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Encyclopedia > Military of the European Union
EDA logo
Defence of the
European Union
Politics
High Representative
Javier Solana
Foreign and Security
Security and Defence
Defence Initiative
Petersberg tasks
Foreign relations
Defence bodies
Defence Agency
EUISS
Satellite Centre
Military Committee
Military Staff
Defence Procurement
Military Forces
Rapid Reaction Force
EUFOR
Battlegroups
Gendarmerie
Eurocorps
Deployments
Related Organisations
WEU
NATO

The European Union is not a state and does not have its own dedicated military forces, although there are a number of multi-national military and peacekeeping forces which are ultimately under the command of the EU. An early attempt (1952) to form a European Defence Community failed, and no similar project has been proposed since. As some of the 27 EU member states are also members of NATO, some EU states cooperate on defense policy (collective security) albeit primarily through NATO rather than through the EU or aligned group (such as the Western European Union). However, the memberships of the EU, WEU, and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are constitutionally committed to remain neutral on defence issues. Several of the new EU member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... The European Defence Initiative is a proposal for enhanced European Union defence cooperation presented by France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg in Brussels on 29 April 2004. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is considered a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... The European Defence Agency (EDA), based in Brussels, Belgium, is an agency under the Council of the European Union. ... The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) came into being on July 20, 2001 as a replacement to the Western European Union Institute for Security Studies, and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more... The European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC) was set up in 2002 in order to replace the Western Union Satellite Centre and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more specifically to the Common Foreign and Security... We dont have an article called European Union Military Committee Start this article Search for European Union Military Committee in. ... More on the Council of the European Union; General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union; Private office; Departments attached to the Secretary-General/High Representative; See also Military of the European Union External links http://www. ... European defence procurement refers to the collective armaments purchasing polices of European nations. ... This article is about European Union military force. ... EUFOR former Commander General David Leakey. ... The European Union battlegroups is a project done in the context of the European Security and Defence Policy. ... The European Gendarmerie Force or EGF was launched by an agreement between five members of the European Union (France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands) and its purpose was the creation of a European intervention force which would have military police (gendarmerie) functions, and be specialized in crisis management. ... The badge of the Eurocorps Eurocorps is a force which consists of up to 60,000 soldiers drawn from the armies of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and Spain. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Formation - Signed Treaty of Brussels - 17 March 1948 The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The European Defence Community (EDC) was a plan proposed by René Pleven, the French prime minister at the time, in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. ... //  The European Union as a single entity. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ... Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Formation - Signed Treaty of Brussels - 17 March 1948 The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


One of the issues that the European Constitution, which currently possesses an uncertain future, was going to address would have closed down the WEU as a separate organisation and have the EU institutions take on the WEU's defence role. The EU currently has a limited mandate over defence issues, with a role to explore the issue of European defence agreed to in the Amsterdam Treaty, as well as oversight of the European Rapid Reaction Force. However, some EU states may and do make multilateral agreements about defence issues outside of the EU structures. The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TECE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an international treaty intended to create a new constitution for the European Union. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... This article is about European Union military force. ...


On the 23 of March, 2007, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, whose country held the EU presidency at that time, gave an interview in celebration of the EU's fiftieth birthday, in which she expressed the desire for a unified EU Army.[1]

Contents

Co-operation

The EU primarily acts through its Common Foreign and Security Policy, though Denmark has an opt-out from this and some states are limited by neutrality issues. As a result forces under EU command have been for peacekeeping, which European states have a great deal of experience in. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (880x702, 311 KB) Typhoon T1 ZJ808 of No. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (880x702, 311 KB) Typhoon T1 ZJ808 of No. ... Official Eurofighter logo. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...

See also the European Security and Defence Policy.

If all the member states' annual spending was taken as a bloc the figure would amount to over $292.7 billion, second only to the US military's $518 billion. [1] However the cumulative effect is much less than it seems due to duplication of capacities in individual militaries. There have been efforts to overcome this with joint projects such as the Eurofighter and through joint procurement of equipment The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... The Military of the United States, officially known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy United States Air Force United States Coast Guard The U.S. Public Health Service and the National Oceanic... Official Eurofighter logo. ... European defence procurement refers to the collective armaments purchasing polices of European nations. ...


Deployment

In 2004 EU countries took over leadership of the mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina from NATO through the European Union Force (EUFOR). The mission was given the branding of an EU initiative as the EU sponsored the force to further the force's image of legitimacy. There have been other deployments such as in Gaza and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Recently the European High Representative for Foreign Policy Javier Solana has indicated the EU could send troops to Georgia, perhaps alongside Russian forces.[2] EUFOR former Commander General David Leakey. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ...

See pages of individual forces below for details or ESDP Deployments.

The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ...

Military forces and groups

EUFOR former Commander General David Leakey Soldier of the EUFOR participating in operation Spring Lift, as part of Althea The EUFOR or European Union Force is an international military force under the supervision of the European Council. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The badge of the Eurocorps Eurocorps is a force which consists of up to 60,000 soldiers drawn from the armies of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and Spain. ... Eurofor is a multinational rapid reaction force composed of forces from France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. ... Many American politicians had long argued that Europes economic influence should be matched by an ability to project military power anywhere on the continent. ... Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Formation - Signed Treaty of Brussels - 17 March 1948 The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... The European Gendarmerie Force or EGF was launched by an agreement between five members of the European Union (France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands) and its purpose was the creation of a European intervention force which would have military police (gendarmerie) functions, and be specialized in crisis management. ... This article is about European Union military force. ... Many American politicians had long argued that Europes economic influence should be matched by an ability to project military power anywhere on the continent. ... The European Union battlegroups is a project done in the context of the European Security and Defence Policy. ... More on the Council of the European Union; General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union; Private office; Departments attached to the Secretary-General/High Representative; See also Military of the European Union External links http://www. ...

Actors, agencies and policies

The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The European Council, informally called the European summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission. ... The European Defence Agency (EDA), based in Brussels, Belgium, is an agency under the Council of the European Union. ... The European Security and Defence Identity is a term which was used to describe a European common defence and security policy in the 1990s, now effectively replaced by the European Security and Defence Policy. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) came into being on July 20, 2001 as a replacement to the Western European Union Institute for Security Studies, and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Formation - Signed Treaty of Brussels - 17 March 1948 The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the...

Defence Budgets of Member States

US$ billion
The hypothetically united EU military budget
compared with major military powers.
Rank Country Defence Budget (USD)
1 Flag of United Kingdom UK 66,800,000,000
2 Flag of France France 64,611,000,000
3 Flag of Germany Germany 57,500,000,000
4 Flag of Italy Italy 32,093,537,000
5 Flag of Spain Spain 15,792,207,000
6 Flag of Netherlands Netherlands 10,369,920,000
7 Flag of Greece Greece 7,648,561,000
8 Flag of Poland Poland 7,262,500,000
9 Flag of Sweden Sweden 6,309,137,714
10 Flag of Belgium Belgium 3,999,000,000
11 Flag of Portugal Portugal 3,497,800,000
12 Flag of Denmark Denmark 3,271,600,000
13 Flag of Romania Romania 2,900,000,000
14 Flag of Finland Finland 2,800,000,000
15 Flag of Austria Austria 2,334,900,000
16 Flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic 2,170,000,000
17 Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland

1,300,000,000 The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ...

18 Flag of Hungary Hungary

1,080,000,000 Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ...

22 Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 730,000,000
20 Flag of Slovakia Slovakia 406,000,000
21 Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 384,000,000
22 Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 370,000,000
23 Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 231,600,000
24 Flag of Lithuania Lithuania 230,800,000
25 Flag of Estonia Estonia 155,000,000
26 Flag of Latvia Latvia 87,000,000
27 Flag of Malta Malta 44,640,000

All figures are from the List of countries and federations by military expenditures Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Military spending in 2005 This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ...


References

Life in the European Union

Citizenship
Culture
Demographics
Economy
Education
Enlargement
Euro
Foreign relations Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into culture of Europe. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... Cultural cooperation in the European Union has become a community competency since its inclusion in 1992 in the Maastricht Treaty. ... The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “EUR” redirects here. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations...

Geography
• History
Institutions
Languages
Military
Politics
Sport
Statistics The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European peninsula. ... This article or section should be merged with List of European Union-related topics The European Union has several institutions: The European Parliament The European Council The Council of the European Union (or Council of Ministers) The European Commission The European Court of Justice (incorporating the Court of First Instance... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat. ...

European Union Portal
  1. ^ European - United States Defence Expenditure in 2005 (HTML). EDA (2006). Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  2. ^ Solana raises prospect of EU soldiers in Georgia EU Observer

Image File history File links European_flag. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU) and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them. ... The Justus Lipsius building, the headquarter of the EU Council in Brussels The Council of the European Union (German: Rat der Europäischen Union, French: Le Conseil de lUnion européenne), is a governing body that forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union... The European Defence Community (EDC) was a plan proposed by René Pleven, the French prime minister at the time, in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European peninsula. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... BAE Systems plc is the worlds fourth largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... Norway has mandatory military service for males (6-12 months of training) and voluntary service for females. ... The Military of the United States, officially known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy United States Air Force United States Coast Guard The U.S. Public Health Service and the National Oceanic... The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC) (Russian: Transliteration: Vooruzhyónniye síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii) is the military of Russia, established after the break-up of the Soviet Union. ... Since the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949, the Military of the Peoples Republic of China has grown to include the active and reserve forces of the Peoples Liberation Army, the Peoples Liberation Army Navy, the Peoples Armed Police and the Militia...

External links

  • European Defence Agency - official website
  • European Defence (NGO) - independent information on EU military capabilities

  Results from FactBites:
 
European Defence Community - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (364 words)
The European Defence Community (EDC) was a plan proposed by René Pleven, the French foreign minister at the time, in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany.
Its intention was to form a pan-European defence force as an alternative to Germany's proposed accession to NATO, meant to harness its military potential in case of conflict with the Soviet bloc.
Today, the Western European Union, the European Union and NATO all carry out some of the functions which it was envisaged the EDC would have, although none approach the degree of supernational military control that the EDC would have provided for.
Military of the European Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (276 words)
One of the issues that the now defunct European Constitution was going to address would have closed down the WEU as a separate organisation and have the EU institutions take on the WEUs defence role.
The EU currently has a limited mandate over defence issues, with a role to explore the issue of European defence agreed to in the Amsterdam Treaty, as well as oversight of the European Rapid Reaction Force.
In 2004 EU countries took over leadership of the mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina from NATO - see EUFOR - which was given the branding of an EU initiative as the EU sponsored the force to further the force's image of legitimacy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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