thousand years", is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where "Christ will reign" prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book of Revelation 20:1-6.
Millennial sects have typically believed that the transition from the present age to the millennium would be anything but smooth, with the Antichrist having to be defeated and Jesus' reign on earth having to be established.
Millennial social movements are a specific form of Millenarianism that are based on some concept of a one thousand year cycle.
Millennialism (1480 words)
Millennialism (or Chiliasm) in Christian theology, literature and folk religion, is a belief not universally held by Christians, that history will end with a Golden Age, a Paradise on earth when universal peace will reign, when all of the inhabitants will dwell in prosperity and the cosmos will be healed.
Millennial sects typically have believed that the transition from the present to the millennium would be anything but smooth, what with the Antichrist having to be defeated and Jesus Christ's reign on earth having to be established.
Millennialism places hope in the future realization of an idyllic[?] state of affairs lost to mankind, dimly remembered or constantly dreamt of, but romantically hoped to be not beyond the possibility of attainment, just as utopianism does.
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