FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Militia" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Militia
Lebanese Kataeb militia

The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. Legal and historical meanings of Militia include: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Phalange redirects here. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ...

  • Defense activity or service, to protect a community, its territory, property, and laws.
  • The entire able-bodied male (and perhaps female) population of a community, town, county, or state, available to be called to arms.
  • A subset of these who may be legally penalized for failing to respond to a call-up.
  • A subset of these who actually respond to a call-up, regardless of legal obligation.

Contents

For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military rank. ... Army reserves are a part of an army which is normally activated only during emergencies such as a war. ... National Guard may refer to: A military force: Cypriot National Guard United States National Guard National Guard (France), active during the French Revolution Saudi Arabian National Guard A part of the Military of Kuwait Iraqi National Guard A part of the Military of Venezuela Portuguese Republican National Guard National Guard... State Defense Forces (also known as State Guards, State Military Reserves, or State Militias) in the United States are military units that operate under the sole authority of a state government, although they are regulated by the National Guard Bureau of the United States Army. ... This article is about one-party states ruled by Communist Parties. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... A police car of the Armenian militsiya in the capital of Yerevan. ... A recruitment poster for the Milice. ... Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more others. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Etymology

The term "militia" is derived from Latin roots:

  • miles /miːles/ : soldier[2]
  • -itia /iːtia/ : a state, activity, quality or condition of being[3][4]
  • militia /mil:iːtia/: Military service[5]

In English, the word "militia" dates to 1590 when it was recorded in a book by Sir John Smythe, Certain Discourses Military with the meanings: a military force; a body of soldiers and military affairs; a body of military discipline[6]


The original meaning of the Latin word is "military activity", or, since the ancient Romans had the same people fight crime or respond to disasters, "defense activity". In the idiom of English during the 18th century, the same word would often be used for an activity and for those who engage in it, so "militia" could mean either defense activity or those who engage in it, whether as individuals or in concert with others.[7][Quotation from source requested on talk page to verify interpretation of source]


Most of the leading Founding Fathers were Latin-literate, so they would have known the original Latin meaning, and used it when they read or wrote in Latin.[8][9] “Founders” redirects here. ...


Australia

Militia was an alternative name for the Citizens' Military Forces (CMF), the reserve units of the Australian Army between 1901 and 1980. After Australian federation, the six former colonial militias were merged to form the CMF. Initially the CMF infantry forces formed the vast bulk of the Australian Army, along with standing artillery and engineer units. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ... The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia federated on 1 January 1901, to form the Commonwealth of Australia, of which they became component states. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ...


The Defence Act of 1903 granted the Australian federal government the powers to conscript men of military age for home defense. However, these powers were unpopular and were used only for short periods at a time. The government was also forbidden by law from deploying the CMF outside Australian territories, or using it in strikes and other industrial disputes. This article describes the national government of Australia. ...


As a result of the ban on foreign service, during World War I and World War II, all-volunteer Australian Imperial Forces were formed for overseas deployment. CMF units were sometimes scorned by AIF soldiers as "chocolate soldiers" or "chockos", because "they would melt under the pressure" of military operations; or in an alternative version of the story of the origin of this term, as a result of the 1930s' uniforms of Militia soldiers, these soldiers were considered by AIF volunteers and some civilians as soldiers only for show like the soldiers in garish 19th century dress uniforms shown on tins of chocolates that were commonly sold in Australia in the 1930s, hence the name "chocolate-tin soldiers" for Militia members. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Australian Imperial Force (AIF) was the name given to two all-volunteer Australian Army forces dispatched to fight overseas during World War I and World War II. First Australian Imperial Force (1914-18) Second Australian Imperial Force (1939-45) Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, Australia had a...


Nevertheless, some Militia units distinguished themselves in action against the Empire of Japan during the Pacific War, and suffered extremely high casualties. In mid-1942 Militia units fought in two significant battles, both in New Guinea, which was then an Australian territory. The exploits of the young and poorly trained soldiers of the 39th (Militia) Battalion during the rearguard action on the Kokoda Track remain celebrated to this day, as is the contribution of the 7th Brigade at the Battle of Milne Bay. Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Thomas Blamey Sydney Rowell Edmund Herring Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Hisaichi Terauchi Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii â€  Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500... 7th Brigade is a brigade of the Australian Army. ... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Nishizo Tsukahara Shojiro Hayashi Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 3,200 Casualties about 550 dead 1,000 dead New Guinea campaign Battle for Australia Air raids – Darwin – Broome – Coral Sea – Naval attacks – Sydney & Newcastle – Kokoda – Milne...


Later in the war, the law was changed to allow the transfer of Militia units to the 2nd AIF; of these Militia units, 65% of their personnel had volunteered for overseas service. Another change allowed Militia units to serve anywhere south of the Equator in South-East Asia. Consequently they also saw action against Japanese forces in the Dutch East Indies. World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In addition to the CMF, the Volunteer Defence Corps, a volunteer force modeled on the British Home Guard, was formed in 1940 and had a strength of almost 100,000 men across Australia at its peak. The Volunteer Defence Corps was an Australian militia force of World War II modelled on the British Home Guard. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After the war, CMF units continued to form the bulk of the peacetime army, although the creation of standing infantry units — such as the Royal Australian Regiment — from 1947, meant that the regular army grew in importance. By 1980, when the name of the CMF was changed to the Army Reserve, the regular army was the more significant force. Australian Reservists have a comparatively high level of commitment, with an expected obligation of up to 4 nights and 2 full days per month, alongside a two week annual course. Since September of 2006, Reservist Salaries have been streamlined with those of regular forces as a reflection of overall higher standard of training. This initiative shows that since 1975, there are now many positions for which there is little training gap at all between Reservists and Permanent Force members [2] — The Royal Australian Regiment (RAR) is the parent regiment for regular infantry battalions of the Australian Army, making up the majority of the Royal Australian Infantry Corps. ...


Canada

In Canada the title "Militia" historically referred to the land component of the armed forces, both regular (full time) and reserve. In 1940 the Permanent Active Militia and Non-Permanent Active Militia were renamed to become the Canadian Army. The term Militia continued from then to the present day to refer to the part-time army reserve component of the Canadian Forces. Currently, Militia troops usually train one night a week and every other weekend of the month, except in the summer. Summertime training may consist of courses, individual call-outs, or concentrations (unit and formation training of one to two weeks' duration). In addition, Primary Reserve members are increasingly used for voluntary service as augmentation to the regular force overseas—usually NATO or United Nations missions. Most Canadian cities have one or more militia units. Land Force Command (LFC) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. ... The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the unified armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Act, which states: The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces. ... // The CF reserve force comprises the Primary and Supplementary Reserves, the Canadian Rangers and the Cadet Instructor Cadre and is represented, though not commanded, at the national level by the Chief of Reserves and Cadets (a Major General or Rear Admiral). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


China

Main article: Chinese Paramilitary Forces

China's Militia, a mass force engaged in daily production under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CCP), forms part of the Chinese armed forces. Under the command of the military organs, it undertakes such jobs as war preparation services, security and defense operation tasks and assistance in maintaining social order and public security.[10] The Chinese Paramlitary Forces are composed of three main forces, the Peoples Armed Police (PAP), the militia, and the reserve force, and they act as auxiliaries to the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ...


Cuba

Main article: Military of Cuba

Cuba has three militia organizations: The Territorial Militia Troops Milicias de Tropas Territoriales of about one million people (half women)[3], the Youth Labor Army Ejército Juvenil del Trabajo devoted to agricultural production, and a naval militia.[4]. The Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces consist of ground forces, naval forces, air and air defence forces, and other paramilitary bodies including the Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT). ...


France

The first notable militia in French history was the resistance of the Gauls to invasion by the Romans until they were defeated by Julius Caesar.[11] Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The next notable militia was organized and led by Joan of Arc until her capture and execution in 1431. It settled the succession to the French crown and laid the basis for the formation of the modern nation of France.[12] For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ...


During the Franco-Prussian War the Parisian National Guard, which was founded during the time of the American Revolution, engaged the Prussian Army and later rebelled against the Versailles Army under Marshal McMahon.


During World War II under German occupation, militia usually called the French Resistance emerged to conduct a guerrilla war of attrition against German forces and prepare the way for the D-Day Allied Invasion of France.[13] The French Resistance militia were opposed by the Vichy French Milice Francaise - the paramilitary police force of the German puppet state of Vichy.. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ...


Germany

The earliest reports of Germanic militia was the system of hundreds which was described in 98 A.D. by Tacitus as the centeni. It was similar to the Anglo-Saxon fyrd. A hundred is an administrative division, frequently used in Europe and New England, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller geographical units. ... Events Roman emperor Nerva succeeded by Trajan Tacitus finished his Germania (approximate date) Births Deaths January 27: Nerva, Roman emperor Apollonius of Tyana, Greek/Roman philosopher and mathematician (b. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... In Saxon times, defenses were based upon the housecarls, who were the professional soldiers of the king, and the fyrd, a militia of all able-bodied men that was called up from the districts threatened with attack. ...


The name Freikorps (German for "Free Corps") was originally applied to voluntary armies. The first freikorps were recruited by Frederick II of Prussia during the Seven Years' War. The freikorps were regarded as unreliable by regular armies, so that they were mainly used as sentries and for minor duties. The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps) was originally applied to voluntary armies. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and...


However, after 1918, the term was used for nationalist paramilitary organizations that sprang up around Germany as soldiers returned in defeat from World War I. They were one of the many Weimar paramilitary groups active during that time. They received considerable support from Gustav Noske, the German Defence Minister who used them to crush the Spartakist League with enormous violence, including the murders of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg on January 15, 1919. They were also used to put down the Bavarian Soviet Republic in 1919. They were officially "disbanded" in 1920, resulting in the ill-fated Kapp Putsch in March 1920. Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Paramilitary groups were formed throughout the Weimar Republic in the wake of Germanys defeat in World War I and the ensuing German Revolution. ... Noske and Ebert Gustav Noske (July 9, 1868 - November 30, 1946) was a German administrator. ... This article is about the Spartacist League which existed in post-First World War Germany. ... ▶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ... Memorial for the suppression of the Kapp putsch in Wetter station The Kapp Putsch —or more accurately the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch —was an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic, based in opposition to the imposed Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I. It was branded right...


The Einwohnerwehr, active in Germany from 1919 to 1921 as a paramilitary citizens' militia consisting of hundreds of thousands of mostly former servicemen.[14] Formed by the Prussian Ministry of the Interior on April 15, 1919, for the purpose to allow citizens to protect themselves from looters, armed gangs, and revolutionaries. The Einwohnerwehr was under the command of the local Reichswehr regiments and which supplied its guns. In 1921, the Berlin government dissolved the Einwohnerwehr. Many of its members went on to join the Nazi Party.[5]


Iran

The Basij militia , founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 is composed of 90,000 regular soldiers, and 300,000 reservists and ultimately draws from about 11 million members, and is subordinate to their Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Basij (also Bassij or Baseej, Persian: ‎), is an Islamic Republic paramilitary force that was founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 to provide volunteers for human wave attacks in the Iran-Iraq War. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... The Islamic Revolutions Guards (IRG) (Persian: سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی - Sepah-e Pasdaran-e Enghelab-e Islami; literally: Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution), also known as the Revolutions Guards (Pasdaran-e Enghelab پاسداران انقلاب ), or simply the Guards (Pasdaran پاسداران), is the largest branch of the Islamic Republic of Irans military. ...


Iraq

Several armed militia groups are presently active in Iraq. The Mehdi Army is a sectarian armed force created by the Iraqi Shi'a cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June 2003. The Badr armed force based in and around Karbala. The Anbar Salvation Council is a Sunni armed group in Iraq formed by members of baathist and nationalist elements to fight Al-Qaeda in Iraq. The Kurdish militia, the peshmerga, is estimated to number upwards of 50,000. Private militias in Iraq is a phenomenon that has not been common after complete revolutions that terminate a nations constitution. ... The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mehdi Army or Jaish-i-Mahdi, is a militia force created by the Iraqi radical Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ... Muqtada al-Sadr ( Muqtadā aṣ-Ṣadr) is the fourth son of a famous Iraqi Shi‘a cleric, the late Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Peshmerga, peshmarga or peshmerge (Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. ...


Lately, what are being officially called "concerned citizens" are emerging to defend their neighborhoods against insurgents of every kind, functioning as "militia" more like the model of militia in the U.S..[15] The role of militia, also known as civilian military service and duty, in the United States is complex and has transformed over time. ...


Israel

The earliest historical record of militia is found in the Old Testament and particularly the Book of Judges, when the Israelites fought as militia against threatening neighboring tribes. A prominent instance of that was the militia led by Deborah against the Caananites.[16][17] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... For information on the name Deborah, see Debbie For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Bee) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ...


In modern times there is a universal military service requirement for male Israeli citizens that leaves most of them in the reserves of the Israeli Defense Forces, authorized to keep certain military weapons in their homes and workplaces.[18] The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces...


Italy

Ancient Rome required her male citizens to serve as needed for defense, law enforcement, and disaster response, the activity for which they introduced the term "militia". During the Roman Republic period, militia were used to unite Italy under Roman rule, and to fight the Punic Wars against Carthage. The practice of militia was replaced by a standing army largely through the reforms of Gaius Marius. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC. They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ...


In the Medieval and Renaissance period while Italy was divided into contending city-states, militia were important for the survival of such states. Machiavelli wrote in his Discourses on Livy that militia were critical for the survival of a free republic. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Niccolò Machiavelli is primarily known as the author of The Prince. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Italian patriot Garibaldi organized and led various militia, such as i Mille, from about 1848 until Italy was united in 1870, sometimes acting with official sanction and sometimes independently. Garibaldi may refer to: People Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian and French revolutionary, and Anita Garibaldi, his wife; Michael Garibaldi, a fictional character in the television series Babylon 5; Garibaldi, a pop music group; Places Garibaldi, Oregon; Garibaldi, British Columbia; Mount Garibaldi; Garibaldi (city), Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil; Garbaldis... During the Italian Risorgimento, the volunteers that followed Garibaldi in southern Italy were called Redshirts (Camicie rosse) because of the colour of their shirts (complete uniforms were beyond the finances of the italian patriots). ...


Mexico

The Free-Colored Militia, interracial militias of New Spain, Colonial Mexico.[19] map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ...


The Rurales A detachment of Mexican Rurales in field uniform during the Diaz era Rurales (Spanish for Rurals) was the name commonly used to designate the Mexican Guardia Rural (Rural Guard), a force of mounted police or gendarmerie. ...


The Zapatista Army of National Liberation The flag of the EZLN. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ...


New Zealand

Many localized Militia saw service, together with British Imperial troops, during the New Zealand land wars. The Militia were disbanded and reformed as the Territorial Army in 1911. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sri Lanka

With the escalation of the Sri Lankan civil war in which villages were attacked by LTTE rebel militias, local villagers were formed into the Thamil Makkal Viduthalai Pullikal (TMVP) militia associated with breakaway LTTE leader Vinayagamoorthy Muralitharan alias ‘Colonel’ Karuna.[20] This militia was reformed as the home guard and in 2007 renamed as the Sri Lanka Civil Defence Force[citation needed]. Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Department of Civil Defence or the Sri Lanka Civil Defence Force is the former Home Guard Service, is an Sri Lankan paramilitary force which is tasked as an auxiliary to the Sri Lankan Police. ...


Sudan

Janjaweed "militiaman"
Janjaweed "militiaman"

The Janjaweed, Arab armed partisans fighting for the government in Khartoum against mainly non-Arab "rebels", are commonly called "militia". They are active in the Darfur region of western Sudan and also in eastern Chad. According to Human Rights Watch these partisans are responsible for abuses including war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing. [6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 357 × 263 pixelsFull resolution (357 × 263 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Janjaweed ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 357 × 263 pixelsFull resolution (357 × 263 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Janjaweed ... A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ... Look up Partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban Over 1 Million For other uses, see Khartoum (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...



Switzerland

One of the most famous and ancient militias is the Swiss Armed Forces. Switzerland long maintained, proportionally, the second largest military force in the world, with about half the proportional amount of reserve forces of the Israeli Defence Force, a militia of some 33% of the total population. Article 58.1 of the 1999 Swiss constitution provides that the armed forces (armee) is "in principle" organized as a militia, implicitly allowing a small number of professional soldiers. In 1995, the number of soldiers was reduced to 400,000 (including reservists, amounting to some 5.6% of the population) and again in 2004, to 200,000 (including 80,000 reservists, or 2.7% of the population). However, the Swiss Militia continues to consist of most of the adult male population (with voluntary participation by women) required to keep an automatic rifle and ammunition at home and to periodically engage in combat and marksmanship training. [21] A Swiss army exercise near Glarus, Switzerland. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces...


United Kingdom

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Origins

The obligation to serve in the militia in England derives from a common law tradition, and dates back to Anglo-Saxon times. The tradition was that all able-bodied males were liable to be called out to serve in one of two organisations.These were the posse comitatus, an ad hoc assembly called together by a law officer to apprehend lawbreakers, and the fyrd[22], a military body intended to preserve internal order or defend the locality against an invader. The latter developed into the militia, and was usually embodied by a royal warrant.[23] Obviously, service in each organisation involved different levels of preparedness.[24] This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... In common law, posse comitatus (Latin, county force, meaning a sort of local militia) referred to the authority wielded by the county sheriff to conscript any able-bodied male over the age of fifteen to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon; compare hue... In Saxon times, defenses were based upon the housecarls, who were the professional soldiers of the king, and the fyrd, a militia of all able-bodied men that was called up from the districts threatened with attack. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

With the decay of the feudal system and the military revolution of the sixteenth century, the militia began to become an important institution in English life. It was organized on the basis of the shire county, and was one of the responsibilities of the Lord Lieutenant, a royal official (usually a trusted nobleman). Each of the county hundreds was likewise the responsibility of a Deputy Lieutenant, who relayed orders to the justices of the peace or magistrates. Every parish furnished a quota of eligible men, whose names were recorded on muster rolls. Likewise, each household was assessed for the purpose of finding weapons, armour, horses, or their financial equivalent, according to their status. The militia was supposed to be mustered for training purposes from time to time, but this was rarely done. The militia regiments were consequently ill-prepared for an emergency, and could not be relied upon to serve outside their own counties. The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. ... Flag of a Lord-Lieutenant The title Lord-Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom. ... A hundred is an administrative division, frequently used in Europe and New England, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller geographical units. ... The Deputy Lieutenant is the deputy to the Lord Lieutenant of a county. ... A Justice of the Peace (JP) is a magistrate appointed by a commission to keep the peace, dispense summary justice and deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions. ... A magistrate is a civil or criminal (or both) judicial officer with limited authority to administer and enforce the law. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


This state of affairs concerned many people. Consequently, an elite force was created, composed of members of the militia who were prepared to meet regularly for military training and exercise. These were formed into trained band regiments, particularly in the City of London, where the Artillery Garden was used as a training ground. The trained bands performed an important role in the English Civil War on the side of parliament, in marching to raise the siege of Gloucester (5 September 1643). Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... Trainbands, were companies of militia in England or The Americas, first organized in the 16th century and dissolved in the 18th. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Gloucester in England; for other uses see Gloucester (disambiguation). ...


Except for the London trained bands, both sides in the Civil War made little use of the militia, preferring to recruit their armies by other means.


Political issues

Up until the Glorious Revolution in 1688, the Crown and Parliament were in strong disagreement. The English Civil War left a rather unusual military legacy. Both Whigs and Tories distrusted the creation of a large standing army not under civilian control. The former feared that it would be used as an instrument of royal tyranny. The latter had memories of the New Model Army and the anti-monarchical social and political revolution that it brought about. Consequently, both preferred a small standing army under civilian control for defensive deterrence and to prosecute foreign wars, a large navy as the first line of national defence, and a militia composed of their neighbours as additional defence and to preserve domestic order. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British Whig party. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... For the band, see New Model Army (band). ...


Consequently, the English Bill of Rights (1689) declared, amongst other things: "that the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law..." and "that the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law." This implies that they are fitted to serve in the militia, which was intended to serve as a counterweight to the standing army and preserve civil liberties against the use of the army by a tyrannical monarch or government. The Bill of Rights 1689 is an English Act of Parliament with the long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown and known colloquially in the UK as the Bill of Rights. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The Crown still (in the British constitution) controls the use of the army. This ensures that officers and enlisted men swear an oath to a politically neutral head of state, and not to a politician. While the funding of the standing army subsists on annual financial votes by parliament, the Mutiny Act is also renewed on an annual basis by parliament[citation needed]. If it lapses, the legal basis for enforcing discipline disappears, and soldiers lose their legal indemnity for acts committed under orders[citation needed]. Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) is legally obliged to obey. ...


With the creation of the British Empire, militias were also raised in the colonies, where little support could be provided by regular forces. Overseas militias were first raised in Jamestown, Virginia, and in Bermuda, where the Bermuda Militia followed a similar trajectory over the next two centuries to that in Britain. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Bermuda Militias 1612-1815 Bermuda was settled inadvertently, in 1609, by the Virginia Company. ...


Eighteenth century and Napoleonic Wars

The Militia Act of 1757 created a more professional force. Better records were kept, and the men were selected by ballot to serve for longer periods. Proper uniforms and better weapons were provided, and the force was 'embodied' from time to time for training sessions.


The militia was widely embodied at various times during the French and Napoleonic Wars. It served at several vulnerable locations, and was particularly stationed on the South Coast and in Ireland. A number of camps were held at Brighton, where the militia regiments were reviewed by the Prince Regent. (This is the origin of the song 'Brighton Camp'.)The militia could not be compelled to serve overseas, but it was seen as a training reserve for the army, as bounties were offered to men who opted to 'exchange' from the militia to the regular army. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... Prince Regent (or Prince Regnant, as a direct borrowing from French language) is a prince who rules a country instead of a sovereign, e. ... Look up bounty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ...


Irish Militia

The Parliament of Ireland passed an act in 1715 raising regiments of militia in each county and county corporate. Membership was restricted to Protestants between the ages of 16 and 60. In 1793, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Irish militia were reorganized to form thirty-seven county and city regiments. While officers of the reorganized force were Protestant, membership of the other ranks was now made available to members of all denominations. This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... A county corporate or corporate county was a form of local government in England and Wales. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...


Scottish Militia

In the late Seventeenth Century came calls for the resurrection of militia in Scotland that had the understated aim of protecting the rights of Scots from English oppression.[25] (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The 1757 Militia Act did not apply in Scotland. The old traditional system continued, so that militia regiments only existed in some places. This was resented by some and the Militia Club, soon to become the Poker Club, was formed to promote the raising of a Scottish militia. This and several other Edinburgh clubs became the crucible of the Scottish Enlightenment. The Militia Act of 1797 empowered Scottish Lord Lieutenants to raise and command militia regiments in each of the "Counties, Stewartries, Cities, and Places" under their jurisdiction. The Poker Club was one of several clubs at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment where many associated with that movement met and exchanged views in a convivial atmosphere. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ...


Nineteenth century

Although muster rolls were prepared as late as 1820, the element of compulsion was abandoned, and the militia was transformed into a volunteer force. It was intended to be seen as an alternative to the army. Men would volunteer and undertake basic training for several months at an army depot. Thereafter, they would return to civilian life, but report for regular periods of military training (usually on the weapons ranges) and an annual two week training camp. In return, they would receive military pay and a financial retainer, a useful addition to their civilian wage. Of course, many saw the annual camp as the equivalent of a paid holiday. The militia thus appealed to agricultural labourers, colliers and the like, men in casual occupations, who could leave their civilian job and pick it up again.


Until 1861 the militia were an entirely infantry force, but in that year a number of county regiments were converted to artillery. In 1877 the militia of Anglesey and Monmouthshire were converted to engineers. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... Monmouthshire is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales, covering south-east Wales. ...


Under the reforms introduced by Secretary of State for War Hugh Childers in 1881, the remaining militia infantry regiments were redesignated as numbered battalions of regiments of the line, ranking after the two regular battalions. Typically, an English, Welsh or Scottish regiment would have two militia battalions (the 3rd and 4th) and Irish regiments three (numbered 3rd - 5th). The Childers Reforms were undertaken by Secretary of State for War Hugh Childers in 1881. ... The secretary of war in cabinet position was Henry Knox. ... Caricature from Punch, 1882 Hugh Culling Eardley Childers (June 25, 1827 - January 29, 1896) was a British and Australian Liberal statesman of the nineteenth century. ...


The militia must not be confused with the volunteer units created in a wave of enthusiasm in the second half of the nineteenth century. In contrast with the Volunteer Force, and the similar Yeomanry Cavalry, they were considered rather plebeian. The Volunteer Force was a citizen army of part-time rifle, artillery and engineer corps, created as a popular movement in 1859. ... In the 1790s, the threat of invasion of England was high, with the French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. ...


The Special Reserve

The militia was transformed into the Special Reserve by the military reforms of Haldane in the reforming post 1906 Liberal government. In 1908 the militia infantry battalions were redesignated as "reserve" and a number were amalgamated or disbanded. Numbered Territorial Force battalions, ranking after the Special Reserve, were formed from the volunteer units at the same time. Altogether, 101 infantry battalions, 33 artillery regiments and two engineer regiments of special reservists were formed.[26] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 (7 Edw. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 – December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... In the United Kingdom the Territorial Army is a part of the British Army composed of reserve units, or part-time soldiers. ...


Upon mobilisation, the special reserve units would be formed at the depot and continue training while guarding vulnerable points in Britain. The special reserve units remained in Britain throughout the First World War, but their rank and file did not, since the object of the special reserve was to supply drafts of replacements for the overseas units of the regiment. The original militiamen soon disappeared, and the battalions became training units pure and simple. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


The Special Reserve reverted to its militia designation in 1921, then to Supplementary Reserve in 1924, though the units were effectively placed in "suspended animation" until disbanded in 1953.


The Militiamen

The name was briefly revived in 1939, in the aftermath of the Munich Crisis. Leslie Hore-Belisha, the then Minister of War, wished to introduce a limited form of conscription, an unheard of thing in peacetime. It was thought that calling the conscripts 'militiamen' would make this more acceptable, as it would render them distinct from the rest of the army. Only single men of a certain age group were conscripted (they were given a free suit of civilian clothes as well as a uniform), and after serving for about a year, would be discharged into the reserve. Although the first intake were called up, the war broke out soon after, and the militiamen lost their identity in the rapidly expanding army. The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ... Isaac Leslie Hore-Belisha, 1st Baron Hore-Belisha (September 7, 1893 - February 16, 1957) was a British Member of Parliament and Cabinet minister who is remembered for his innovations in road transport and for being an alleged victim of anti-semitism. ...


Modern survivals

Three units still maintain their militia designation in the British Army, two in the Territorial Army and one in the Army Cadet Force. These are the Royal Monmouthshire Royal Engineers (formed in 1539), the Jersey Field Squadron (The Royal Militia Island of Jersey) (formed in 1337), and the Royal Alderney Militia (created in the 13th century and reformed in 1984). Additionally, the Atholl Highlanders are a (ceremonial) private army maintained by the Duke of Atholl — they are the only legal private "army" in the United Kingdom. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Territorial Army (TA) is the principal reserve force of the British Army, the land armed forces of the United Kingdom, and composed mostly of part-time soldiers paid at the same rate, while engaged on military activities, as their Regular equivalents. ... The Army Cadet Force (ACF) is a British youth organisation that offers progressive training in a multitude of the subjects from military training to adventurous training and first aid, at the same time as promoting achievement, discipline, and good citizenship, to boys and girls aged 12 to 18 years and... The Royal Monmouthshire Royal Engineers (Militia) (R MON RE(M)) is the most senior regiment in the British Territorial Army, having given continuous loyal service to the crown since 1539. ... The Atholl Highlanders is a Scottish regiment. ... The title Duke of Atholl, named after Atholl in Scotland, was created several times in British history. ...


USA

There is a long history of militia in the United States, starting during the colonial era, with the colonial militias drawn from the body of adult male citizens of a community, town, or local region. Colonial militia served a vital role in the French and Indian Wars and to a lesser extent the United States Revolutionary War. Militia service shifted from colonial control to state control with the creation of the United States in 1776. Regulation of the militia was codified by the Second Continental Congress with the Articles of Confederation, in conjunction with the creation of a regular army. With the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and Article 1 Section 8 of the United States Constitution, control of the army and the power to direct the militia of the states was concurrently delegated to the federal Congress.[27] The Militia Clauses gave Congress authority for "organizing, arming, and disciplining" the militia, and "governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States", with the States retaining authority to appoint officers and to impose the training specified by Congress. The role of militia, also known as civilian military service and duty, in the United States is complex and has transformed over time. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... Constitutional convention may refer to: Constitutional convention (political meeting), a meeting of delegates to adopt a new constitution or revise an existing constitution Philadelphia Convention, of 1787, resulted in the United States Constitution Missouri Constitutional Convention (1861-63), Missouris provisional government during American Civil War Constitutional Convention (Australia), four... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Militia clause refers to the provision in Article I, Section 8, Clause 15, that provide Congress with the power to summon a militia. ...


Proponents describe a key element in the concept of "militia" was that to be "genuine" it not be a "select militia", composed of an unrepresentative subset of the population. This was an argument presented in the ratification debates.[28] The United States Constitution was written in 1787, adopted in 1788, and took effect in 1789, replacing the Articles of Confederation. ...


To ensure that the militia could not be disarmed, a right of the people to keep and bear arms was recognized in the Second Amendment.[29] The Second Amendment may refer to the: Second Amendment to the United States Constitution - part of the Bill of Rights. ...


The first legislation on the subject was The Militia Act of 1792 which provided, in part: // Authority Second Congress, Session I. Chapter XXVIII Passed May 2, 1792 providing for the authority of the President to call out the Militia Sec. ...

That each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the respective States, resident therein, who is or shall be of age of eighteen years, and under the age of forty-five years (except as is herein after excepted) shall severally and respectively be enrolled in the militia, ... every citizen, so enrolled and notified, shall, within six months thereafter, provide himself with a good musket or firelock....

During the nineteenth century, each of the states maintained its militia differently, some more than others. Also, prior to the Civil War, militia units were sometimes used in southern states for slave control. During Reconstruction after the Civil War, the Republican Party aligned militia units composed almost entirely of freed slaves were deployed to maintain order in the former Confederate states, which caused resentment among Southern Whites.[30] Also, during this century, when the militia was called up to fight the War of 1812, the Civil War, and the Spanish American war, the militia units were found to be unprepared, ill supplied and at first unwilling.[31][32] [33] For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


The Militia Act of 1903 divided what had been the militia into what it termed the "organized" militia, created from portions of the former state guards to become state National Guard units, and the "unorganized" militia comprised of all males from ages 17 to 45, with the exception of certain officials and others, which is codified in 10 USC 311. Some states, such as Texas and California, created separate State Defense Forces for assistance in local emergencies. Congress later established[34] a system of "dual enlistment" for the National Guard, so that anyone who enlisted in the National Guard also enlisted in the U.S. Army.[35][opinion needs balancing]Privately organized citizen militia-related groups blossomed in the mid 1990s, which collectively became known as the constitutional militia movement. The supporters have not been affiliated with any government organization, although most of them have been military and law enforcement veterans.[Quotation from source requested on talk page to verify interpretation of source] They support a restoration of the militia system as envisioned by the Founding Fathers, and enforcement of a strict construction of the U.S. Constitution, especially the Second Amendment, according to their understanding of it. They assert that the right to keep and bear arms is not just a right, but that the people have a duty to be armed as deterrence against crime and governmental tyranny. These Militia units train in the proper and safe use of firearms, so that they may be effective if called upon by the sheriff of their county, governor of their state, or the president of the United States, to uphold liberty, protect the people in times of crisis (i.e. disasters such as Hurricane Katrina), or to defend against invasion and terrorism.[Quotation from source requested on talk page to verify interpretation of source] U.S. Constitution, Art. I Sec. 8 Cl. 15 & 16.[36] The Militia Act of 1903, also known as the Dick Act, was the result of a program of reform and reorganization in the military establishment initiated by Secretary of War Elihu Root following the Spanish-American War of 1898 after the war demonstrated weaknesses in the militia, as well as... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... State Defense Forces (also known as State Guards, State Military Reserves, or State Militias) in the United States are military units that operate under the sole authority of a state government, although they are regulated by the National Guard Bureau of the United States Army. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... POV, as opposed to NPOV, in an article means that it is affected by an editors point of view. ... The term constitutional militia movement has been used to refer to privately organized citizen groups that support establishment or restoration of a militia system for their nation or part therefo; enforcement of a strict construction of the constitution of the nation or political subdivision thereof, according to their understanding of... Former crewmembers of the battleship Missouri pose for photos shortly after the Anniversary of the End of World War II ceremony, held aboard the famous ship. ... “Founders” redirects here. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares a well regulated militia as being necessary to the security of a free State, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people... The right to bear arms refers to the right that individuals have to weapons. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... The Militia clause refers to the provision in Article I, Section 8, Clause 15, that provide Congress with the power to summon a militia. ...


In its original sense, militia meant "the state, quality, condition, or activity of being a fighter or warrior." It can be thought of as "combatant activity", "the fighter frame of mind", "the militant mode", "the soldierly status", or "the warrior way".[37]


In this latter usage, a militia is a body of private persons who respond to an emergency threat to public safety, usually one that requires an armed response, but which can also include ordinary law enforcement or disaster responses. The act of bringing to bear arms contextually changes the status of the person, from peaceful citizen, to warrior citizen. The militia is the sum total of persons undergoing this change of state.[38]


Persons have been said to engage in militia in response to a "call up" by any person aware of the threat requiring the response, and thence to be in "called up" status until the emergency is past.[39] There is no minimum size to militia, and a solitary act of defense, including self-defense, can be thought of as one person calling up himself to defend the community, represented by himself or others, and to enforce the law.[Quotation from source requested on talk page to verify interpretation of source][40] See citizen's arrest and hue and cry. A citizens arrest is an arrest performed by a person who is a civilian, as opposed to a sworn law enforcement officer. ... At common law, a hue and cry (Latin, hutesium et clamor) was a process by which bypassers were summoned to assist in the apprehension of a criminal who had been witnessed in the act of committing a felony. ...


In colonial era Anglo-American usage, Militia service has been distinguished from military service in that the latter is normally a commitment for a fixed period of time, probably at least a year, for a salary, whereas militia was only to meet a threat, or prepare to meet a threat, for periods of time expected to be short. Militia persons were normally expected to provide their own weapons, equipment, or supplies, although they may later be compensated for losses or expenditures.[41] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


A related concept is the jury, which can be regarded as a specialized form of militia convened to render a verdict in a court proceeding (trial jury) or to investigate a public matter and render a presentment or indictment (grand jury).[42] For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ... For the 1980s television show, see Trial by Jury (TV). ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ...


SFR Yugoslavia

Main article: Territorial Defense Forces (Yugoslavia)

Beside the federal Yugoslav People's Army, each constituent republic of the former SFR Yugoslavia had its own Territorial Defense Forces. The Non-Aligned Yugoslavia was concerned about an eventual aggression from any of the superpowers, esspecially by the Warsaw Pact after the Prague Spring, so the Territorial Defense Forces were formed as an integral part of the total war military doctrine called Total National Defense. Those forces corresponded to military reserve forces, paramilitary or militia, the latter, in the military meaning of the term (like military formation). It should not be confused with the Yugoslav Militia- Milicija which was a term for a police. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Logo of the Territorial Defense Forces Territorial Defense Forces (Serbo-Croat: Teritorijalna odbrana, Croato-Serbian: Teritorijalna obrana, Slovenian: Teritorialna obramba, Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, abbreviation: TO) were part of the armed forces of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which roughly corresponded to a military reserve force, an official governmental paramilitary or... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Logo of the Territorial Defense Forces Territorial Defense Forces (Serbo-Croat: Teritorijalna odbrana, Croato-Serbian: Teritorijalna obrana, Slovenian: Teritorialna obramba, Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, abbreviation: TO) were part of the armed forces of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which roughly corresponded to a military reserve force, an official governmental paramilitary or... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... A superpower is a state with the ability to influence events or project power on a wide scale. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... A military reserve force is a military organization composed of part-time military personnel, and sometimes civilians, who are available to fight when a nation mobilizes for total war or to defend against invasion. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... A police car of the Armenian militsiya in the capital of Yerevan. ...


Private militia organizations

In the absence of initiative from officials, private citizens often engage in activities and form organizations to fill a perceived unmet need. Some of these are: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  • Private militia groups organized into county units with the county sheriff serving as county militia commander, if he is willing, or election of a commander by those who attend musters if not. Most private militia groups are armed or espouse the use of arms.
  • Some (mostly U.S.) groups espouse political protest and peaceful means of bringing about political change, and take up arms only for traditional or ideological reasons, as a protest against oppression or restrictions on such activities, or as deterrence or a warning to officials to refrain from oppressive actions.
  • Advocates of resurrecting a traditional militia system in which all able-bodied persons will be required to be organized, trained, and equipped to meet various threats.
  • Shooting clubs, which seek to encourage the safe and effective use of firearms for defense and hunting.
  • Scouting, originally conceived as a way to impart military skills and discipline to young people.
  • Historical reenactors, who encourage the development of military skills by reenacting historical armed conflicts.
  • Parade and drill clubs, which train their members in parade and drill skills, and perform at public events. Related to marching bands.
  • Disaster response groups, such as the Red Cross and ham radio groups, and volunteer fire departments.
  • Neighborhood watch, police auxiliary, and sheriff's posse groups.
  • Survival groups, who try to prepare people to survive in various situations.
  • Military schools, which combine academic education of the young with the instilling of military skills and discipline.
  • Veterans groups, who seek to maintain the legacy of their service.
  • Security guard and bail enforcement organizations.
  • Private investigators, especially when they investigate criminal activity.
  • Protective groups formed to protect investigative journalists, whistleblowers, and others who seek to expose wrongdoing.

Deterrence ALOHA!! is a means of controlling a persons behavior through negative motivational influences, namely fear of punishment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is a type of roleplay in which participants attempt to recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ... It has been suggested that Drill (military) be merged into this article or section. ... A Pershing Rifleman practicing an exhibition drill routine in Fort Monroe, VA. A drill team that is affiliated with the military will sometimes perform exhibition drill. ... An American college marching band on the field (Kansas State University) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching and other movements  â€“ with their musical performance. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Amateur radio, commonly called ham radio, is a hobby enjoyed by many people throughout the world (as of 2004 about 3 million worldwide, 70,000 in Germany, 5,000 in Norway, 57,000 in Canada, and 700,000 in the USA). ... A Series of Unfortunate Events by Lemony Snicket, see V.F.D.. See also the Firefighter article and its respective sections regarding VFDs in other countries. ... This article is about the local crime prevention organization. ... A CISCO Security auxiliary police officer stands guard beside an armoured truck while his colleagues deliver high-valued goods to and from commercial clients at Raffles Place, Singapore. ... In common law, posse comitatus (Latin, county force, meaning a sort of local militia) referred to the authority wielded by the county sheriff to conscript any able-bodied male over the age of fifteen to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon; compare hue... A survivalist is a person who anticipates a potential disruption in the continuity of local, regional or worldwide society, and takes steps to survive in the resulting unpredictable situation. ... There are three types of military academies: High school level institutions (up to age 19), university level institutions, and those only serving to prepare officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of a state ( such as RMA Sandhurst ). United States usage The term Military School primarily refers to (middle... Former crewmembers of the battleship Missouri pose for photos shortly after the Anniversary of the End of World War II ceremony, held aboard the famous ship. ... A security officer guards a construction site in the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Bounty hunter (disambiguation). ... A private investigator, or PI, is a person who undertakes investigations. ...

Insurrectionist and separatist groups

The term "militia" is sometimes used, usually by their opponents, to refer to armed groups who generally consider themselves to be freedom fighters. Such groups espouse various causes: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ...

  • National liberation, especially in regions under foreign occupation,
  • Separation, especially from a country dominated by ethnic or sectarian majorities.
  • Anarchism and the overthrow of what they consider oppression by the rich and powerful. An example would be the Red Brigades.
  • Insurrection, resistance to what is perceived as oppression with the aim of reform, but without hope that such reform can be achieved through peaceful means.
  • Ascension to power by an ethnic or sectarian minority that seeks to capture control of the country from the majority.
  • Subversion by a foreign power, such as groups whose funding and armament in the 20th century came almost entirely from the Soviet Union, Maoist China (1949-1976) and other Marxist-Leninist states.
  • Land reform insurrections of landless peasants seeking to take land away from large landowners. Examples include guerrilla activity in Latin America, Africa, and South Asia.

Application of the term militia to such groups is controversial, as what may seem like defensive activity to some may seem like offensive activity to others. Wars of national liberation were those conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in an attempt to remove that powers influence. ... “Separatists” redirects here. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse in Italian, often abbreviated as the BR) were a terrorist group[1] located in Italy and active during the Years of Lead. Formed in 1970, the Marxist-Leninist Red Brigades sought to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... For the version control system, see Subversion (software). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... -1... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


List of militias

Governmental militias

See also: A recruitment poster for the Milice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Rogers Rangers was an independent company of rangers attached to the British Army during the French and Indian War. ... The Virginia Militia is a semi-official organization of the state of Virginia which is a private citizens force under the control of the state governor for the purposes of state disasters and emergencies. ... A Swiss army exercise near Glarus, Switzerland. ... State Defense Forces (also known as State Guards, State Military Reserves, or State Militias) in the United States are military units that operate under the sole authority of a state government, although they are regulated by the National Guard Bureau of the United States Army. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... Motto:[1] Equal To The Task Governor Rick Perry, Commander in Chief Gen. ... The New Hampshire Militia was first organized in March 1680, by New Hampshire Colonial President John Cutt. ... The Ohio Military Reserve (OHMR) supplements the military forces of the Ohio Army and Air National Guard in times of natural disaster and state and national emergencies. ... Ohio Naval Militia Seal The Ohio Naval Militia (ONM) is an organized, unarmed, all-volunteer unit that has been serving the State of Ohio and the nation since 1896. ...


Militia Movement

The Michigan Militia was a loosely organized paramilitary organization founded by Norman Olson of Alanson, Michigan, USA. The organization formed around 1994 in response to perceived encroachments by the Federal Government on the rights of citizens during the early Clinton Administration. ... Ranch Rescue is a volunteer organization that assists ranchers and owners of property near the United States-Mexico border in the protection of their property. ... The Minuteman Project Civil Defense Corps was started in April 2005 by a group of American citizens to deter illegal crossings of the United States–Mexico border. ...

See also

The role of militia, also known as civilian military service and duty, in the United States is complex and has transformed over time. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... A member of a Russian special purpose police team (OMSN), equipped with a 9A91 submachine gun. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is a type of roleplay in which participants attempt to recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000
  2. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, p. 505, Oxford U. Pr., 1997.
  3. ^ Noun Formation, Class Notes in Latin, U. Idaho
  4. ^ John B. Van Sickle, Roots of Style: A Guide to Latin & Greek Elements in English, Brooklyn College, City University of New York.
  5. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, p. 505, Oxford U. Pr., 1997.
  6. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, March 2002. Oxford University Press.
  7. ^ Baker, J.H., “The Three Languages of the Common Law,” in The Common Law Tradition: Lawyers, Books and the Law (2000) (KD671.B35 2000).
  8. ^ The Classical Education of the Founding Fathers, by Martin Cothran, Classical Teacher, Spring 2007
  9. ^ Education of the Founding Fathers of the Republic: Scholasticism in the Colonial Colleges, by James J. Walsh; Fordham University Press, 1935. Chapter One: The Education of the Fathers
  10. ^ The Components of the Armed Forces, PRC's official website
  11. ^ Gilliver, Kate. Caesar's Gallic Wars 58-50 BC. London: Osprey Publishing, 2002. ISBN 0-415-96858-5
  12. ^ Joan of Arc: Her Story, by Régine Pernoud (Author), Marie-Véronique Clin (Author), Jeremy duQuesnay Adams (Translator), Palgrave Macmillan (1999), ISBN 0312227302
  13. ^ David Schoenbrun, Soldiers of the Night, The Story of the French Resistance, New American Library, 1980. ISBN 0-452-00612-0
  14. ^ Campbell, Bruce: The Sa Generals and the Rise of Nazism, Page 99. University Press of Kentucky, 1998. ISBN 0813190983
  15. ^ Concerned citizens detain insurgents, press release of Operation iraqi Freedom, 11 october 2007.
  16. ^ Daniel J. Elazar, The Book of Judges: The Israelite Tribal Federation and Its Discontents, Jeruselem center of Public Affairs
  17. ^ E.A. Speiser, "The City" and the "Gates of the City" in Oriental and Biblical Studies: Collected Writings of E.A. Speiser, edited with an introduction by J.J. Finkelstein and Moshe Greenberg (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1967).
  18. ^ Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2
  19. ^ Vinson, Ben III. Bearing Arms for His Majesty: The Free-Colored Militia in Colonial Mexico. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-4229-4
  20. ^ Sri Lanka Assessment 2007. The Institute for Conflict Management, New Dehli.[1]
  21. ^ The Swiss Report: A special study for Western Goals Foundation, Gen. Lewis W. Walt and Maj. Gen. George S. Patton. (1983)
  22. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. Second Edition 1989
  23. ^ The History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I, Pollock and Maitland, Cambridge U. Pr. (1898)
  24. ^ Century Dictionary (1891) articles on posse comitatus and miltia.
  25. ^ A Discourse of Government with Relation to Militias, Andrew Fletcher (1698) ISBN 0521439949
  26. ^ Units of the Militia to be transferred to the Special Reserve, published as schedule to order in council made April 9, 1908, The London Gazette, April 10, 1908
  27. ^ Wills, Garry (1999). A Necessary Evil, A History of American Distrust of Government. New York, NY; Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684844893
  28. ^ Right to Keep and Bear Arms, U. S. Senate. Paladin Press (2001). ISBN 1581602545
  29. ^ Brookhiser, Richard [2006] (2007). What Would the Founders Do?, Paperback edition, New York, NY: Basic Books, 39. ISBN 978-0-465-00820-9. 
  30. ^ Catton, Bruce (2004). The Civil War, Pages 28-29. Mariner Books. ISBN 0618001875
  31. ^ Wills, Garry (1999). A Necessary Evil, A History of American Distrust of Government New York, NY; Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684844893
  32. ^ The Spanish American War, by Russell Alexander Alger, Harper & Bros. (1901).
  33. ^ Sumner, William H.: An Inquiry Into the Importance of the Militia to a Free Commonwealth, Page 23. Cummings and Hillard, 1823. ASIN B00085OK9E. Reprinted in Richard H. Kohn, Anglo-American Antimilitary Tracts, 1697-1830, Arno Press (1979) ISBN 0405118864.
  34. ^ National Defense Act Amendments of 1933, Act of June 15, 1933, ch. 87, 48 Stat. 153.
  35. ^ The Citizen Soldier under Federal and State Law, by James Biser Whisker, West Virginia Law Review 94 (1992): 947.
  36. ^ Jonathan Karl, The Right to Bear Arms: The Rise of America's New Militias, HarperCollins, New York (1995) ISBN 0061010154
  37. ^ Beckett, Ian, The Amateur Military Tradition, 1558-1945 (Manchester, 1991).
  38. ^ Joyce Lee Malcolm, The Right of the People to Keep and Bear Arms: The Common Law Tradition, Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, Vol. 10:285-314, 1983
  39. ^ Joyce Lee Malcolm, The Role of the Militia in the Development of the Englishman's Right to be Armed — Clarifying the Legacy, Royal Historical Society and Humanities Press, 1996
  40. ^ Cases & Comments on Criminal Procedure, Fred E. Inbau and James R. Thompson, Foundation Press, Mineola, NY (1982)
  41. ^ Stephen P. Halbrook, The Right of the People or the Power of the State Bearing Arms, Arming Militias, and the Second Amendment, Valparaiso Law Review, vol. 26, number 1, page 131 (1991).
  42. ^ William E. Nelson, The Eighteenth-Century Background of John Marshall's Constitutional Jurisprudence, 76 Mich. L. Rev. 893 (1978), ch. 23, 23. The Jury and Consensus Government in Mid-Eighteenth-Century America

David Schoenbrun (born in New York City, New York March 15, 1915-died in New York City, New York May 23, 1988) was an American broadcast journalist. ... The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia was one of the largest and most highly regarded dictionaries of the English language. ... Garry Wills (born May 22, 1934 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an author and historian, and a frequent contributor to the New York Review of Books. ... Paladin Press Publishers of the Action Library, is a book publishing firm founded in 1970 by Peder Lund and Robert K. Brown. ... Garry Wills (born May 22, 1934 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an author and historian, and a frequent contributor to the New York Review of Books. ... Willaim Hyslop Sumner William Hyslop Sumner was born on July 4 1780 in Roxbury Massachusetts. ...

References

  • The Rise and Decline of the American Militia System, by James B. Whisker, Susquehanna University Press (1999) ISBN 094563692X

External links

  • United States Militia Association

Category:State Defense Forces of the United States Rebel Militia Groups


  Results from FactBites:
 
Militia Of Montana (485 words)
We, at the Militia of Montana, are dedicated to ensuring that all Americans are educated to make an informed decision as to which direction America should go.
The Militia of Montana has been, and continues to be, a national focal point for assistiing Americans in forming their own grass roots organization dedicated to American's sovereignty and status as an independent nation among the nations of the world.
Learn the laws that govern the militia and how the militia has been used in the past to keep tyranny at bay.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m