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Encyclopedia > Military occupation

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War
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Trench · Unconventional This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Cyber-warfare is the use of computers and the Internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ... Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains. ... Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its effective use by an adversary while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... It has been suggested that infowars be merged into this article or section. ... Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal power or capacity of action, interact and take advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of themselves and their enemies. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... For much of history humans have used some form of cavalry for war. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Guerrilla warfare (also spelled guerilla) is a method of unconventional combat by which small groups of combatants attempt to use mobile and surprise tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to defeat a foe, often a larger, less mobile, army. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Close Quarters Combat. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Chain of command · Formations
Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... This article deals with the military concept. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ...

Law

Court-martial · Laws of war · Occupation
Tribunal · War crime Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

Government and politics

Conscription · Coup d'état
Military dictatorship · Martial law
Militarism · Military rule // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military...

Military studies

Military academy · Military science
Philosophy of war
Peace and conflict studies A military academy is a military educational institution. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ...

Lists
Authors · Battles · Civil wars
Commanders · Invasions · Operations
Sieges · Raids · Tactics · Theorists
Wars · War crimes · War criminals
Weapons · Writers

Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. Many of the authors that served in various real-life wars (and survived) wrote stories that are at least somewhat based on their own experiences. ... This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of civil wars. ... . ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This page contains a list of military raids, not including air raids, sorted by the date at which they started: 1259 Mongol raid into Lithuania 1565, August 26th Chaseabout Raid 1575, July 7th Raid of the Redeswire 1582, August 27th Raid of Ruthven 1667, June 6th Raid on the Medway... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of reserve forces Economy of force Force protection Force dispersal Military Camouflage Deception Perfidy False flag Electronic countermeasures Electronic counter-counter-measures Radio silence Fortification Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head Protection... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... . ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... A belligerent is an individual, group, country or other entity which acts in an aggressive or hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. ...

Contents

Military occupation and the laws of war

There have long been customary laws of belligerent occupation as part of the laws of war which gave some protection to the population under the military occupation of a belligerent power. These were clarified and supplemented by the Hague Conventions of 1907. Specifically "Laws and Customs of War on Land" (Hague IV); October 18, 1907: "Section III Military Authority over the territory of the hostile State."[1] The first two articles of that section state: The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international...

Art. 42.
Territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army.
The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised.
Art. 43.
The authority of the legitimate power having in fact passed into the hands of the occupant, the latter shall take all the measures in his power to restore, and ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, while respecting, unless absolutely prevented, the laws in force in the country.

In 1949 these laws governing belligerent occupation of an enemy state's territory were further extended by the adoption of the Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV). Much of GCIV is relevant to protected persons in occupied territories and Section III: Occupied territories is a specific section covering the issue. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Fourth Geneva Convention The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. ...


Article 6 restricts the length of time that most of GCIV applies:

The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any conflict or occupation mentioned in Article 2.
In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the present Convention shall cease on the general close of military operations.
In the case of occupied territory, the application of the present Convention shall cease one year after the general close of military operations; however, the Occupying Power shall be bound, for the duration of the occupation, to the extent that such Power exercises the functions of government in such territory, by the provisions of the following Articles of the present Convention: 1 to 12, 27, 29 to 34, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53, 59, 61 to 77, 143.

GCIV emphasised an important change in international law. The United Nations Charter (June 26, 1945) had prohibited war of aggression (See articles 1.1, 2.3, 2.4) and GCIV Article 47, the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the territorial gains which could be made through war by stating: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory.

Article 48 prohibits the forced mass movement of people out of or into occupied state's territory:

Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive. ... The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.

Protocol I (1977): "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts" has additional articles which cover military occupation but many countries including the U.S. are not signatory to this additional protocol. Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ... Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


In the situation of a territorial cession as the result of war, the specification of a "receiving country" in the peace treaty merely means that the country in question is authorized by the international community to establish civil government in the territory. The military government of the principal occupying power will continue past the point in time when the peace treaty comes into force, until it is legally supplanted.


"Military government continues until legally supplanted" is the rule, as stated in Military Government and Martial Law, by William E. Birkhimer, 3rd edition 1914.


Examples of military occupations

In most wars some territory is placed under the authority of the hostile army. Most military occupations end with the cessation of hostilities. In some cases the occupied territory is returned and in others the land remains under the control of the occupying power but usually not as militarily occupied territory. In most wars some territory is placed under the martial law of a hostile army. ...


Disputed occupations

The following presences are often referred to as military occupations, but this status is disputed by a party to the situation.


Significant contemporary belligerent military occupations

Disputed to be a military occupation by local population

Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ...

Disputed to be a military occupation by nation of dominant military forces in area

The Golan Heights (Hebrew: Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a plateau on the border of Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The Golan Heights (Hebrew: Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a plateau on the border of Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Location of Kuril Islands in the Western Pacific. ... Kunashir Island (国後島:Kunashiri in Japanese, Кунашир (Kunashir) in Russian, Black Island in Ainu language), a southwestern island of the Kuril Islands, located in the Sakhalin Oblast of the Russian Federation. ... Kunashir Island (国後島:Kunashiri in Japanese, Кунашир (Kunashir) in Russian, Black Island in Ainu language), a southwestern island of the Kuril Islands, located in the Sakhalin Oblast of the Russian Federation. ... Iturup (Russian Итуруп; Ainu エト・オロ・プ; Japanese 択捉島, Etorofu) is the largest island of the Kuriles, located in the Sakhalin Oblast of Russia. ... Iturup (Ainu イト゚ルㇷ゚; Japanese 択捉島, Etorofu; Russian Итуруп) is the biggest island of the Kuriles, located in the Sakhalin Oblast of Russia. ... Shikotan (色丹島) (Shikotan in Japanese, Шикотан in Russian), one of the bigger islands of the Kuril Islands, located in the Sakhalin Oblast of Russia. ... The Hobomai Rocks (Russian: Хабомай (Khabomai), Japanese: ??? (Habomai)) are a group of islets in the very south end of the Kuril Islands. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ...

Other

Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Kashmiri refers to people who ancestrally belong to the region of Kashmir. ... ... Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد (Meaning Abode of Islam)), is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... The Cyprus dispute is the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ...

See also

This does not cite its references or sources. ... A military government is a form of government wherein the political power resides within the military and may either refer to a military dictatorship or to the government installed by a foreign power during belligerent occupation. ...

Further reading

Footnotes

  1. ^ Laws and Customs of War on Land" (Hague IV); October 18, 1907: "Section III Military Authority over the territory of the hostile State source The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School
  2. ^ Mr David Atkinson, United Kingdom, European Democrat Group, (Rapporteur) The conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh region dealt with by the OSCE Minsk Conference, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, 29 November 2004
  3. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation" Human Rights Watch. October 29, 2004
  4. ^ "Human Rights Council Special Session on the Occupied Palestinian Territories" July 6, 2006"
  5. ^ Israel considers the West Bank and Gaza Strip to be disputed rather than occupied territories. This opinion is based on the claim that a territory can be occupied only if prior to the entry of military forces that territory was part of a sovereign state. Because the West Bank and Gaza Strip were not recognised internationally as being an integral part of a sovereign state prior to the entry of Israeli military forces into them in June 1967, these territories logically cannot be regarded as occupied.[citation needed]
  6. ^ Invasion and illegal annexation of Tibet: 1949-1951 website of the Government of Tibet in exile

Original content adapted from the Wikinfo article, "wikinfo:Belligerent occupation" The Avalon Project is Yale Law Schools digital library of Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... David Atkinson (born 24 March 1940) was Conservative British Member of Parliament for Bournemouth East until he stepped down at the 2005 general election. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikinfo, formerly known as Internet-Encyclopedia (renamed in January 2004), is a fork of the English Wikipedia initiated by Fred Bauder in July 2003. ...


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