FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Military use of children
A Chinese Nationalist soldier, age 10, member of a Chinese division boarding planes in Myitkyina (Burma) bound for China, May 1944.
A Chinese Nationalist soldier, age 10, member of a Chinese division boarding planes in Myitkyina (Burma) bound for China, May 1944.
German prisoners of war in the streets of Berlin, May 1945.
German prisoners of war in the streets of Berlin, May 1945.
Child during the American Civil War, used as a drummer boy
Child during the American Civil War, used as a drummer boy[1]

The military use of children takes three distinct forms: children can take direct part in hostilities (child soldiers), or they can be used in support roles such as porters, spies, messengers, look outs, and sexual slaves; or they can be used for political advantage either as human shields or in propaganda. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 494 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2472 × 3000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 494 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2472 × 3000 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Download high resolution version (471x681, 51 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (471x681, 51 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... Human shield is a military and political term describing the presence of civilians in or around combat targets to deter an enemy from attacking those targets. ...


Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been extensively involved in military campaigns even when such practices were supposedly against cultural morals. Since the 1970s a number of international conventions have come into effect that try to limit the participation of children in armed conflicts, nevertheless the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers reports that the use of children in military forces, and the active participation of children in armed conflicts is widespread. The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers was formed in June 1998 to advocate for the adoption of, and adherence to, national, regional and international legal standards (including an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child) prohibiting the military recruitment and use in hostilities...

Contents

International law

International human rights law

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, Art. 38, (1989) proclaimed: "State parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age of 15 years do not take a direct part in hostilities." The Optional protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict to the Convention that came into force in 2002 stipulates that its State Parties "shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons below the age of 18 do not take a direct part in hostilities and that they are not compulsorily recruited into their armed forces".[2] The Optional Protocol further obligates states to "take all feasible measures to prevent such recruitment and use, including the adoption of legal measures necessary to prohibit and criminalize such practices." (Art 4, Optional Protocol)[3] Likewise under the Optional Protocol states are required to demobilize children within their jurisdiction who have been recruited or used in hostilities, and to provide assistance for their physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration. (Art 6(3) Optional Protocol)[4] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Convention on the Rights of the Child Opened for signature 20 November 1989 in - Entered into force September 2, 1990 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications or accessions (Article 49) Parties 193 (only 2 non-parties: USA and Somalia) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child... The Optional protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict is a protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child adopted by General Assembly of the United Nations on 25 May 2000 (resolution A/RES/54/263). ...


Under Article 8.2.26 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), adopted in July 1998 and entered into force 1 July 2002, "Conscripting or enlisting children under the age of fifteen years into the national armed forces or using them to participate actively in hostilities" is a war crime.[5] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International Criminal Court (ICC). ... Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, crime of aggression, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


On July 26, 2005, the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed UN Security Council Resolution 1612, the sixth in a series of resolutions about children and armed conflict.[6] Resolution 1612 established the first comprehensive monitoring and reporting system for enforcing compliance among those groups using child soldiers in armed conflict.[7] is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN Security Council Resolution 1612, which implements a monitoring and reporting mechanism regarding the use of child soldiers, was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 26 July 2005. ...


International humanitarian law

According to Article 77.2 of the Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, adopted in 1977: Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible measures in order that children who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities and, in particular, they shall refrain from recruiting them into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, the Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest.

As the ICRC commentary on Protocol I makes clear, this is not a complete ban on the use of children in conflict. The ICRC had suggested that the Parties to the conflict should "take all necessary measures", which became in the final text, "take all feasible measures" which is not a total prohibition on their doing so because feasible should be understood as meaning "capable of being done, accomplished or carried out, possible or practicable". Refraining from recruiting children under fifteen does not exclude child who volunteer for armed service. During the negotiations over the clause "take a part in hostilities" the word "direct" was added to it, this opens up the possibility that child volunteers could be involved indirectly in hostilities, gathering and transmitting military information, helping in the transportation of arms and munitions, provision of supplies etc.[8]


Article 4.3.c of Protocol II, additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts, adopted in 1977, states "children who have not attained the age of fifteen years shall neither be recruited in the armed forces or groups nor allowed to take part in hostilities". Protocol II: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


International labour law

Forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict, is one of the predefined worst forms of child labour in terms of the International Labour Organisation's Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999, adopted in 1999. The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182. ... For other meanings of the ILO abbreviation, see ILO (disambiguation). ... The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182. ...


In terms of the Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation ratifying countries should ensure that forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict is a criminal offence, and also provide for other criminal, civil or administrative remedies to ensure the effective enforcement of such national legislation (Article III(12) to (14)). The Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Recommendation No 190. ...


Movement to stop military use of children

Red Hand Day on 12 February is an annual commemoration day to draw public attention to the practice of using children as soldiers in wars and armed conflicts. The Red Hand Day on February 12 is an annual commemoration day created to draw attention to the fate of children who are forced to serve as soldiers in wars and armed conflicts. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Recently, a strong international movement has emerged to put an end to the practice. See, for example, Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers was formed in June 1998 to advocate for the adoption of, and adherence to, national, regional and international legal standards (including an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child) prohibiting the military recruitment and use in hostilities...


After the war, bringing children or former child soldiers into civil society is difficult, as they have received little education, are accustomed to the use of violence, and often the children have lost ties to their families.[dubious ]


Child soldiers in the world today

"Child Soldier in the Ivory Coast", Gilbert G. Groud, 2007, mixed materials: tusche and wax crayon
"Child Soldier in the Ivory Coast", Gilbert G. Groud, 2007, mixed materials: tusche and wax crayon

According to the website of Human Rights Watch as of July 2007: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 1329 pixel, file size: 179 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Côte dIvoire Military use... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 1329 pixel, file size: 179 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Côte dIvoire Military use... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... October 2006 in Switzerland Gilbert G. Groud (* ~1956 in Toulepleu, Côte dIvoire) is a painter, illustrator and author from Côte dIvoire. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

In over twenty countries around the world, children are direct participants in war. Denied a childhood and often subjected to horrific violence, an estimated 200,000 to 300,000 children are serving as soldiers for both rebel groups and government forces in current armed conflicts.[9]

Under the terms of Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, children over the age of fifteen who have volunteered can be used as spotters, observers, message-carriers. (see above International humanitarian law) Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ...


In cases where children have taken part in combat, recruiting parties have taken active measures to counter their reluctance, such as forcing child recruits to commit brutalities and to take drugs like marijuana, amphetamines and "brown-brown" that inhibit guilt and fear. Propaganda, revenge and fear of being left alone influence children to "voluntarily" stay in the army. Children have been both participants in and victims of atrocities. [citation needed] An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Cannabis, known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form,[3] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Brown-brown is a form of powdered cocaine, cut with gunpowder. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ...


Africa

The Capetown Principles and Best Practices, adopted by the NGO Working Group on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and UNICEF at a symposium on the prevention of recruitment of children into the armed forces and on demobilization and social regeneration of child soldiers in Africa in April 1997, proposed that African Governments should adopt and ratify the Optional protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict raising the minimum age from 15 to 18, and that African Governments should ratify and implement other pertinent treaties and incorporate them into national law. The symposium define a child soldier as any person under age 18 who is "part of any kind of regular or irregular armed force or group in any capacity, including but not limited to cooks, porters, messengers and those accompanying such groups, other than purely as family members. The definition includes girls recruited for sexual purposes and for forced marriage. It does not, therefore, only refer to a child who is carrying or has carried arms."[10] NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Optional protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict is a protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child adopted by General Assembly of the United Nations on 25 May 2000 (resolution A/RES/54/263). ...


As of 2007, Africa has the largest number of child soldiers with up to 100,000 believed to be involved in hostilities. [citation needed] Child soldiers are currently being used in armed conflict in: Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

  • Burundi – Hundreds of child soldiers serve in the Forces Nationales pour la Libération (FNL), an armed rebel Hutu group. 16-year olds are also conscripted by the Burundese military.
  • Central African Republic – Hundreds of children serve in armed rebel groups, including the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (Union des Forces Démocratiques pour le Rassemblement, UFDR).
  • Cote d'Ivoire – Children serve in armed militia groups linked to the government, including the Alliance patriotique de l’ethnie Wé (APWé) and the Union patriotique de résistance du Grand Ouest (UPRGO). The ex-rebel groups now allied into the New Forces (Forces Nouvelles de Côte d'Ivoire, FAFN) also had child soldiers.
  • Rwanda – Child soldiers have been used by Rwandan government forces and paramilitaries, as well as government-backed forces operating within the Democratic Republic of Congo. Some child recruitment is still reported in refugee camps.
  • Somalia – Nearly all factional militias in Somalia use child soldiers, with an estimated 200,000 children involved over a 16 year period. In late 2006, Islamic Courts Union used large numbers of child soldiers to fight against Ethiopian and Somalian forces, reportedly resulting in the death of "countless" teenage fighters.
  • Uganda – Over the past twenty years, the rebel Lord's Resistance Army has abducted more than 30,000 boys and girls as soldiers. Girls are often forced to be sex slaves. The government has recruited small numbers of children into its forces as young as 13, including Local Defense Units.
  • Zimbabwe - The ZANU-PF government of Robert Mugabe sponsors a "youth militia" -- the National Youth Service, known as the "Green Bombers". The children are armed, provided with narcotics, and used for acts of urban violence against political dissidents. They are believed responsible for some of the worst acts of political violence in recent history.[13]

See interactive Map of Child Soldiers The Party for the Liberation of the Hutu People (also known as PALIPEHUTU, the acronym of its french name Parti pour la liberation du peuple hutu) is a rebel group in Burundi which fought in the Burundi Civil War for the Hutu ethnic group. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Military of Burundi Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie Military manpower - military age: 16 years of age Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,344,177 (2000 est. ... Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (French: UFDR) is the rebel group fighting against the government in the Central African Republic Civil War. ... Under President Hissein Habre, members of Gourane, Zaghawa, Kanembou, Hadjerai, and Massa ethnic groups dominated the military of Chad. ... The United Front for Democratic Change (officially abbreviated as F.U.C.) is a Chadian rebel alliance, made up of eight individual rebel groups, all with the goals of overthrowing the government of current Chadian President. ... The Justice and Equality Movement is a rebel group involved in the Darfur conflict. ... The Forces Nouvelles de Côte dIvoire (New Forces: FNCI or FN) is a political coalition was formed in December 2002, in the wake of the first peace accords of the Ivorian Civil War. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Motto: none Anthem: none Capital formerly Mogadishu and Kismayu Largest city n/a Official languages Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy or independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized... The Sudan Peoples Armed Forces is a 60,000-member army supported by a small air force and navy. ... SPLA/M emblem Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) is a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the main opposition group in Sudan. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ... The Sudan Liberation Army or SLA is a band of armed insurgents based in southern Sudan. ... Combatants Uganda Peoples Defence Force Lords Resistance Army Commanders Yoweri Museveni Joseph Kony The Lords Resistance Army (LRA),[1] formed in 1987, is a rebel guerrilla army operating mainly in northern Uganda and parts of Sudan. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU... Mugabe redirects here. ... Zimbabwes National Youth Service, commonly known as Green Bombers or youth brigades, is a youth militia trained by the government. ...


Asia

In 2004 the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers reported that in Asia thousands of children are involved in fighting forces in active conflict and ceasefire situations in Afghanistan, Burma, India, Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Nepal and Sri Lanka, although government refusal of access to conflict zones has made it impossible to document the numbers involved.[14] In 2004 Burma was unique in the region, as the only country where government armed forces forcibly recruit and use children between the ages of 12 and 16.[14]

  • Burma - As many as 70,000 boys serve in Burma's national army, with children as young as 12 forcibly recruited off the streets. Approximately 5,000-7,000 children serve with a range of different armed ethnic opposition groups.[15]
  • Laos - Males are subject to compulsory military service from the age of 15. Child soldiers were also used by the Pathet Lao during the civil war.
  • Nepal - An estimated 6,000-9,000 children serve in the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) forces. Although a peace agreement is in place, the Maoists have not yet demobilized children from their ranks.[16]
  • The Philippines - Children are recruited by rebel forces, including the New People's Army, Abu Sayyaf Group, and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). An estimated 13 percent of the 10,000 soldiers in the MILF are children. Child recruitment is also reported by some paramilitary forces linked to the government.[17]

In Sri Lanka, thousands of children are believed to be in the ranks of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),[18] a rebel group banned as a terrorist organization by a number of countries including the United States, Canada, India and the European Union. Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “MILF” redirects here. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ... The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), commonly known as the Tamil Tigers, is a militant Tamil nationalist organization that has wage a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan government since the 1970s in order to create a separate Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka...


Since signing a ceasefire agreement in 2001, the latest available UNICEF figures show that the LTTE has abducted 5,666 children until July 2006, although the organization speculates that only about a third of such cases are reported to them. Sri Lankan soldiers nicknamed one unit the Baby Battalion, due to the number of children in it.[7] In response to widespread international condemnation of alleged children recruitment practices, the LTTE informed that they have made (taking effect in Oct. 2006) child recruitment illegal for its groups.[18] UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


More recently, the para-military group known as the Karuna Group, which is apparently a splinter group from the LTTE, has been held responsible for the abduction of children according to UNICEF and Human Rights Watch.[19] A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal or in English Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers, a political party and Para-military group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


Europe

A boy in Chechnya. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
A boy in Chechnya. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
  • Chechnya - According to the UN report, the Chechen separatist forces included a large number of children, some as young as 11 (including females), during the First Chechen War: "Child soldiers in Chechnya were reportedly assigned the same tasks as adult combatants, and served on the front lines soon after joining the armed forces."[8] In 2004 the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers reported that in Chechnya, under-18s are believed to be involved in a range of armed groups in the war against Russia, although the numbers are impossible to establish given a virtual ban on media and human rights organizations from operating in the region. Some children allegedly took part in suicide bombings.[20]
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina - Both sexes can voluntarily join the armed forces from the age of 17. Teenage soldiers fought in the Bosnian War in the early 1990s, partially due to a former law that dropped the conscription age to 16 in times of war.
  • Serbia - Both sexes are subject to compulsory military service from the age of 17. In times of war, the compulsory military service age can be dropped to 16 for both sexes. Teenage soldiers and paramilitary fighters fought in the wars during the breakup of Yugoslavia.
  • United Kingdom - The minimum age to join the British Army is 16 and a half; parental permission is required for those under the age of 18. Approximately forty percent of Britain's military forces joined when they were 16 or 17 years of age.[21] The UK adopted the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, on the involvement of children in armed conflict on 24 June 2003. The Convention calls on ratifying governments to do everything feasible to ensure that members of their armed forces who are under 18 years of age do not take part in hostilities, however between June 2003 and July 2005, the British government inadvertently sent fifteen 17-year-old soldiers (four of them girls) to Iraq, explaining the mistake as due to "the pressures on units prior to deployment".[22]

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x655, 111 KB) Photo by Евстафьев Михаил / Evstafiev Mikhail Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x655, 111 KB) Photo by Евстафьев Михаил / Evstafiev Mikhail Source: http://www. ... The sky over the city where we were happy by Mikhail Evstafiev, oil on canvas, 2006 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Evstafiev (Russian: Михаил Александрович Евстафьев; born in 1963), is a Russian artist, photographer, writer. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Official language Chechen Capital Grozny (Dzhokharabad, after 1996) President Doku Umarov Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Russia  â€“ November 1, 1991  â€“ Georgian Republic National anthem Death or Freedom The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria IPA: (Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь) is the unrecognized secessionist government of Chechnya. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Optional protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict is a protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child adopted by General Assembly of the United Nations on 25 May 2000 (resolution A/RES/54/263). ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Commonwealth countries

For other uses, see Commonwealth (disambiguation). ...

North America

  • Canada - In Canada, people may join the reserve component of the Canadian Forces at age 16 with parental permission, and the regular component at 17 years of age. They may not volunteer for a tour of duty until reaching age 18.[23]
  • United States - In the United States 17-year-olds may join the armed forces, but may not be deployed in combat situations. The United States military is based on voluntary recruitment, though minors also must have parental permission to enlist (or permission from a legal guardian in the absence of parents). Males under eighteen years of age are not draft eligible, and females are not eligible for conscription at any age. The United States military requires all soldiers to possess a high school diploma or equivalent; this requirement may be waived for young soldiers for up to 180 days from the date of enlistment and during wartime. In spirit, these policies ensure soldier maturity similarly to laws that would explicitly ban the use of minors in combat.

The United States has recently come under fire for the detention and trial of child soldiers and non-combatant minors captured during military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Omar Khadr, a 15 year old Canadian citizen, arrested in Afghanistan in 2002, and held at Guantanamo for the past five years was to have been one of the first detainees to be charged before a military commission. Human Rights Watch charges that, "the US government incarcerated him with adults, reportedly subjected him to abusive interrogations, failed to provide him any educational opportunities, and denied him any direct contact with his family."[24] In 2004, three Afghan children were released from Guantanamo, believed to be between the ages of 13 and 15 at the time of their capture, to rehabilitation programs operated by UNICEF in Afghanistan. The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... The United States has disputed the number of minors detained in the global war on terror. ... Omar Ahmed Khadr born September 19, 1986 in Ottawa, is a Canadian who was captured by American forces in Afghanistan when he was 15 years of age. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


Latin America

  • Bolivia - The government of Bolivia has acknowledged that children as young as 14 may have been forcibly conscripted into the armed forces during recruitment sweeps.[25] About 40% of the Bolivian army is believed to be under the age of 18, with half of those below the age of 16.[26]
  • Colombia - Between 11,000 and 14,000 children are estimated to be involved with left-wing guerrilla groups and right-wing paramilitaries in Colombia. According to Human Rights Watch, "Approximately 80 percent of child combatants in Colombia belong to one of the two left-wing guerrilla groups, the FARC or ELN. The remainder fights in paramilitary ranks."[27]
  • Cuba - Members from both sexes are conscripted at age 17 to serve two years in the armed forces (mainly the paramilitary Youth Labor Army).
  • Haiti - In Haiti an unknown number of children participate in various loosely-organized armed groups that are engaged in political violence.[28]

Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia–Peoples Army, in Spanish Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia–Ejército del Pueblo, also known by the acronym of FARC or FARC-EP is a communist revolutionary and armed guerrilla organization in Colombia. ... Ejército de Liberación Nacional (usually abbreviated to ELN), or National Liberation Army, is a revolutionary, Marxist, insurgent guerrilla group that has been operating in several regions of Colombia since 1964. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ...

Iraq

The Iraqi insurgency comprises diverse groups of armed resistance to the US occupation of Iraq. ... Combatants Islamic State of Iraq (includes Al-Qaeda in Iraq and Jeish al-Taiifa al-Mansoura) Ansar al-Sunna other Sunni and nationalist insurgent groups Elements among the Iraqi Shiite militias (Mahdi Army, Badr Corps) and Iraqi Security Forces (Mahdi Army and Badr Corps have also been fighting each other...

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Main article: Child suicide bombers in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Child soldiers are also being used by Palestinians in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. According to the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers 2004 Global Report on the Use of Child Soldiers, there were at least nine documented suicide attacks involving Palestinian minors between October 2000 and March 2004:[29] "There was no evidence of systematic recruitment of children by Palestinian armed groups. However, children are used as messengers and couriers, and in some cases as fighters and suicide bombers in attacks on Israeli soldiers and civilians. All the main political groups involve children in this way, including Fatah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine."[30] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, who both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land... The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers was formed in June 1998 to advocate for the adoption of, and adherence to, national, regional and international legal standards (including an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child) prohibiting the military recruitment and use in hostilities... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ... Islamic Jihad (Arabic: ‎, Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami) is a terrorist Islamist group based in the Syrian capital, Damascus. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Arab journalist Huda Al-Hussein wrote in London Arab newspaper on October 27, 2000: "While UN organizations save child-soldiers, especially in Africa, from the control of militia leaders who hurl them into the furnace of gang-fighting, some Palestinian leaders… consciously issue orders with the purpose of ending their childhood, even if it means their last breath."[31] On May 23, 2005, Amnesty International reiterated its calls to Palestinian armed groups to put an immediate end to the use of children in armed activities: "Palestinian armed groups must not use children under any circumstances to carry out armed attacks or to transport weapons or other material."[32] is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ...


History

Mexico honors its heroic cadets who died in the battle of Chapultepec (1847).
Mexico honors its heroic cadets who died in the battle of Chapultepec (1847).
Illustrative bas-relief of Greek warrior accompanied by his charioteer. From the pediment of a kouros statue, ca. 490 BC.

Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been extensively involved in military campaigns even when such practices were supposedly against cultural morals. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x3072, 1256 KB) Statue devoted to one of the niño heroes along a walkway at the top of el Castillo de Chapultepec. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x3072, 1256 KB) Statue devoted to one of the niño heroes along a walkway at the top of el Castillo de Chapultepec. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The great kouros of Samos, the largest surviving kouros in Greece (Samos Archaeological Museum) A kouros (plural kouroi) is a statue of a male youth, dating from the Archaic Period of Greek sculpture (about 650 BC to about 500 BC). ...


The earliest mentions of minors being involved in wars come from antiquity. It was customary for youths in the Mediterranean basin to serve as aides, charioteers and armor bearers to adult warriors. Examples of this practice can be found in the Bible (such as David's service to King Saul), in Hittite and Egyptian art, and in Greek mythology (such as the story of Hercules and Hylas), philosophy and literature. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... Two Argonauts before a hunt. ...


Also in a practice dating back to antiquity, children were routinely taken on campaign, together with the rest of a military man's family, as part of the baggage. This exposed them to harm from rearguard attacks, such as the one at the battle of Agincourt, where the retainers and children of the English army were massacred by the French. Luggage is any number of bags, cases and containers which hold a travellers articles during transit. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ...


The Romans also made use of youths in war, though it was understood that it was unwise and cruel to use children in war, and Plutarch implies that regulations required youths to be at least sixteen years of age. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


In medieval Europe, young boys from about twelve years of age were used as military aides ("squires"), though in theory their role in actual combat was limited. The so-called Children's Crusade in 1212 recruited thousands of children as untrained soldiers under the assumption that divine power would enable them to conquer the enemy, although none of the children actually entered combat; according to the legend, they were instead sold into slavery. While most scholars no longer believe that the Children's Crusade consisted solely, or even mostly, of children, it nonetheless exemplifies an era in which the entire family took part in a war effort. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... In medieval times a squire was a man-at-arms to a knight. ... The Childrens Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a French and/or German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity, bands of children marching to Italy, and children... Slave redirects here. ...


Young boys often took part in battles during early modern warfare. One of their more visible roles was as the ubiquitous "drummer boy" – the film Waterloo (based on the Battle of Waterloo) graphically depicts French drummer boys leading Napoleon's initial attack, only to be gunned down by Allied soldiers. During the age of sail, young boys formed part of the crew of British Royal Navy ships and were responsible for many important tasks including bringing powder and shot from the ship's magazine to the gun crews. These children were called "powder monkeys". During the Siege of Mafeking in the Second Boer War, Robert Baden-Powell recruited and trained 12-15 year old boys as scouts, thus freeing up the limited number of men for the actual fighting. The boys' success led indirectly to Baden-Powell founding the Boy Scouts, a youth organisation originally run along military lines. At the outbreak of the First World War, boys as young as 13 were caught up in the overwhelming tide of patriotism and in huge numbers cheerfully enlisted for active service others to avoid the harsh and dreary lives they had working in British industry. Many were to serve in the bloodiest battles of the war, such as ex-miner Dick Trafford who took part in the Battle of Loos, and Frank Lindley who, seeking to avenge his dead brother, went over the top on the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Both were just sixteen. Typically many were able to pass themselves off as older men, such as George Thomas Paget, who at 17 joined a Bantam battalion in the Welsh Regiment. George died of wounds in captivity just five weeks after landing in France. George Mahers who served briefly in France when he was just thirteen years and nine months old. He was sent back to England along with five other under-age boys. Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... A drummer is a musician who plays the drums, particularly the drum kit, marching percussion, or hand drums. ... Waterloo was a film of 1970, directed by Sergei Bondarchuk. ... Combatants First French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of the United Netherlands Kingdom of Hanover Duchy of Nassau Duchy of Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Prince William of Orange Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian... The age of sail is the period in which international trade and naval warfare were both dominated by sailing ships. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Magazine is the name for a item or place within which ammunition is stored. ... Combatants United Kingdom Boers Commanders Robert Baden-Powell Colonel B T Mahon General Piet Cronje Strength 2,000 8,000 Casualties 212 dead 600 wounded Unknown but significantly higher than British The Siege of Mafeking was the most famous British action in the Second Boer War. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB (February 22, 1857 - January 8, 1941) was a soldier, writer and founder of the world scouting movement. ... This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ... The grave of George Paget in the Communal Cemetery, Billy-Montigny Pas de Calais France --> George Thomas Paget was born in 1899 in South Wales, the second son of George and Rose Paget of 5 Duck Row, Bryn Margam. ... Bantam may mean: American Bantam, a series of compact cars produced between 1937 and 1941 Bantam (chicken), a small (or miniaturized) domestic fowl Bantam (military), British Army jargon (First World War) for men below the minimum height for enlistment X-4 Bantam, a US test aircraft Bantam (city), a city...


By a law signed by Nicholas I of Russia in 1827, a disproportionate number of Jewish boys, known as the cantonists, were forced into military training establishments to serve in the army. The 25-year conscription term officially commenced at the age of 18, but boys as young as eight were routinely taken to fulfill the hard quota. Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... // Cantonists in Prussia Cantonists (German: Kantonist, or a person living in a canton) were recruits in Prussia in 1733-1813, liable for draft in one of the cantons. ...


World War II

Young child soldier in service of the Soviet Navy during World War II.
Young child soldier in service of the Soviet Navy during World War II.
Polish Szare Szeregi fighters during the Warsaw Uprising, 1944.
Polish Szare Szeregi fighters during the Warsaw Uprising, 1944.

In World War II, children frequently fought in insurrections. During the Holocaust, Jews of all ages, including teenagers such as Shalom Yoran, participated in the Jewish resistance simply in order to survive. Many members of the youth movement Hashomer Hatzair fought in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943. Many other anti-fascist resistance movements across Nazi-occupied Europe consisted partially of children (for example, Szare Szeregi in Poland). A number of child soldiers served in the Soviet Union's armed forces during the war.[33] In some cases, orphans also unofficially joined the Soviet Union's Red Army. Such children were affectionately known as "son of the regiment" (Russian: сын полка) and sometimes willingly performed military missions such as reconnaissance. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (522 × 800 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Source: http://media. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (522 × 800 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Source: http://media. ... The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... Young boy and girl scouts fighting in the Warsaw Uprising Author unknown, from the archives of Archives of Audiovisual Documentation (Archiwum Dokumentacji Audiowizualnej), Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Young boy and girl scouts fighting in the Warsaw Uprising Author unknown, from the archives of Archives of Audiovisual Documentation (Archiwum Dokumentacji Audiowizualnej), Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Szare Szeregi (Polish for Grey Ranks) was a codename for the underground Polish Scouting Association (ZwiÄ…zek Harcerstwa Polskiego) during World War II. The organisation was created on September 27, 1939, in Warsaw and largely contributed to all resistance actions of the Polish Secret State and its members were among... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Shalom Yoran (born June 29, 1925) is a survivor of the Holocaust and a former Jewish partisan. ... The Jewish resistance during the Holocaust was the resistance of the Jewish people against Nazi Germany leading up to and through World War II. Due to the careful organization and overwhelming military might of the Nazi German State and its supporters, many Jews were unable to resist the killings. ... The Semel Tnua, the official logo of Hashomer Hatzair. ... Combatants Nazi Germany (Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht) Collaborators (Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police) Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (AK, GL) Commanders Franz Bürkl Odilo Globocnik Ludwig Hahn Friedrich Krüger Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechaj Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Icchak Cukierman... Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Szare Szeregi (Polish for Grey Ranks) was a codename for the underground Polish Scouting Association (ZwiÄ…zek Harcerstwa Polskiego) during World War II. The organisation was created on September 27, 1939, in Warsaw and largely contributed to all resistance actions of the Polish Secret State and its members were among... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


On the opposite side, Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) was an organization in Nazi Germany that trained youth physically and indoctrinated them with Nazi ideology to the point of fanaticism. By the end of World War II, members of the Hitler Youth were taken into the army at increasingly younger ages. During the Battle of Berlin in 1945 they were a major part of the German defenses. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2,500...


In some cases, youth organizations were, and still are, militarized in order to instill discipline in their ranks, sometimes to indoctrinate them with propaganda and prepare for subsequent military service. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ...


Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos

12 year old ARVN soldier with M-79 grenade launcher, Tan Son Nhut, 1968 (Vietnam War).
12 year old ARVN soldier with M-79 grenade launcher, Tan Son Nhut, 1968 (Vietnam War).
Main article: Indochina Wars

During the Indochina Wars, child soldiers were used by all local sides of the conflict. Both the government forces and the insurgent armies employed even small children, including in the direct combat roles. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 489 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1589 × 1946 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 489 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1589 × 1946 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... The M79 is a 40 x 46 mm grenade launcher that first appeared during the Vietnam war. ... Hồ Chí Minh International Airport (also called Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport) is Vietnams largest international airport. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Indochina Wars refers to wars of national liberation that erupted in the wake of World War II, fought in Southeast Asia from 1947 until 1979, between nationalist Vietnamese against French, American, and Chinese forces. ...


In the most notorious case, the Khmer Rouge communist group exploited thousands of desensitized conscripted children to commit mass murders and other inhuman acts during the Cambodian genocide. The brainwashed child soldiers were taught to follow any order without hesitation.[9] Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ...


Sierra Leone

Thousands of children were recruited and used by all sides during Sierra Leone’s conflict (1993-2002), including the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), and the pro-government Civil Defense Forces (CDF). Children were often forcibly recruited, given drugs and used to commit atrocities. Thousands of girls were also recruited as soldiers and often subjected to sexual exploitation. Many of the children were survivors of village attacks, while others were found abandoned. They were used for patrol purposes, attacking villages, and guarding workers in the diamond fields. In his book A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Child Soldier, Ishmael Beah chronicles his life during the conflict in Sierra Leone. The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was a rebel army that fought a failed ten-year insurrection in Sierra Leone, starting in 1991 and ending in 2002. ... The Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) was the former military of Sierra Leone that merged into the rebel Revolutionary United Front in the late 1990s. ... CDF Political Symbol The Civil Defense Forces or CDF were a paramilitary organization who fought in the Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002). ... Cover of Beahs book, A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier Ishmael Beah (b. ...


In June 2007, the Special Court for Sierra Leone found three accused men from the rebel Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) guilty of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other serious violations of international humanitarian law, including the recruitment of children under the age of 15 years into the armed forces. With this, the Special Court became the first-ever UN backed tribunal to deliver a guilty verdict for the military conscription of children.[34]


Iran-Iraq War

During the later stages of the Iran-Iraq War, both sides were accused of using teenaged children to fill out the ranks of soldiers depleted by years of warfare. Large numbers of children age 10 and up fought alongside adults in the ranks of the Iranian Basij militia. Combatants  Iran Kurdish Peshmerga Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters... Basij (also Bassij or Baseej, Persian: ‎), is an Islamic Republic paramilitary force that was founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 to provide volunteers for human wave attacks in the Iran-Iraq War. ...


See also

Invisible Children Inc. ... Lwów Eaglets; Defenders of the Cemetery, painting by Wojciech Kossak, 1926, oil on canvas, 90 x 120 cm, Polish Military Museum, Warsaw Battle of Zadwórze, a 1929 painting by Stanisław Kaczor-Batowski 1929(Polish Military Museum) Lwów Eaglets (Polish: ) is a term of affection applied to... Trafficking in the context of trafficking of human beings is a term to define the recruiting, harbouring, obtaining and transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or... The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182. ... Blood Diamond is an Academy Award-nominated 2006 adventure/drama/thriller film. ... Enders Game (1985) is the best-known novel by Orson Scott Card. ...

References

  1. ^ Staff. Child soldiers in the U.S. Civil War, encyclopedia.com
  2. ^ Adoption by the UN General Assembly of a new treaty prohibiting the use of children under age eighteen in combat Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, New York, May 25, 2000
  3. ^ UNICEF: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child
  4. ^ UNICEF: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child
  5. ^ Wikisource:Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court#Article 8 - War crimes
  6. ^ Children and Armed Conflict: International Law/United Nations by the Center for Defence Information
  7. ^ Children and Armed Conflict: UN enters “era of application” in its campaign against child soldiers, Center for Defence Information October 12, 2005
  8. ^ ICRC Commentary on Protocol I: Article 77 website of the ICRC ¶ 3183-3191 also ¶ 3171
  9. ^ Staff. Campaign Page: Child Soldiers, Human Rights Watch.
  10. ^ [1] UNICEF, Cape Town Principles and Best Practices, April 1997, p. 8
  11. ^ [2] "They Came Here to Kill Us" Human Rights Watch, January 2007
  12. ^ [3] "Early To War" Human Rights Watch, July 2007
  13. ^ United States Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs. Zimbabwe Public Announcement (July 12, 2007) (html). Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  14. ^ a b Child Soldiers Global Report 2004PDF Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers pp. 18,159-161
  15. ^ [4] "My Gun Was As Tall As Me", Human Rights Watch, 2002.
  16. ^ [5] "Nepal: Maoists Should Release Child Soldiers Now", Human Rights Watch, May 2007.
  17. ^ [6] Human Rights Watch Interactive Map of Child Soldiers
  18. ^ a b Bureau Report LTTE rebels make child recruitment illegal: Report, Zee News October 27, 2006
  19. ^ UNICEF condemns abduction and recruitment of Sri Lankan children by the Karuna group, UNICEF 22 June 2006
  20. ^ Child Soldiers Global Report 2004PDF Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers p. 217
  21. ^ Human Rights Watch: Promises Broken
  22. ^ Under-18s were deployed to Iraq, BBC
  23. ^ Basic Eligibility Requirements. Canadian Forces. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  24. ^ US: Move Khadr and Hamdan Cases to Federal Court. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  25. ^ Global March Against Child Labour: Bolivia 2001
  26. ^ Global March Against Child Labour: Bolivia 2001
  27. ^ Colombia: Armed Groups Send Children to War Human Rights News a website of Human Rights Watch February 22, 2005
  28. ^ Human Rights Watch: Child Soldier Map
  29. ^ Child Soldiers Global Report 2004PDF Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers p. 292
  30. ^ Child Soldiers Global Report 2004PDF Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers p. 304 cites in footnote 18 that this Information is from Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group (PHRMG), March 2004.
  31. ^ Arab Journalist Decries Palestinian Child-Soldiers translated by MEMRI. Special Dispatch 147, November 1, 2000.
  32. ^ Israel/Occupied Territories: Palestinian armed groups must not use children 23 May 2005
  33. ^ Beevor, Anthony; Kinnunen, Matti (2003). Stalingrad (in Finnish). Helsinki: WSOY. 
  34. ^ "Guilty Verdicts in the Trial of the AFRC Accused"PDF (104 KiB), press release from the Special Court for Sierra Leone, 20 June 2007; "Sierra Leone Convicts 3 of War Crimes", Associated Press, 20 June 2007 (hosted by The Washington Post); "First S Leone war crimes verdicts", BBC News, 20 June 2007

The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers was formed in June 1998 to advocate for the adoption of, and adherence to, national, regional and international legal standards (including an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child) prohibiting the military recruitment and use in hostilities... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Center for Defense Information is an organization dedicated to strengthening security through various methods. ... The Center for Defense Information is an organization dedicated to strengthening security through various methods. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is historically a committee of Swiss nationals, although non-Swiss nationals have recently been allowed (the committee appoints new members to itself to replace those who resign or die) which leads the international Red Cross movement (often simply known after its symbol... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers was formed in June 1998 to advocate for the adoption of, and adherence to, national, regional and international legal standards (including an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child) prohibiting the military recruitment and use in hostilities... Zee News is an Indian Hindi News Channel run by Zee Network. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers was formed in June 1998 to advocate for the adoption of, and adherence to, national, regional and international legal standards (including an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child) prohibiting the military recruitment and use in hostilities... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Logo Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers was formed in June 1998 to advocate for the adoption of, and adherence to, national, regional and international legal standards (including an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child) prohibiting the military recruitment and use in hostilities... “PDF” redirects here. ... The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers was formed in June 1998 to advocate for the adoption of, and adherence to, national, regional and international legal standards (including an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child) prohibiting the military recruitment and use in hostilities... The Middle East Media Research Institute (German name identical, Hebrew name המכון לחקר התקשורת המזרח התיכון, abbreviated ממרי), or MEMRI for short, is a organization... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Further reading

April 20, 1945. On his 56th birthday, Hitler awards Iron Cross to Hitler Youth outside his bunker during the Battle of Berlin.
April 20, 1945. On his 56th birthday, Hitler awards Iron Cross to Hitler Youth outside his bunker during the Battle of Berlin.
Statue of Mały Powstaniec (The Little Insurgent) in Warsaw. Honour guard of Polish Boy Scouts.
Statue of Mały Powstaniec (The Little Insurgent) in Warsaw. Honour guard of Polish Boy Scouts.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Military use of children: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com (499 words)
In medieval Europe, young boys were used as military aides ("squires"), though in theory their role in actual combat was limited.
The so-called Children's Crusade[?] in 1212 recruited thousands of children as untrained soldiers under the assumption that divine power would enable them to conquer the enemy, although none of the children actually entered combat.
US military personnel in Vietnam reported that Vietnamese children were sometimes sent with hand grenades strapped to their bodies under their clothes to cause death to unsuspecting American soldiers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m