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Encyclopedia > Militia Act of 1903

The Militia Act of 1903, also known as the Dick Act, was the result of a program of reform and reorganization in the military establishment initiated by Secretary of War Elihu Root following the Spanish-American War of 1898 after the war demonstrated weaknesses in the militia, as well as in the entire United States military. The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Elihu Root Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman, the son of Oren Root and Nancy Whitney Buttrick. ... Combatants United States and Cuban rebel forces Spain Casualties 379 dead (U.S. only) Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. ...


The ultimate result of the Act was the creation of the modern National Guard Bureau which is the federal instrument responsible for the administration of the National Guard. Established by Congress as a Joint Bureau, of the Departments of the Department of the Army and the Department of the Air Force. It holds a unique status as both a staff and operation agency. Throughout its more than 80-year history, the National Guard Bureau has repeatedly proven that the National Guard can effectively perform its duties, with its own personnel, at a high level of professionalism. The National Guard Bureau is located in Washington DC and is a joint command operated by the United States Department of the Army and The United States Department of the Air Force to conduct all the administrative matters pertaining to the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard. ... It has been suggested that National Guard Bureau be merged into this article or section. ... A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ... War Department may refer to the military establishments of several different countries: British War Department Confederate War Department United States Department of War, under the leadership of the United States Secretary of War (until 1947) See also: defense minister This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Categories: Stub | U.S. Dept. ...

Contents


Beginnings of federalization

United States Senator Charles Dick, a Major General in the Ohio National Guard, sponsored the 1903 act, which gave Federal status to the militia. Under this legislation the organized militia of the States was required to conform to Regular Army organization within five years. The act also required National Guard units to attend 24 drills and five days annual training a year, and, for the first time, provided for pay for annual training. In return for the increased Federal funding which the act made available, militia units were subject to inspection by Regular Army officers, and had to meet certain standards. A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Charles William Frederick Dick (November 3, 1858 - March 13, 1945) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus (largest metropolitan area is Cleveland) Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 355 km 355 km 8. ...


The increase in Federal funding was an important development. In 1808 Congress had allocated $200,000 a year to arm the militia; by 1887, the figure had risen to only $400,000. But in 1906, three years after the passage of the Dick Act, $2,000,000 was allocated to arm the militia; between 1903 and 1916, the Federal government spent $53,000,000 on the Guard, more than the total of the previous hundred years. 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


With the increase in Federal funding came an increase in paperwork and bureaucracy. Before the passage of the Dick Act, militia affairs had been handled by the various bureaus of the War Department, as the subject dictated. But the 1903 act authorized, for the first time, the creation of a separate section responsible for National Guard affairs. Located in the Miscellaneous Division of the Adjutant General's office, this small section, headed by Major James Parker, Cavalry, with four clerks, was the predecessor of today's National Guard Bureau. Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... An adjutant general is the chief administrative officer to a military general. ... James Parker is the name of a number of a number of notable individuals: James Parker (1757–1805), English printmaker James Parker (1768–1837), United States Congressman James Parker (1776–1868), United States Congressman Sir James Parker (1803–1852), English judge and vice-chancellor James Parker (1854–1934), a Major...


This section remained under the supervision of the Adjutant General's Office until War Department Orders on February 12, 1908 created the Division of Militia Affairs in the Office of the Secretary of War. The act also provided for "necessary clerical and official expense of the Division of Militia Affairs." Lieutenant Colonel Erasmus M. Weaver, Coast Artillery Corps, assumed duties as the division's first Chief. An increasing volume of business meant more personnel, and the four clerks had by this time increased to 15. February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Division remained a part of the Office of the Secretary of War until July 25, 1910 when the Chief was directed to report directly to the Army Chief of Staff. The Division continued to perform under the direct jurisdiction of the Chief of Staff until the passage of the National Defense Act of June 3, 1916. Then the Division of Militia Affairs became the Militia Bureau of the War Department, under the direct supervision of the Secretary of War. July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... -1... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for insuring readiness of the Army. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Division becomes a bureau

The National Defense Act of 1916 is, with the exception of the United States Constitution, the most important piece of legislation in the history of the National Guard. It transformed the militia from individual state forces into a Reserve Component of the U.S. Army - and made the term "National Guard" mandatory. The act stated that all units would have to be federally recognized, and that the qualifications for officers would be set by the War Department. It increased the number of annual training days to 15, increased the number of yearly drills to 48, and authorized pay for drills. Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


The 1916 act transformed the Division of Militia Affairs into a separate Militia Bureau, increasing its autonomy and authority. Eight new civilian positions were authorized, something which the various Chiefs had been requesting for years; the number of military assigned to the Bureau had grown to 13. The National Defense Act also gave Presidential authority to assign two National Guard officers to duty with the Militia Bureau. The inclusion of National Guard officers in the Militia Bureau was an important step towards creating a centralized planning organization for the National Guard headed by its own officers. The first National Guard officer assigned to the Bureau was Major Louis C. Wilson of Texas in 1916. Official language(s) None. ...


On September 11, 1917 War Department General Order 119 stated that the jurisdiction of the Militia Bureau includes "coordination through the office of the Chief of Staff, of the organization, equipment, and instruction of the National Guard under department commanders in a manner similar to the coordination by the Chief of Staff of the organization, equipment, and training of the Regular Army under department commanders." Thus the National Guard Bureau was charged with the responsibility of maintaining high standards in the National Guard. September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Prior to 1910 the Chief of the Militia Bureau was a Regular Army officer. This situation changed on June 4, 1920 when Congress passed an amendment to the National Defense Act of 1916. One of the amendment's conditions stated that effective January 1, 1921, the Chief of the National Guard Bureau would be selected from lists of present or former National Guard officers.-1... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The act reads:

The Chief National Guard Bureau shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, by selection from the lists of officers of the National Guard of the United States recommended as suitable for such appointment by their respective Governors, and who have had ten or more years commissioned service in the National Guard… The Chief of the National Guard Bureau shall hold office for four years unless sooner removed for cause, and shall not be eligible to succeed himself… Upon accepting his office, the CNGB shall be appointed a Major General in the National Guard of the United States, and commissioned in the Army of the United States, and while serving shall have the rank, pay, and allowances of a Major General. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...

It should be noted that the act was later amended so that the Chief could succeed himself.


The first appointee under these provisions was Major General George C. Rickards of Pennsylvania. The amendment also provided for the creation of a General Staff committee of National Guard officers, which could recommend policies affecting the Guard. Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Harrisburg Philadelphia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 255 km 455 km 2. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ...


The Bureau was known as the Militia Bureau until it was designated as the National Guard Bureau by an amendment to Section 81 of the National Defense Act on June 15, 1933. Furthermore, this amendment worked towards settling the issue of the National Guard as a reserve component. It stated that there would be two National Guards: the National Guard of the several States, and the National Guard of the United States. The former would be the individual State militias, employed in local emergencies and national defense. The latter would be a deployable reserve component of the Army. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with United States National Guard. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


National Guard Bureau during World War II

The National Guard began mobilization on September 16, 1940 and a total of 18 National Guard Divisions (plus one more assembled from National Guard units), as well as 29 National Guard Army Air Forces observation squadrons saw action in both the Pacific and European Theatres. The National Guard Bureau also experienced changes during the war years. September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


The first of these changes occurred on March 2, 1942 under War Department Circular number 59. This order reorganized the War Department and Army under the authority of the first War Powers Act. It specifically affected the Bureau by designating it as a part of the Adjutant General's Office. On April 27 of the same year, General Orders No. 9, Headquarters, Service and Supply, established the National Guard Bureau as an "independent administrative service of the Services of Supply," under the jurisdiction of the Chief of Administrative Services. March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ...


The third major order affecting the National Guard Bureau was Army Service Forces (ASF) circular No. 118, which came on November 11, 1943. It stipulated that the Chief of the National Guard Bureau was directed to report to the Commanding General, Army Service Forces. Finally on May 17, 1945, General Order No. 39 stated that the National Guard Bureau was removed from the jurisdiction of the Commanding General Army Service Forces, and established it as a war Department Special Staff activity. ASF can stand for: Advanced Streaming Format Application Server Framework Application Support Facility, an IBM Office Software Suite Apache Software Foundation alt. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


With the entire National Guard on Federal service, the mission and functions of the Bureau were reduced. A large part of the Bureau's wartime work consisted of managing the State Guards which in wartime took over a great deal of the Guard's state mission, and keeping up the personnel records of Federally recognized National Guard officers on active duty.


The number of military office's assigned to the Bureau declined sharply, and the number of the Bureau's civilian personnel went from 140 in 1940 to 49 in 1945. There were practically no promotions awarded to National Guard Bureau civilians, which did not compare favorably with other War Department agencies. This made retaining those few key civilian employees needed in maintaining good relations with the States and working towards planning the post-war reorganization of the National Guard extremely difficult. 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Post-war National Guard Bureau

During the war years, annual leave was restricted for all War Department civilian employees. National Guard Bureau civilian personnel certainly could have been spared, since their workload had been greatly reduced. When the freeze on annual leave was limited in l945 civilian employees were compelled to use their leave or lose it. At the war's end the National Guard Bureau desperately needed full military and civilian staff, for the task of reorganizing the National Guard in the states. However, the number of personnel was not expanded quickly enough to facilitate such activity. The frantic post-war reorganization of the National Guard was coordinated by an under-staffed Guard Bureau.


In addition to the reorganization of the National Guard, the Bureau also had to deal with internal reorganizations. The most important of these was the creation of the Air Force and consequently, the Air National Guard. Under the National Security Act of July 26, 1947, Congress approved the creation of a separate division with in the National Guard Bureau for the Air National Guard, thus transferring the functions, powers, and duties from the Department of the Army and the Secretary of the Army to the Department of the Air Force and the Secretary of the Air Force. July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Shield of the United States Air National Guard The Air National Guard (ANG) is part of the United States National Guard and a reserve component of the United States Air Force (USAF). ...


After World War II the National Guard Bureau and the Army Air Forces jointly prepared a plan for the Air National Guard. Among the for seeable problems were supplies of aircraft, type and distribution of units, training, recruitment of trained personnel, and strength in relation to the Air Force and Air Force Reserve. In 1946 a plan calling for the creation of 12 wings, 27 groups, and 84 fighter and light bombardment squadrons was authorized and tendered to the States. June 30, 1946 saw the federal recognition of the first post-war Air Guard unit, the 120th Fighter Squadron, based at Buckley Field, Denver, Colorado. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ...


Although the projected date of July 1, 1947 for organizing all Air Guard units could not be met due to drastic cuts in federal funding (the Air Guard only received $154 million instead of the requested $536 million during FY 1947-1949), by May 1949 514 units had been organized and federally recognized. In 1949 the Army and Air Force Authorization Act (Public Law 604, 81st Congress) formally established a legal existence which provided that the Air Force of the United States shall consist of, among other components, the Air National Guard of the U.S., composed of federally recognized units and personnel of the several States. This Act established an independent relationship for the Air Guard, separate from the Air Force. It ensured that the Air Guard would remain state controlled. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


To facilitate the dual function of the National Guard Bureau, the Departments of the Army and Air Force, along with the NGB, reorganized the latter agency on October 1, 1948. This reorganization established the NGB as a Bureau of the Department of the Army and an agency of the Department of the Air Force. The reorganization of the NGB included the creation of the Legal Adviser, the Information Office, the Administrative Office, and the Planning Office. It also established the Chief, National Guard Bureau (CNGB) as the head of the two component divisions, the Army Division and the Air Division. It provided for a Major General of the appropriate service, commissioned in the National Guard, to be appointed as Chief of each of the respective Divisions. The Army and Air Force Authorization Act also stipulated that the National Guard Bureau would perform similar functions and duties for the Department of the Air Force as it performed for the Department of the Army and would be a formal channel of communication between the Department of the Air Force and the several States on matters pertaining to the ANG. October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


Army vs. Air feud

The Air Guard viewed this mandate as an attempt to restrict Air Guard authority through the Army-dominated NGB. Further, the active Air Force and the Bureau disagreed on the scope and function of each other's duties in relation to the Air National Guard. On the one hand, the Air Force felt that the Bureau should act only as a channel of communications between the Air Force Chief of Staff and the State military authorities. The Guard Bureau, on the other hand, interpreted its mission in broader and more active policymaking terms, rejecting the purely administrative role envisioned by the active Air Force. The Air Force was angered because it felt the Air Guard was a component of the Air Force and wanted direct control.


By late 1949, the stage had been set for an open confrontation. Maj. Gen. Kenneth F. Cramer, Chief of the National Guard Bureau and an Army Guardsman, relieved the head of the bureau's Air Division, Maj. Gen. George Finch - without consulting the Department of the Air Force. It is reported that a personality conflict existed between the two intensely ambitious men, but the underlying factor in Finch's dismissal was the rift between the Air Force and the National Guard Bureau concerning the control of the ANG. The Air Force believed that Cramer was not sufficiently informed about the Air National Guard and had no right to be supreme authority regarding policies the Air Force established for its state-controlled reserve component.


The situation led to a joint investigation by the inspectors General of the Army and Air Force. Sweeping reforms and changes in the Guard Bureau were recommended by this inquiry team. In separate reports both General Finch and General Cramer were recommended to be relieved from their duties in the NGB. The team also recommended that the Chief, NGB should be directed to comply fully with provisions of any Air Force directive directly relating to staff procedures on matters pertaining to the Air Guard.


The Inspectors General advised the Secretaries of the Army and Air Force to appoint a joint board of officers who would recommend changes in the Bureau's organizational structure and internal operating procedures. The Secretaries appointed a board commonly known as the "Miltonberger Board," named because it was headed by former Chief of the Bureau Maj. Gen. Butler Miltonberger. On March 31, 1950 the Miltonberger Board reported its findings and recommendations to the Secretary of the Army. The report argued against the creation of separate National Guard Bureaus for the Army and Air Force as being unnecessary, but the Bureau's structure and operating procedures must conform to the joint operating policies of both services." March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Miltonberger Board reported that the organizational structure and operating procedure of the NGB were inconsistent with staff principles. In the spring of 1950, changes were implemented to reform the Bureau's organization and operating procedure. In effect, these changes gave more authority to the directors of the Army and Air National Guards, and reduced that of the Chief of the Bureau itself (especially in relation to the Air Guard - although this would be changed when an Air Guardsman became chief of the Bureau). Also, in May 1950, under Special Regulation 10-230-1 the new position of Deputy Chief of the National Guard Bureau was created. The regulation authorized a Major General in the Air National Guard for the position of Deputy Chief. Earl T. Ricks was the first to hold this office.


The two men responsible for the great upheaval in the Bureau's structure eventually left. General Cramer was relieved at his own request to assume duties as commander of the 43rd US Infantry Division upon its induction into Federal Service on September 8, 1950. General Finch was reassigned to the United States Air Force on September 25, 1950. September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


On August 6, 1958 Congress passed a bill for the organization of the Department of Defense. Among this Act's resolutions was an order to make the NGB a Joint Bureau of the Departments of the Army and the Air Force. It stated that the CNGB headed the Joint Bureau and acted as adviser to the Army Chief of Staff and the Air Force Chief of Staff on National Guard matters. This Act was implemented by AR 130-5/AFR 45-2, July 10, 1959. Under these provisions the Army Division was designated "Office of the Assistant Chief, NGB, for Army National Guard", and the Air Division was designated "Office of the Assistant Chief, NGB, for Air National Guard." August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


These offices were designated again in 1970 by a change to AR 130-5/AFR 45-2 which changed the titles of the Assistant Chiefs, NGB, for Army and Air National Guard, to "Director, Army National Guard" and "Director, Air National Guard." These positions remained Major General positions. Additionally, these changes authorized the creation of a Deputy Director for the Army and Air National Guard, each in the grade of Brigadier General. 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...


In 1979, the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, LaVern E. Weber, received a third star as a result of a concurrent elevation of the CNGB position from major general to lieutenant general. Five other Chiefs have since held this rank and office. In 1988, the position of Vice Chief, NGB was created. John B. Conaway, at that time a major general, was nominated and appointed to fill the position. He had previously served as Director of the Air National Guard since 1981. In February 1990, General Conaway assumed the position of Chief, National Guard Bureau and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general. In August 1998, Maj Gen Russell C. Davis, became only the third Air National Guardsman to hold this highest position in the National Guard Bureau. This page refers to the year 1979. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Modern National Guard

From its small beginnings as an office in the Adjutant General's Office, the National Guard Bureau has grown into a major staff and operating agency in the Department of Defense. Its personnel has also substantially increased from one officer and four clerks to a present total of more than 400 officers, enlisted personnel, and civilians.


Today, the mission of the National Guard Bureau is to participate with the Army and Air Force staffs in programs pertaining to the National Guard. The NGB is responsible for administering programs for the development and maintenance of Army and Air National Guard units in the several States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands and Guam. Finally, the National Guard Bureau is a channel of communications between the states and the Departments of the Army and the Air Force.


For more than 80 years the National Guard Bureau has experienced many changes and important historical events, most notably four wars, the post World War II reorganization of the National Guard, and the creation of a separate Air Force. The successful trends set by those who worked for the Bureau in the past will undoubtedly be continued by those presently working in the Bureau to ensure that the National Guard remains a vital component of the Armed Forces of the United States.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Militia Act of 1903 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3097 words)
The Militia Act of 1903, also known as the Dick Act, was the result of a program of reform and reorganization in the military establishment initiated by Secretary of War Elihu Root following the Spanish-American War of 1898 after the war demonstrated weaknesses in the militia, as well as in the entire United States military.
The National Defense Act of 1916 is, with the exception of the United States Constitution, the most important piece of legislation in the history of the National Guard.
The Bureau was known as the Militia Bureau until it was designated as the National Guard Bureau by an amendment to Section 81 of the National Defense Act on June 15, 1933.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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