FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Milk of magnesia

Milk of Magnesia, or Magnesium Hydroxide, Mg(OH)2 is a saline osmotic (hydrating) laxative. The name derives from the suspension's milky white appearance and the magnesium in its composition. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Osmosis is the net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high solvent potential to an area of low solvent potential, up a solute concentration gradient. ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ...

Contents

History

The term "Milk of Magnesia" was first used to describe a white aqueous, mildly alkaline suspension of magnesium hydroxide formulated at about 8%w/v by Charles Henry Phillips in 1880 and sold under the brand name Phillips' Milk of Magnesia for medicinal usage. Although the name may at some point have been owned by GlaxoSmithKline, USPTO registrations show "Milk of Magnesia" to be registered to Bayer[1], and "Phillips Milk of Magnesia" is registered to Sterling Drug[2]. In the UK, the non-brand (generic) name of "Milk of Magnesia" and "Phillips Milk of Magnesia" is "Cream of Magnesia" (Magnesium Hydroxide Mixture, BP). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Milk of Magnesia. ... In biology percentage solutions are often preferred to molar ones. ... Charles Henry Phillips (1820 – 1882) was an English pharmacist who is universally known for his invention Phillips Milk of Magnesia. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biologicals, and healthcare company. ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... Sterling Drug was a global pharmaceutical company based in the United States, later known as Sterling-Winthrop, Inc, whose primary product lines included diagnostic imaging agents, hormonal products, cardiovascular products, analgesics, antihistamines and muscle relaxants. ...


Pharmaceutical uses

Available over-the-counter, milk of magnesia is primarily used in alleviating constipation, but can also be used to relieve indigestion and heartburn. When taken internally by mouth as a laxative, the osmotic force of the magnesia suspension acts to draw fluids from the body and to retain those already within the lumen of the intestine, serving to distend the bowel, thus stimulating nerves within the colon wall, inducing peristalsis and resulting in evacuation of colonic contents. In years past it was advertised with the following slogan: "Take MOM in the PM, for BM (bowel movement) in the AM." It is also used as an antacid, though more modern formulations combine the antimotility effects of equal concentrations of aluminum hydroxide to avoid unwanted laxative usage. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription and without a visit to a medical professional, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Indigestion is a condition that is frequently caused by eating too fast, especially by eating high-fat foods quickly. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mouth (human). ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Osmosis is the net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high solvent potential to an area of low solvent potential, up a solute concentration gradient. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ... Lumen can mean: Lumen (unit), the SI unit of luminous flux Lumen (anatomy), the cavity or channel within a tubular structure Thylakoid lumen, the inner membrane space of the chloroplast 141 Lumen, an asteroid discovered by the French astronomer Paul Henry in 1875 Lumen (band), an American post-rock band... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine (or colon). ... Colon has several meanings: colon (anatomy) colon (punctuation) colon (rhetoric) See also Colón This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In much of the digestive tract, muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces food (called bolus while in the esophagus and chyme below the esophagus) along the alimentary canal. ... Colon has several meanings: colon (anatomy) colon (punctuation) colon (rhetoric) See also Colón This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A bottle of antacid tablets An antacid is any substance, generally a base, which counteracts stomach acidity. ... Motility is a biological term which refers to the ability to move spontaneously and independently. ... ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ...


According to MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, milk of magnesia is useful against canker sores (aphthous ulcer).[3] A mouth ulcer or canker sore is a painful open sore inside the mouth caused by a break in the mucous membrane. ...


Biological metabolism

When the patient uptakes the milk of magnesia (orally), the suspension enters the stomach. Depending on how much was taken during the uptake, one of two possible outcomes will happen. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...


As an antacid, milk of magnesia is dosed at approximate 500mg to 1.5g in adults and works by simple neutralization, where the hydroxide ions from the Mg(OH)2 combine with acidic H+ ions produced in the form of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells in the stomach. A bottle of antacid tablets An antacid is any substance, generally a base, which counteracts stomach acidity. ... Neutralization is a chemical reaction, also called a water forming reaction, in which an acid and a base or alkali (soluble base) react and produce a salt and water. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... Acidity redirects here. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are cells located in the stomach epithelium. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...


As a laxative, milk of magnesia is dosed at 2-5g, and works in a number of ways. First, Mg2+ is poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract, so it draws water from the surrounding tissue by osmosis. Not only does this increase in water content soften the feces, it also increases the volume of feces in the intestine (intraluminal volume) which naturally stimulates intestinal motility. Furthermore, Mg2+ ions somehow cause the release of CCK, which causes intraluminal accumulation of water, electrolytes and intestinal motility. Although it has been stated in some sources, the hydroxide ions themselves do not play a significant role in the laxative effects of milk of magnesia, as basic solutions (i.e. solutions of hydroxide ions) are not strongly laxative, and non-basic Mg2+ solutions, like MgSO4, are equally strong laxatives mole for mole (Tedesco & Di Piro, 1985; Curry, 1983). Osmosis is the net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high solvent potential to an area of low solvent potential, up a solute concentration gradient. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ...


Care should be taken with the use of milk of magnesia for either of these purposes, as it can easily cause diarrhea.[4] Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause...


As already stated only a small amount of the magnesium from milk of magnesia is usually absorbed from a person's intestine (unless the person is deficient in magnesium). However, magnesium is mainly excreted by the kidneys so longterm, daily consumption of milk of magnesia by someone suffering from renal failure could lead in theory to hypermagnesemia. Hypermagnesemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of magnesium in the blood. ...


NON MEDICINAL USES


It has been reported that a rising number of bullemia sufferers use these products as laxatives.


References

  • 940 498 0909: Laxative products. In: Handbook of non-prescription drugs. 1983, 6th ed., pp. 69-92, American Pharmaceutical Association, Washington DC.
  • Tedesco FJ, DiPiro JT. Laxative use in constipation. American College of Gastroenterology's Committee on FDA-Related Matters. Am J Gastroenterol. 1985 80(4):303-9.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Milk of magnesia - Patent 4042685 (2268 words)
Milk of magnesia is, of course, highly alkaline having a pH in the range of 10-11.
The alkalinity of milk of magnesia may be adjusted by the addition of small quantities of suitable edible acids to the magnesia magma-soluble carbohydrate mixture along with the flavoring agent prior to the desiccation process.
The milk of magnesia mixture of Example 2 was spray-dried in lieu of freeze drying.
milk of magnesia - Encyclopedia.com (952 words)
The viscous, white, mildly alkaline mixture that is used medicinally as an antacid and laxative is a suspension of approximately 8% magnesium hydroxide in water.
Glaxo to export Philips milk of magnesia from Brazil.
Magnesium hydroxide (milk of With overdose or renal magnesia; concentration: 400 mg insufficiency...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m