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Encyclopedia > Military of Sri Lanka
Military of Sri Lanka
Military Manpower
Active troops 157,900 (Ranked 35th)
Military Volunteer age 18 years of age (2001)
Availability Males age 18-49: 4,933,217 Females age 18-49: 5,153,597 (2005 est.)
Fit for military service Males age 18-49: 3,789,627 Females age 18-49: 4,281,043 (2005 est.)
Reaching volunteer age annually Males age 18-49: 174,049 Females age 18-49: 167,201 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures
USD figure 514.8 million US $ (2004 est.)
Percent of GDP 2.6% (2006 est.)
Military branches
Sri Lanka Army
Sri Lanka Navy
Sri Lanka Air Force

The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force which comes under the Ministry of Defence. It grew from a ceremonial force after the independence from the British empire to a highly trained and highly motivated Armed force. The training and sophistication of the Sri Lankan Armed forces is shown through its hard battles fought against one of the deadliest armed groups in the world, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (see list) which is classified as a terrorist organisation by 32 countries. The Military of Sri Lanka has taken part in many wars throughout its history, including the Second Boer War and both World Wars (under the command of the British). Since independence, however, its primary missions have been counter-insurgency, targeting armed groups within the country, most notably the LTTE and at one point the former nationalist insurgent group, the JVP. Image File history File links COA_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (805x404, 44 KB) Summary Lahiru_k, I create this file using an external application. ... The Sri Lanka Army is the oldest and largest of Sri Lankas three armed services. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Navy Ensign. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sri Lankan Air Force Ensign. ... Sri Lankan Army Flag The Sri Lankan Army is a branch of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces with the responsbility of overseeing land-based operations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Sri Lanka Air Force is the Airborne Wing of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces, and its key role is to provide tacical support to naval and land divisions. ... Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka) The President of Sri Lanka and Minister of Defence, Public Security, Law & Order Hon. ... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Terrorism refers to the use of violence for the purpose of achieving a political, religious, or ideological goal. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 20,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede... There have been two World Wars, now more commonly known as World War I or First World War (from 1914 to 1918), and World War II or Second World War (from 1939 to 1945). ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (Sinhala janatā vimukti peramuṇa, Peoples Liberation Front) is a nationalist Marxist political party in Sri Lanka. ...

Contents

Strategic Importance

The posture of the military has been defensive due to the nature of the strategic threats to Sri Lanka. In the short-term, internal security is considered the main threat to the nation's future. In the long-term, the threat is seen as primarily external from current and future superpowers in their rival quests for dominance of the Indian Ocean; at one point these were the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. However, due to collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the external threats now involve future superpowers India and China. The signing of the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord eased these concerns.[1] A superpower is a state with the ability to influence events or project power on a wide scale. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of the northern...


Training

Today the training of all armed services are carried out in Sri Lanka. With a Staff College, a University-level Defense Academy, three Military Academies for the three armed services and many specialized training schools and centers members of the Sri Lanka armed forces has a high level training and professionalism. The Sri Lankan military has received specialized training assistance from other nations such as Australia, the United Kingdom, Israel, the United States, India, and South Africa. [2]

The General Sir John Kotelawala Defence Academy (KDA) located in Ratmalana, Colombo, is a joint services academy where cadets of the three wings Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy and Sri Lanka Air Force are trained together before they go for their pre-commission training to their respective academies. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: , District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... The Crest of The Sri Lanka Army Command and Staff College The Sri Lanka Army Command and Staff College (ACSC) is situated at Batalanda, Makola (South) 12 Kilometers away from Colombo and its aim to develop the professional knowledge and understanding of selected Officers in order to prepare them for... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ...

Sri Lanka Army

Airborne Commandos of the Sri Lanka Army
Main article: Sri Lanka Army

The Sri Lanka Army is the oldest and largest of Sri Lanka's three armed services. Established as the Royal Ceylon Army in 1949, it was renamed when Sri Lanka became a republic in 1972. The Army of approximately 120,000 regular personnel and including 15,000 National Guardsmen is organized into 22 regiments and is responsible for overseeing land-based military and humanitarian operations. It is a completely voluntary service, the military draft having never been imposed in Sri Lanka. In 2004 the Sri Lankan Army took part in the United Nations peacekeeping operations in Haiti. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x667, 134 KB) Summary www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x667, 134 KB) Summary www. ... Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... The Sri Lanka Army is the oldest and largest of Sri Lankas three armed services. ... Conscription is a general term for forced labor demanded by some established authority, e. ...


Sri Lanka Navy

Sri Lankan Navy Offshore Patrol Vessel
Main article: Sri Lanka Navy

The Sri Lankan Navy is the key maritime division of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces and is classed as the most vital defence force of Sri Lanka. It conducts maritime operations at sea for the defence of the Sri Lankan nation and its interests. The professional head of the navy is the Commander of the navy, who exercises his command from the Naval Headquarters in Colombo. Established in 1950 as the Royal Ceylon Navy it was renamed as the Sri Lanka Navy in 1972. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sri Lankan Navy Ensign. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: , District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... Sri Lankan Navy Ensign. ... Sri Lankan Navy Ensign. ...


In recent years it had played a key role it the Sri Lankan civil war, conducting deep sea, costal & inshore patrols, amphibious and supply operations. The navy has its own elite naval special forces unit, the Special Boat Squadron. Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... The term deep sea refers to those areas of oceans to which little or no light penetrates (the aphotic zone). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Special Boat Squadron (SBS) (In Sinhalese: Wishesha Yathra Balaghanaya) is the Sri Lanka Navys elite special forces unit. ...


Sri Lanka Air Force

A IAI Kfir of the SLAF landing
Main article: Sri Lanka Air Force

The Sri Lanka Air Force is the aerial defense division and the youngest of the Sri Lankan Tri Forces. Founded in 1951 as the Royal Ceylon Air Force, it relied on the British Royal Air Force for its earliest equipment, training, and leadership. The Air Force is playing a major role in the ongoing war against Tamil separatists. Although Sri Lanka is only a small island state, its Air Force has proven highly capable and efficient. In recent times the air force has expanded to specialize mainly in providing air-support to ground forces and landing troops and carrying airstrikes on rebel held areas in the Northern and Eastern provinces. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Israel Aircraft Industries Kfir (Hebrew: כפיר, Lion Cub) is an Israeli-built all-weather, multi-role combat aircraft based on a modified Dassault Mirage 5 airframe, with Israeli avionics and an Israeli-made version of the General Electric J79 turbojet engine. ... Sri Lankan Air Force Ensign. ...


Sri Lankan Paramilitary Forces

There are only two Paramilitary Forces in Sri Lanka. The Special Task Force comes under the control of the Sri Lanka Police witch it self comes under the Ministry of Defence. It under takes anti-terrorist missions and VIP protection. The other is the Sri Lanka Civil Defence Force which is also comes under the Ministry of Defence. The Special Task Force (STF)(In Sinhala: ) is an elite special force unit of the Sri Lanka Police specializing in Counter-Terrorist and Counter-Insurgency operations. ... Crest of the Sri Lanka Police. ... Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka) The President of Sri Lanka and Minister of Defence, Public Security, Law & Order Hon. ... Terrorism is a controversial term with multiple definitions. ... A Very Important Person, or VIP is a person who is accorded special privileges due to his or her status or importance. ... Department of Civil Defence or the Sri Lanka Civil Defence Force is the former Home Guard Service, is an Sri Lankan paramilitary force which is tasked as an auxiliary to the Sri Lankan Police. ... Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka) The President of Sri Lanka and Minister of Defence, Public Security, Law & Order Hon. ...

The Special Task Force (STF)(In Sinhala: ) is an elite special force unit of the Sri Lanka Police specializing in Counter-Terrorist and Counter-Insurgency operations. ... Department of Civil Defence or the Sri Lanka Civil Defence Force is the former Home Guard Service, is an Sri Lankan paramilitary force which is tasked as an auxiliary to the Sri Lankan Police. ...

Recent History

During the months of December 2005 and January 2006, the Sri Lankan security forces came under heavy sporadic attacks, suffering more than 70 dead. It is widely believed that the LTTE was behind the attacks in an attempt to provoke the government of Sri Lanka to return to war. The International Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission has confirmed the LTTE connections to the attacks. They recently filed a report stating the LTTE had violated the ceasefire 3,471 occasions during the past four years.[3] The security forces on the other hand have violated the ceasefire 162 times in the same period. The complaints against them have not been as serious as those of carried out by LTTE. [4] However the President Mahinda Rajapaksa has ordered all forces to maintain defensive positions in a bid to avoid war and preserve the current ceasefire, but has warned that this move should not be mistaken for weakness on the part of his government. The United States ambassador to Sri Lanka has warned the that the cost of war would be high for the LTTE. They have said they would continue to assist the government preserve peace by maintaining their military training. India has also given assurances that they will try and make sure resumption of war is also avoided.[5] The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission - SLMM, was established on February 22, 2002 by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state and dominant political figure in Sri Lanka. ... Percy Mahendra Mahinda Rajapaksa () (born November 18, 1945) is the President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, and a Sri Lankan politician. ...


New attacks began in April 2006, and a low-intensity conflict ensued between the Sri Lankan military and the LTTE. The Sri Lankan military has shown spectacular gains during the past few months, especially after the Mavul Aru conflict, where the LTTE deprived 15,000 civilians of access to water by blocking the Mavil Aru anicut,a tributary of the Mahaweli River.The military in a series major military operations then cleared Sampur, Panichchankirni and Vakarai of the LTTE and has cleared the entire eastern coastline. Currently the military is in the process of clearing the last LTTE occupied Eastern areas of Thoppigala and the jungles of NW Trincomalee.


Awards & Decorations

The most prestigious decoration is Parama Weera Vibhushanaya which is awarded to officers, soldiers, sailors and airmen who have shown individual gallantry in the face of danger and risk their own lives to save the lives of their comrades. The armed forces especially the Army awards campaign medals for soldiers that have taken part in successful, very high-risk operations such as Operation Riviresa.
Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Parama Weera Vibhushanaya Ribbon/Bar Parama Weera Vibhushanaya Medal Parama Weera Vibhushanaya (පරම වීර වීභූෂණය) is the highest Sri Lanakn military decoration equivalent to United States Medal of Honor, that awarded as a reward for all ranks of the tri services (Regular/Volunteer) individual acts of gallantry and conspicuous bravery of the most... Sri Lankan Army Flag The Sri Lankan Army is a branch of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces with the responsbility of overseeing land-based operations. ... A Campaign medal is a military decoration which is awarded to a member of the military who serves in a designated military operation or performs duty in a geographical theater. ...

 
Military of Sri Lanka
Flag of Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan army Sri Lanka Army | Sri Lankan Navy ensign Sri Lanka Navy | Sri Lankan Airforce Sri Lanka Air Force

Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (877x526, 50 KB) Army, Sri Lanka. ... The Sri Lanka Army is the oldest and largest of Sri Lankas three armed services. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Navy Ensign. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sri Lankan Air Force Ensign. ...

See also

Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka) The President of Sri Lanka and Minister of Defence, Public Security, Law & Order Hon. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Ministry of Defence, Public Security, Law & Order - Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
  • The official web site of the Government of Sri Lanka
  • Sri Lanka Army
  • Sri Lanka Navy
  • Sri Lanka Air Force
  • General Sir John Kotelawala Defence Academy
  • Media Center for National Security

  Results from FactBites:
 
 Foreign Aid & Sri Lanka's Rising Military Expenditure (5701 words)
Sri Lanka had pressed 40,000 strong army into the Jaffna peninsula four years ago by sea through Kankesanthurai port, 12 km north of the town, said Kalkat adding that a small force was airlifted to Jaffna airfield, eight km north.
Sri Lanka has sought to use the political space provided by the countervailing strategic interests of the US, India and China in the Indian region (with supporting roles for Pakistan, European Union and Japan) to advance its own interests and acquire the military capability to subdue Tamil resistance to alien Sinhala rule.
Sri Lanka may see the enlistment of rural youth in the Sri Lanka armed forces as an answer to the problem of rural unemployment and as a way of reducing the movement of the rural population to urban areas, in search of jobs which are difficult to find.
Sri Lanka Military Commitment Not in India's Interests (1011 words)
Kumaratunga's India tour preceded a three-day visit to Sri Lanka, that started Wednesday, by Norwegian Foreign Minister Jan Petersen in a new bid to revive the peace talks that were supposed to follow a ceasefire that Oslo successfully brokered in February 2002.
According to former Indian army general A.S. Kalkat, the difficulty for Kumaratunga's government lay in the fact that the LTTE had become a 'de jure' power in the north and east of the island and was running every aspect of civil administration in the areas within its control.
A veteran of India's military intervention in the Jaffna peninsula to help implement the 1987 Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord -- which ambitiously provided for the disarming of the formidable LTTE -- Kalkat said the new defence deal would essentially be a reiteration of the older one minus its military commitment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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