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Encyclopedia > Military intelligence

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
Military history
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Tactics

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Cavalry · Conventional · Fortification
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Joint · Maneuver · Siege · Total
Trench · Unconventional The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, states and other such large social organizations. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the European Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare is a complex affair, involving the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Cyber-warfare is the use of computers and the internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ... Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... A typically white color clothes of a soldier trained for mountain warfare. ... Urban warfare is modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Electronic warfare (EW) has three main components: Electronic Attack (EA) This is the active use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... It has been suggested that infowars be merged into this article or section. ... Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. ... Finnish sissi troops on skis. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal strength interact and take advantage of their respective strengths and weaknesses. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with war horse. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatives FM 21-150 Figure 4-1, Vital Targets. ... The 1944 Invasion of Normandy An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geo-political entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period, and sometimes permanently. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ... Maneuver warfare (American English) or manoeuvre warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational Military strategem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Chain of command · Formations
Ranks · Units Military science concerns itself with the study and of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... This article deals with the military concept. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ...

Law

Court-martial · Laws of war · Occupation
Tribunal · War crime Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

Government and politics

Conscription · Coup d'état
Military dictatorship · Martial law
Militarism · Military rule A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military...

Military studies

Military academy · Military science
Polemology · Philosophy of war
Peace and conflict studies A military academy is a military educational institution. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ...

Lists
Authors · Battles · Civil wars
Commanders · Invasions · Operations
Sieges · Raids · Tactics · Theorists
Wars · War crimes · War criminals
Weapons · Writers

Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. Commonwealth, or intel. U.S.), is a military discipline that focuses on the gathering, analysis, protection, and dissemination of information about the enemy, terrain, and weather in an area of operations or area of interest. Intelligence activities are conducted at all levels from tactical to strategic, during peacetime and in war. Many of the authors that served in various real-life wars (and survived) wrote stories that are at least somewhat based on their own experiences. ... This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of civil wars. ... . ... This is a list of both successful and repelled international invasions ordered by date. ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This page contains a list of military raids, not including air raids, sorted by the date at which they started: 1259 Mongol raid into Lithuania 1565, August 26th Chaseabout Raid 1575, July 7th Raid of the Redeswire 1582, August 27th Raid of Ruthven 1667, June 6th Raid on the Medway... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Principles Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of a reserve Economy of Force Force protection Dispersal or spacing Camouflage Deception Electronic Counter Measures Electronic Counter Counter Measures Radio silence Use of fortifications Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... . ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


Most militaries maintain a military intelligence corps with specialized intelligence units for collecting information in specific ways. Militaries also typically have intelligence staff personnel at each echelon down to battalion level. Intelligence officers and enlisted soldiers assigned to military intelligence may be selected for their analytical abilities or scores on intelligence tests. They usually receive formal training in these disciplines. See Intelligence Officers ...


The term is often used rhetorically as an oxymoron. Look up Oxymoron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

The intelligence process

The process of intelligence has four phases: collection, analysis, processing and dissemination.


Collection

Many of the most important facts are well known, or may be gathered from public sources. For example, the population, ethnic make-up and main industries of a region are extremely important to military commanders, and this information is usually public. The tonnage and basic weaponry of most capital ships and aircraft are also public, and their speeds and ranges can often be reasonably estimated by experts, often just from photographs. Ordinary facts like the lunar phase on particular days, or the ballistic range of common military weapons are also very valuable to planning, and are habitually collected in an intelligence library.


A great deal of useful intelligence can be gathered from photointerpretation of detailed high-altitude pictures of a country. Photointerpreters generally maintain catalogs of munitions factories, military bases and crate designs, in order to interpret munition shipments and inventories.


Most intelligence services maintain or support groups whose only purpose is to keep maps. Since maps also have valuable civilian uses, these agencies are often publicly associated or identified as other parts of the government. Some historic counter-intelligence services, especially in Russia and China, have intentionally banned or placed disinformation in public maps; good intelligence can identify this disinformation.


It is commonplace for the intelligence service of large countries to read every published journal of the nations in which it is interested, and the main newspapers and journals of every nation. This is a basic source of intellligence.


It is also common for diplomatic and journalistic personnel to have a secondary goal of collecting military intelligence. For western democracies, it is extremely rare for journalists to be paid by an official intelligence service, but they may still patriotically pass on tidbits of information they gather as they carry on their legitimate business. Also, much public information in a nation may be unavailable from outside the country. This is why most intelligence services attach members to foreign service offices.


Some industrialized nations also eavesdrop continuously on the entire radio spectrum, interpreting it in real time. This includes not only broadcasts of national and local radio and television, but also local military traffic, radar emissions, and even microwaved telephone and telegraph traffic, including satellite traffic. The U.S. in particular is known to maintain satellites able to intercept cell-phone and pager traffic. Analysis of bulk traffic is normally performed by complex computer programs that parse natural language and phone numbers looking for threatening conversations and correspondents. In some extraordinary cases, undersea or land-based cables have been tapped, as well.


More exotic secret information, such as encryption keys, diplomatic message traffic, policy and orders of battle are usually restricted to analysts on a need-to-know basis, in order to protect the sources and methods from foreign traffic analysis.


Analysis

Analysis consists of assessment of an adversary's capabilities and vulnerabilities. In a real sense these are threats and opportunities. Analysts generally look for the least defended or most fragile resource that is necessary for important military capabilities. These are then flagged as critical vulnerabilities. For example, in modern mechanized warfare, the logistic train for a military unit's fuel supply is often the most vulnerable part of a nation's order of battle.


Human intelligence, gathered by spies, is usually carefully tested against unrelated sources. It is notoriously prone to inaccuracy: In some cases, sources will just make up imaginative stories for pay, or they may try to settle grudges by identifying personal enemies as enemies of the state that is paying for the intelligence. However, human intelligence is often the only form that provides information about an opponent's intentions and rationales, and it is therefore often uniquely valuable to successful negotiation of diplomatic solutions.


In some intelligence organizations, analysis follows a procedure, screening general media and sources to locate items or groups of interest, and then systematically assessing their location, capabilities, inputs and environment for vulnerabilities, using a continuously-updated list of typical vulnerabilities.


Packaging

Critical vulnerabilities are then indexed in a way that makes them easily available to advisors and line intelligence personnel who package this information for policy-makers and war-fighters. Vulnerabilities are usually indexed by the nation and military unit, with a list of possible attack methods.


Critical threats are usually maintained in a prioritized file, with important enemy capabilities analyzed on a schedule set by an estimate of the enemy's preparation time. For example, nuclear threats between the USSR and the US were analyzed in real time by continuously on-duty staffs. In contrast, analysis of tank or army deployments are usually triggered by accumulations of fuel and munitions, which are monitored on slower, every-few-days cycles. In some cases, automated analysis is performed in real time on automated data traffic.


Packaging threats and vulnerabilities for decision makers is a crucial part of military intelligence. A good intelligence officer will stay very close the policy-maker or war fighter, to anticipate their information requirements, and tailor the information needed. A good intelligence officer will ask a fairly large number of questions in order to help anticipate needs, perhaps even to the point of annoying the principal. For an important policy-maker, the intelligence officer will have a staff to which research projects can be assigned.


Developing a plan of attack is not the responsibility of intelligence, though it helps an analyst to know the capabilities of common types of military units. Generally, policy-makers are presented with a list of threats, and opportunities. They approve some basic action, and then professional military personnel plan the detailed act and carry it out. Once hostilites begin, target selection often moves into the upper end of the military chain of command. Once ready stocks of weapons and fuel are depleted, logistic concerns are often exported to civilian policy-makers.


Strategic intelligence

Strategic intelligence is concerned with broad issues such as economics, military capabilities of foreign countries, and political assessments. Relevant changes may be scientific, technical, tactical, or diplomatic, but these changes are analyzed in combination with known facts about the area in question, such as geography, demographics, and industrial capacities. A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. ... Demographics is a shorthand term for population characteristics. Demographics include race, age, income, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. ...


United States

The United States Armed Forces has various styles of referring to its intelligence functions. The numbering system was borrowed from the French General Staff around the period of World War I. In French usage, the second office (deuxième bureau) performed the intelligence function. The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg...


Joint intelligence staffs work for the J-2, while multinational intelligence is under a C-2. Each may have a G-2 (military/ground intelligence)/N-2 (naval intelligence)/A-2 (air intelligence) staff subordinated to it.


The lead agency for joint United States military intelligence operations as well as strategic defense-related intelligence is the Defense Intelligence Agency. DIA unifies the Department of Defense in regard to intelligence analysis and collection. The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... Dia is a general-purpose diagram creation software program, developed as part of the GNOME project. ...


U.S. Army

Within the U.S. military, the term military intelligence is specific to the intelligence components of the U.S. Army, not the other services or the armed forces as a whole. There is no standard nomenclature within all the services; they use a variety of different names to refer to intelligence sections.


The United States Army refers to the chief intelligence officer assigned to a general officer's staff as a G-2. Intelligence officers of lower units are referred to as S-2s. In Combat Arms battalions, this post is usually held by a captain, with a first or second lieutenant as a deputy and a Master Sergeant (pay grade E-8) or Sergeant First Class (pay grade E-7) as a staff NCO. Larger military units such as a division or separate brigade have military intelligence Warrant Officers assigned as technical experts in the various intelligence disciplines. The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The S2 is the principal staff officer for all matters concerning military intelligence (MI), counterintelligence, security operations, and military intelligence training. ... This article concerns the rank and title of Captain. ... United States Master Sergeant insignia U.S. Marine Corps Master Sergeant insignia U.S. Army Master Sergeant insignia U.S. Air Force A Master Sergeant is: the eighth enlisted rank in the United States Marine Corps, just above Gunnery Sergeant, below Master Gunnery Sergeant, Sergeant Major, and Sergeant Major of... Sergeant First Class insignia Sergeant First Class (SFC) is the seventh enlisted rank in the U.S. Army, just above Staff Sergeant and below Master Sergeant, and is a non-commissioned officer. ... NCO may mean: a numerically-controlled oscillator in electronics a non-commissioned officer in the military   This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Active units

  • 312th Military Intelligence Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division
  • 501st Military Intelligence Battalion, 1st Armored Division
  • 101st Military Intelligence Battalion, 1st Infantry Division
  • 102nd Military Intelligence Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division
  • 103rd Military Intelligence Battalion, 3rd Infantry Division
  • 104th Military Intelligence Battalion, 4th Infantry Division
  • 125th Military Intelligence Battalion, 25th Infantry Division
  • 313th Military Intelligence Battalion, 82nd Airborne Division
  • 311th Military Intelligence Battalion, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)
  • 504th Military Intelligence Brigade, III Corps, Ft. Hood, TX
    • 15th Military Intelligence Battalion
    • 163rd Military Intelligence Battalion
    • 303rd Military Intelligence Battalion
  • 501st Military Intelligence Brigade, - Republic of Korea
  • 513th Military Intelligence Brigade, - Ft. Gordon, GA
  • 66th Military Intelligence Group - Darmstadt, Germany
    • 109th Military Intelligence Battalion - Menwith Hill Station, UK
    • 2nd Military Intelligence Battalion - Darmstadt, Germany
    • 105th Military Intelligence Battalion - Darmstadt, Germany
  • 704th Military Intelligence Brigade, Ft. Meade, Maryland
    • 741st Military Intelligence Battalion
    • 742nd Military Intelligence Battalion
    • 743rd Military Intelligence Battalion
  • 902nd Military Intelligence Group, Ft. Meade, Maryland
    • 308th Military Intelligence Battalion
    • 310th Military Intelligence Battalion
  • 500th Military Intelligence Brigade, United States Army Pacific Command, Hawaii
  • 116th Military Intelligence Group - Ft. Gordon, GA
    • 206th Military Intelligence Battalion

Currently retired based on Army restructuring in 2005. ... The U.S. Armys 205th Military Intelligence Brigade and its three battalions have a history dating back to World War II. The brigade has been in a continuous active service since 1944. ... 1st Military Intelligence 1st Military Intelligence Battalion (Aerial Exploitation) is a unit of the United States Army which specializes in the acquisition of aerial signals information in direct support of the 205th MI brigade and V Corp. ... The United States 525th Military Intelligence Brigade is a unit of the United States Armed Forces which specializes in the acquisition and analysis of information with potential military value. ... The 519th Military Intelligence Battalion is a unit of the United States Army. ... The 501st Military Intelligence Brigade[1], subordinate to the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) is located in the Republic of Korea. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Known as INSCOMs Contingency Force, the 297th Military Intelligence Battalion (297th MI BN) is a battalion subordinate to the 513th Military Intelligence Brigade, located at Fort Gordon, Georgia. ... The 301st Military Intelligence Battalion is located in Phoenix, Arizona. ...

Training

The U.S. Army trains military intelligence (MI) officers and noncomissioned officers (Paygrade E5-E9) at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Newly commissioned officers attend the Military Intelligence Officer Basic Course (MIOBC) before going to their first duty assignment. After their first duty assignment, usually within 3-5 years of attending MIOBC, they come back to Ft. Huachuca, Arizona, to attend the Military Intelligence Captain's Career Course (MICCC). MICCC is a hybrid course which combines what was formerly known as the Military Intelligence Officer Advanced Course (MIOAC) and the Combined Arms Services Staff School (CAS3). Fort Holabird, Maryland and Camp Ritchey, Maryland and Fort Devens, Massachusetts were posts previously used by the US Army's military intelligence organization for training. USAF security troops on a training exercise on Fort Huachuca. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Fort Devens is a census-designated place and part of the towns of Ayer, Harvard, and Shirley, in Middlesex County, Massachusetts. ...


Many U.S. Army intelligence officers are "branch-detailed" to a combat arms branch (Infantry, Armor, Air Defense, etc) for approximately four years before undergoing training to become military intelligence officers. This reasoning behind this is because there is a greater need for Captains in the military intelligence field rather than Lieutenants. Secondly, this affords the officers the opportunity to gain valuable leadership experience by serving in combat arms branches in their first assignments. This allows them to understand the needs of the combatant commander when they are later in positions of gathering, analyzing and providing intelligence to maneuver units. These "branch-detailed" officers come to Fort Huachuca for an Military Officer Intelligence Transition Course (MIOTC) before attending MICCC.


For the most part, but certainly not always, new graduates of MICCC will go to Divisional units or Brigade Units of Action to serve as staff intelligence officers before given a command of an intelligence company. Some military intelligence officers are offered commands of Headquarters, Headquarters Company (HHC) of infantry or armor battalions or brigades.


Qualifications

Personnel selected for intelligence occupational specialties are primarily screened for high intelligence and psychological stability. They must also qualifiy for a Top Secret clearance with Sensitive Compartmented Information eligibility (referred to as TS-SCI). The background investigative process for TS-SCI clearance is exhaustive, with some applicants discovering that their screen process taking almost two years to complete and their investigation containing information from as far back as their childhood. Additionally, every five years, intelligence personnel must undergo a periodic security clearance review process covering the time frame from their last personnel security investigation.


Sub-specialties

US intelligence personnel have many sub-specialties, including the following.

  • HUMINT (Human Intelligence)
  • SIGINT (Signals Intelligence), which consists of...
  • COMINT (Communications Intelligence)
  • ELINT (Electronic Intelligence)
  • FISINT (Foreign Instrumentation Systems Intelligence)
  • IMINT (Imagery Intelligence)
  • MASINT (Measurement and Signatures Intelligence), which consists of...
  • RADINT (Radar Intelligence)
  • IRINT (Infrared Intelligence)
  • NUCINT (Nuclear Intelligence)
  • ACOUSINT (Acoustic Intelligence)
  • OSINT (Open Source Intelligence)
  • CI (Counterintelligence).

CI Personnel perform a Counter-HUMINT mission, seeking to detect, neutralize, and exploit the HUMINT collection efforts of foreign intelligence services. Enlisted CI personnel are termed "CI Agents," (MOS 97B), warrant officer personnel are termed "CI Technicians," (MOS 351B), and officer personnel are termed "CI Officers" (AOC 35E). All three carry specially issued badge and credentials identifying them as a "Special Agent" of the "US Army Intelligence," and are given powers of arrest under Article 136b of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) for espionage and national security crimes. At one time, there was no restriction on how junior in rank an enlisted CI Agent could be, but after October 1, 2005, all new enlisted CI Agents were required to be at the rank of Sergeant/E-5 or higher. Agents "grandfathered" prior to October 1, 2005 have until September 2009 to attain the rank of Sergeant/E-5 in order to be permitted to keep their credentials and duty position. The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) is the foundation of military law in the United States. ...


HUMINT agents are informally called "Case Officers" and make direct contact with persons of non-US citizenship to collect intelligence information. Some famous Case Officers have included Henry Kissinger who reputedly recruited an entire German village to collect intelligence about Soviet troop movements immediately following World War Two. An agent, "Armando" was the Case Officer for General Noriega of Panama, guiding him through a rise through the Panamanian military ranks from Sergeant to "El Jefe" and dictator. Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, Nobel laureate and statesman. ... Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (born February 11, 1938) was a Panamanian general and the de facto military leader of Panama from 1983 to 1989. ...


SIGINT personnel collect and analyze information collected by the world wide operations of the National Security Agency (NSA) and the lower-echelon MI units in combat zones. An Army Warrant Officer Astronaut went into space aboard a Space Shuttle to deploy SIGINT assets in orbit. The first soldier killed in the Vietnam conflict was a SIGINT collector. The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is the United Statess cryptologic organization. ...


IMINT personnel analyze imagery collected by the many "platforms" used by the MI community. These platforms range from orbiting satellite systems to planes, such as the U-2, to hand-held cameras specially modified for clandestine collection.


Museum

The U.S. Army Intelligence Museum is located at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. It features the history of Army intelligence from the Revolutionary war to present. USAF security troops on a training exercise on Fort Huachuca. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


United States Navy and Marine Corps

The USN refers to intelligence officers on a flag officer's staff as the N2. At this level, the N2 is usually a senior officer, such as a Captain or Commander. When the senior-most officer is a Captain or lower, the intelligence officer is called an INTELOFF or INTEL and is usually a Lieutenant Commander or Lieutenant with senior enlisted personnel on hand, such as Master Chief Petty Officers or below. USN redirects here. ... Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. ... This article concerns the rank and title of Captain. ... Insignia of a United States Navy Commander Commander is a military rank used in many navies but not generally in armies or air forces. ... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... Lieutenant is a military, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Good conduct variation Master Chief Petty Officer insignia Master Chief Petty Officer Sleeve Insignia Master Chief Petty Officer is the ninth, and highest, enlisted rate (E-9) in the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard, just above Senior Chief Petty Officer, and is a non-commissioned officer. ...


The U.S. Navy also maintains its own intelligence section, the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI). ONI is the oldest continuously operating intelligence service in the nation. While its mission has taken many different forms over its evolution, the main purpose has not changed from its inception. ONI’s primary mission remains to keep the fleet, national leaders and decision makers informed with critical war fighting information to assure a winning margin over any navy that would challenge this country’s interests. Located in the Federal Center in Suitland, Maryland, the National Maritime Intelligence Center, or NMIC, is the home and nerve center of ONI. The NMIC also supports the United States Coast Guard Intelligence Coordination Center (USCG ICC), the Navy Information Warfare Activity (NIWA), and a component of the Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA). The United States Marine Corps's intelligence structure largely follows the same rules as the Army; however, while at sea naval terminology is used. The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882. ... Canadian Coast Guard ship and helicopter A coast guard enforces maritime law, maintains aids to navigation such as beacons and buoys, and provides other services for the benefit of mariners. ... The Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA) is the military intelligence arm of the United States Marine Corps. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


The Navy trains USN and USMC military intelligence officers at the Navy and Marine Corps Intelligence Training Center at Naval Air Station, Dam Neck.


United States Air Force

Within the USAF, the standard office symbol for intelligence sections within units is IN. The Air Force's intelligence operations are most commonly referred to as ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance). Air intelligence components of combined (multinational) or joint (multi-service) commands refer to air intelligence section heads as A-2. Additionally, the Air Force refers to its intelligence assets as air intelligence. These assets include satellites, U-2s, E3 AWACS (Airborne Warning And Control System), unmanned UAVs like the Predator, Darkstar, and Global Hawk, and RC-135s and many derivatives of the RC-135 (often focusing on a very specific discipline, like ELINT or MASINT). The U.S. Air Force redirects here, for the official song, see The U.S. Air Force (song) The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerospace branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ...


The Air Force's intelligence operations are designed to contribute primarily to air superiority, special operations, mobility, ground support, force protection, Search And Rescue (SAR), Battle Damage Assessment (BDA), and Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW), such as disaster relief.


The Air Force's intelligence fields focus on intelligence applications, SIGINT, ELINT, IMINT, Communications Security (COMSEC), HUMINT, OSINT, and cryptologic linguists. The Air Force trains intelligence officers and enlisted intelligence operators at Goodfellow Air Force Base in San Angelo, Texas. The other services also send personnel to Goodfellow for specific training. Goodfellow Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in San Angelo, Texas. ... Nickname: The Shining Star of Texas Location within the state of Texas County Tom Green County Mayor J.W. Lown Area    - City {{{area_total}}} km²  - Land 144. ...


United States Coast Guard

[The information in this section came from a U.S. Coast Guard web site. Since the Coast Guard is an agency of the United States Government, its works are in the public domain.] The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Coast Guard Intelligence / CGI


Coast Guard intelligence came into existence in 1915 by the assignment of a "Chief Intelligence Officer" in Headquarters. Article 304 in the first set of Coast Guard Regulations provided for the establishment of a Chief Intelligence Officer who was to be attached to the Office of Assistant Commandant. The Chief Intelligence Officer's duties were spelled out in Article 614 of those same Regulations: "securing of information which is essential to the Coast Guard in carrying out its duties; for the dissemination of this information to responsible officers, operating units of the Coast Guard, the Treasury Department and other collaborating agencies; and the maintenance of adequate files and records of law enforcement activities."


The office was relatively unknown until the enactment of the Prohibition Act when CGI grew to a cadre of 45 investigators. CGI was extremely successful during prohibition and an Intelligence Division was established at Headquarters in 1930, followed by district intelligence offices in 1933.


During World War II, CGI was concerned with internal and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence. It was charged with conducting all necessary investigation of Coast Guard personnel, and all applicants for positions therein, as well as investigations of applicants for merchant marine documentation. Further, Coast Guard Intelligence was charged with conducting investigations in connection with the Coast Guard's regulatory functions, except Marine Inspection Regulations.


In 1948, CGI became the primary investigative arm of the service. This mandate for an "investigative service" required that special agents conduct criminal, counterintelligence and personnel security investigations within the Coast Guard's area of responsibility. The majority of these investigations involved those criminal offenses which are in violation of the UCMJ.


In 1996, in compliance with the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency, the Coast Guard reorganized all criminal investigative and protective-services functions into the Coast Guard Investigative Service, or CGIS. The centralization of CGIS meant reorganization from the top down. Special agents now worked for a regional Special Agent-in-Charge (SAC). The SACs were located in seven regional offices in Boston, Portsmouth, VA, Miami, Cleveland, New Orleans, Alameda, CA, and Seattle. The SACs, in turn, reported to the director of CGIS at Headquarters who reported to the Chief of Operations and the vice commandant. At this time, CGIS was comprised of 282 special agents and support personnel.


Sources:


"Coast Guard Intelligence Looking For a Few Good Men and Women." Commandant's Bulletin (Jun 10 1983), p. 34.


"Coast Guard Investigative Service." Coast Guard (Dec 1996), pp. 24-25.


The Coast Guard at War: Volume XII: Intelligence. Washington, DC: Historical Section, Public Information Division, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, January 1, 1949.


United Kingdom

Intelligence requirements for the British Army are provided by the Intelligence Corps, the Royal Air Force being supported by an intelligence Branch. Whilst the Royal Navy does not have a dedicated Intelligence Branch officers from each of the professional branches are employed in intelligence roles, an Operational Intelligence branch does exist in the Royal Naval Reserve. Personnel are frequently employed in a joint environment, with staffs being formed from all three services. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Intelligence Corps (also known as Int Corps) is one of the corps of the British Army. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... RAF Intelligence Crest The Royal Air Force (RAF) Intelligence branch is a dedicated organisation within the RAF that maintains intelligence staff and equipment. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Blue Ensign flown by merchant vessels commanded by officers in the RNR. The Royal Naval Reserve (RNR) is the volunteer reserve force of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom. ...


Strategic level intelligence is provided to the Ministry of Defence and other government departments by the Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS). The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... The Defence Intelligence Staff is part of the United Kingdoms Ministry of Defence. ...


Training for all three services is carried out at Chicksands in Bedfordshire. Chicksands is a village in the Mid Bedfordshire district of Bedfordshire, England, and part of the civil parish of Campton and Chicksands. ... Bedfordshire is a county in England and forms part of the East of England region. ...



The abbreviation MI is used in the popular names of the Security Service (MI5) and the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) reflecting a historical name in the 1920s when they were an element of the Directorate of Military Intelligence. Whilst the designation has not been used since the 1920s they remain common in the media and popular perception. Current MI5 headquarters in Thames House, London The Security Service, usually called MI5, is the British counter-intelligence and security agency. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Directorate of Military Intelligence is a department within the British Ministry of Defence (or MoD for short). ...


See also

Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and γράφειν gráfein to write) is the study of message secrecy. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... Crest of the Defense Language Institute The Defense Language Institute (DLI) is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) educational and research institution, which provides linguistic and cultural instruction to the Department of Defense, other Federal Agencies and numerous and varied other customers. ... Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ... Doublespeak is language deliberately constructed to disguise or distort its actual meaning, often resulting in a communication bypass. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Electronic warfare (EW) has three main components: Electronic Attack (EA) This is the active use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary. ... Espionage is the practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential (spying) without the permission of the holder of the information. ... Emblem of GRU spetsnaz GRU is the English transliteration of the Russian acronym ГРУ, which stands for Гла́вное Разве́дывательное Управле́ние (Glavnoe Razvedyvatelnoe Upravlenie), meaning Main Intelligence Directorate. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A military secret is secret information that is purposely not made available to the general public (and hence to any enemy) by the military in order to gain an advantage, not reveal a weakness, avoid embarrassment, or to help in propaganda efforts. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Lacrosse radar spy satellite under construction A spy satellite (officially referred to as a penis or recon sat[citation needed]) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... The United States Army Intelligence Center (USAIC) is the US Armys school for training military intelligence specialists. ... For the program run by NASAs Marshall Space Propulsion Center see: Integrated Systems Test of an Air-Breathing Rocket It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with C4ISR (Discuss) // Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance ISTAR stands for Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance. ...

External links

References

  • N.J.E. Austin and N.B. Rankov, Exploratio: Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World From the Second Punic War to the Battle of Adrianople. London: Routledge, 1995.
  • Julius Caesar, The Civil War. Translated by Jane F. Mitchell. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967.
  • Cassius Dio, Dio's Roman History. Translated by Earnest Cary. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1916.
  • Francis Dvornik, Origins of Intelligence Services. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1974.
  • J.F.C. Fuller, A Military History of the Western World, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Times to the Battle of Lepanto. New York: Da Capo Press, 1987.
  • Richard A. Gabriel and Karen S. Metz, From Summer to Rome; The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.
  • John Keegan, Intelligence in War. New York: Knopf, 2003.
  • Charles H. Harris & Louis R. Sadler. The Border and the Revolution: Clandestine Activities of the Mexican Revolution 1910-1920. HighLonesome Books, 1988.
  • Henry Landau, The Enemy Within: The Inside Story of German Sabotage in America. G.P. Putnam Sons, 1937.
  • Sidney F. Mashbir. I Was An American Spy. Vantage, 1953.
  • Nathan Miller. Spying for America: The Hidden History of U.S. Intelligence. Dell Publishing, 1989.
  • Ian Sayer & Douglas Botting. America's Secret Army, The Untold Story of the Counter Intelligence Corps. Franklin Watts Publishers, 1989.
  • Barbara W. Tuchman, The Zimmerman Telegram. Ballantine Books, 1958.

  Results from FactBites:
 
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Military intelligence is concerned with providing military commanders an enemy estimate that is as accurate as possible, but errs on the side of more rather than less.
Military planners plan for worst case scenario and need military intelligence to provide them with enemy estimates that are as accurate as possible (to minimize resources expended) yet allow few or no surprises.
Military intelligence would be able to continue to provide worst-case scenarios to military planners for all contingencies (the associated resource costs of each contingency would be one type of metadata used by political leaders).
Military Intelligence - at Home from the book The Lawless State The crimes of the U.S. Inteligence Agencies (1461 words)
As with the FBI and other intelligence agencies, citizens and organizations singled out by military surveillance were those who exercised their right to speak out: the oppressed minorities, advocates of reform, and those on the political "left." The growth of the army intelligence bureaucracy paralleled the growth of dissident protest movements through the 1960s.
Military intelligence undercover agents focused on the civil rights movement of the early 1960s, and then moved to the New Left anti-Vietnam War coalitions of later years.
Often justified as necessary to enforce federal desegregation laws, these intelligence activities were in fact directed primarily against one side of the conflict: the fl-civil rights protesters whom the military had ostensibly been called in to protect.
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