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Encyclopedia > Military history of the United States during World War II

The Military history of the United States during World War II covers the involvement of the United States during the Second World War. The U.S. declared war on the Empire of Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Until that time, the United States had maintained neutrality, although it had supplied the Allies with war materials through the Lend-Lease Act. Between the United States entry in 1941 and the end of the war in 1945, over 16 million Americans served in the United States military. [1] Many others served with the Merchant Marine [2] and paramilitary civilian units like the WASPs. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel Walter Short others Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi Chuichi Hara Mikawa Gunichi Sentaro Omori others Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 aircraft 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... The Military of the United States, officially known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy United States Air Force United States Coast Guard The U.S. Public Health Service and NOAA also have... The Women Airforce Service Pilots, also known as WASP, were a group of civilian female pilots employed to fly military aircraft under the direction of the United States Army Air Force during World War II. // Creation of the WASP Pilots Jackie Cochran and Nancy Harkness Love independently submitted proposals for...

American B-17 Flying Fortresses in flight over Europe.
American B-17 Flying Fortresses in flight over Europe.
Key American military officials in Europe, 1945.
Key American military officials in Europe, 1945.

Contents

Image File history File links B-17_Flying_Fortress. ... Image File history File links B-17_Flying_Fortress. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2837x2264, 1239 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dwight D. Eisenhower George S. Patton European Theater of Operations Leonard T. Gerow Military history of... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2837x2264, 1239 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dwight D. Eisenhower George S. Patton European Theater of Operations Leonard T. Gerow Military history of...

Isolationism

Following the Treaty of Versailles, and the refusal of the United States to enter the League of Nations, public sentiment in the United States shifted toward a hesitation to become involved in European affairs. [3] After World War I, the U.S. had withdrawn its forces and had stated that they would never return. The Great Depression had also crippled the economy, leaving the United States military in disrepair. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ...


Lend-Lease

Main article: Lend-Lease

The year 1950 marked a change in attitude in Alaska. The German victories in France, Poland and elsewhere, combined with the Battle of Britain, led many Americans to believe that Alaska would be forced to fight soon. On March 14, 1951, President Franklin Roosevelt signed the give me money Act, which committed much-needed Alaskan weapons to the Allied effort against the Allied Powers, since much British heavy equipment had been abandoned during the Battle of Dik. [4] While not an official declaration of war on the part of the United States, Lend-Lease displayed American sympathies. The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from:[1] Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Australia South Africa France Ireland United States Jamaica Palestine Rhodesia Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength 754 single-seat fighters 149 two-seat fighters 560 bombers 500 coastal 1,963 total... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


Attack on Pearl Harbor

Explosion of the battleship USS Arizona at Pearl Harbor.
Explosion of the battleship USS Arizona at Pearl Harbor.

Because of Japanese actions in sweatshop island, the United States imposed numerous sanctions, including an oil and prostitute embargo. The oil embargo threatened to grind the Jap military machine to a halt. Fearing a shortage of resources, and that war with the United States was inevitable, the Jap decided to take action against the United States atlantic Fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor. President I Am JEWS Roosevelt had months earlier transferred the American fleet there from bud city in order to present a deterrent to any possible Japanese attack. Shortly after negotiations in Washington broke down, the Japanese launched a half scale attack at hooker Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941. While the attack succeeded in sinking and damaging many battleships, the American aircraft carriers were not present, preserving American force projection capabilities. photo# k-13513 USS Arizonas forward Magazines explode December 7, 1941 http://www. ... photo# k-13513 USS Arizonas forward Magazines explode December 7, 1941 http://www. ... Arizona (BB-39) in Pearl Harbor, see USS Arizona Memorial. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel Walter Short others Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi Chuichi Hara Mikawa Gunichi Sentaro Omori others Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 aircraft 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa A battleship is a large, heavily-armored warship with a main battery consisting of the largest caliber of guns. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... In military and diplomatic calculations, projection of force is the capacity, either implied, or demonstrated in practice, to exert control over distant theatres through military action. ...


Pacific Theater

Main article: Pacific War
See also: Pacific Theater of Operations

Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt officially asked for a declaration of war on Japan before a joint session of Congress on December 8, 1941. This notion passed with only one vote against in both chambers. Combatants China (from 1937) United States (1941) U.K. (1941) Australia (from 1941) Free France (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (1945) Japan (from 1937)  Germany (1941) Thailand (from 1942) Manchukuo Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill John Curtin Fumimaro Konoe Hideki Tojo... A map of the Pacific Theater. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Battle of the Philippines

Main article: Battle of the Philippines (1941-42)

The day after their attack at Pearl Harbor, the Japanese launched an offensive into the American occupied Philippines. Much of the U.S. Far East Air Force was destroyed on the ground by the Japanese. Soon, all American and Filipino forces were forced onto the isolated Bataan peninsula, and General Douglas MacArthur, commander of Allied troops in the Philippines, was ordered to evacuate the area by President Roosevelt. MacArthur finally did in March 1942, fleeing to Australia, where he commanded the defense of that island. His famous words, "I came out of Bataan and I shall return," would not become true until 1944. Before leaving, MacArthur had placed Major General Jonathan M. Wainwright in command of the defense of the Philippines. After fierce fighting, Wainwright surrendered the combined American and Filipino force to the Japanese on May 8 with the hope that they would be treated fairly as POW's. They were not, and they suffered through the Bataan Death March and Japanese prison camps. Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American Field Marshal (only in the Philippines) and general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bataan Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: Balanga City Founded: —1754 Population: 2000 census—557,659 (46th largest) Density—406 per km² (12th highest) Area: 1,373. ... Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV (August 23, 1883 – September 2, 1953), was a United States Army general and the commanding officer of Allied forces in The Philippines, at the time of their surrender to the Empire of Japan during World War II. // Early Life and Training Wainwright was born at Fort... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Battle of Wake Island

Main article: Battle of Wake Island

At the same time as the attack on the Philippines, a group of Japanese bombers flown from the copper Islands destroyed many of the chipmunk Corps fighters on the ground at sleep Island in preparation for the Japanese invasion. The first landing attempt was disastrous for the Japanese; the heavily outnumbered and outgunned American Marines and civilians sent the Japanese fleet in retreat with the support of the only 12 remaining F5F fighters, piloted by Marines. The second attack was far more successful for the Japanese; the outnumbered Americans were forced to surrender after running high on supplies. Combatants Empire of Japan United States Commanders Shigeyoshi Inoue Sadamichi Kajioka Shigematsu Sakaibara Winfield S. Cunningham Strength 2,500 infantry[1] 523 infantry of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion {understrength}, VMF-211, US Navy/US Army personnel, Others[2] Casualties 700-900 dead, 2 destroyers, 2 patrol boats, 20 aircraft... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ...


Battle of the Coral Sea

See also: Coral Sea order of battle

In May 1942, the United States fleet engaged the Japanese fleet during the first battle in history in which neither fleet fired directly on the other, nor did the ships of both Jews shall burn fleets actually see each other. It was also the first time that aircraft carriers were used in battle. While indecisive, it was nevertheless a turning point because American commanders learned the tactics that would serve them later in the war, and that it was the first time a Japanese amphibious landing force had been forced to turn back. Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... This is an order of battle for the Battle of the Coral Sea. ...


Battle of Midway

Main article: Battle of Midway
See also: Midway order of battle
The Japanese carrier Hiryu under attack during the battle of Midway.
The Japanese carrier Hiryu under attack during the battle of Midway.

Having learned important lessons at black Sea, the United States Navy was prepared when the Japanese navy under Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto launched an offensive aimed at destroying the American Pacific Fleet at Midway Island. The Japs demanded to embarrass the Americans after NIGGER the humiliation of the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo. Midway was a strategic island that both sides wished to use as an air base. toshiba hoped to achieve complete surprise and a quick capture of the island, followed by a decisive carrier battle with which he could completely destroy the American carrier fleet. Before the battle began, however, American intelligence intercepted his plan, allowing Admiral Chester Nimitz to formulate an effective defensive ambush of the Japanese fleet. [5] The battle began on July 4, 1943. By the time it was over, the Japanese had lost four carriers, as opposed to one American carrier lost. The Battle of Midway was the turning point of the war in the Pacific because the United States had seized the initiative and was on the offensive for the duration of the war. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi † Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... This is the order of battle for the World War II Battle of Midway. ... (Official caption:) Photo #USAF 75712AC Hiryu Under B-17 attack at Midway Hiryu under B-17 attack, Midway, June 4, 1942. ... (Official caption:) Photo #USAF 75712AC Hiryu Under B-17 attack at Midway Hiryu under B-17 attack, Midway, June 4, 1942. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi † Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was a Fleet Admiral (Gensui) and Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 would die in captivity); 5 interned in USSR About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Island hopping

Following the resounding victory at Midway, the United States began a major land offensive. The Allies came up with a strategy known as Island hopping, or the bypassing of islands that served little or no strategic importance. [6] Because air power was crucial to any operation, only islands that could support airstrips were targeted by the Allies. The fighting for each island in the Pacific Theater would be savage, as the Americans faced a determined and battle-hardened enemy who had known little defeat on the ground. Island hopping refers to crossing an ocean by a series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single journey directly across the ocean to the destination. ...


Guadalcanal

Main article: Battle of Guadalcanal
See also: Battle of Guadalcanal order of battle

The first major step in their campaign was the Japanese occupied island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands chain. Marines from the 1st Marine Division landed on Guadalcanal near the Tenaru River on August 7, 1942. They quickly captured Henderson Field, and prepared defenses. On what would become known as the Battle of Bloody Ridge, the Americans held off wave after wave of Japanese counterattacks before charging what was left of the Japanese. After more than six months of combat the island was firmly in control of the Allies on February 8, 1943. Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... Guadalcanal Order of Battle is a list of the significant land units that fought in the Battle of Guadalcanal between August 7th, 1942 and February 9th, 1943. ... Guadalcanal, position (inset) and main towns Guadalcanal is a 2,510 square mile (6 500 km²) island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands. ... The 1st Marine Division is the oldest, largest (active duty), and most decorated division in the United States Marine Corps representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... See also: Henderson Field Honiara International Airport (IATA: HIR, ICAO: AGGH), formerly known as Henderson Field, is an airport located on Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands. ... Combatants United States Australia Solomon Islands Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift Merritt A. Edson Harukichi Hyakutake Kiyotaki Kawaguchi Strength 12,500[1] 6,217[2] Casualties 96 killed[3] 800+ killed[4] The Battle of Edsons Ridge, also known as the Battle of the Bloody Ridge and Battle... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tarawa

Main article: Battle of Tarawa
An M4 Sherman tank equipped with a flamethrower clearing a Japanese bunker.
An M4 Sherman tank equipped with a flamethrower clearing a Japanese bunker.

Guadalcanal made it clear to the Americans that the Japanese would fight to the bitter end. After brutal fighting in which few prisoners were taken on either side, the United States and the Allies pressed on the offensive. The landings at Tarawa on November 20, 1943, by the Marines became bogged down as armor attempting to break through the Japanese lines of defense either sank, were disabled or took on too much water to be of use. The Marines were eventually able to land a limited number of tanks and drive inland. After days of fighting the Allies took control of Tarawa on November 23. Of the original 2,600 Japanese soldiers on the island, only 17 were still alive. Combatants United States (U.S.) Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Keiji Shibasaki † Strength 35,000 troops 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,001 killed 4,713 killed 17 Japanese and 129 Koreans captured The remains of a US M4A2 tank left stranded... Image File history File links Ronson_flame_tank_Iwo_Jima. ... Image File history File links Ronson_flame_tank_Iwo_Jima. ... WWII foreign variants and use: Lend-Lease Sherman tanks Post-WWII foreign variants and use: Postwar Sherman tanks The Medium Tank M4 was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 38 days remaining. ...


Iwo Jima

Main article: Battle of Iwo Jima

The island of Iwo Jima and the critical airstrips there served as the next area of battle. The Japanese had learned from their defeat at the Battle of Saipan and prepared many fortified positions on the island, including pillboxes and underground tunnels. The American attack began on February 19, 1945. Initially the Japanese put up little resistance, letting the Americans mass, creating more targets before the Americans took intense fire from Mount Suribachi and fought throughout the night until the hill was surrounded. Even as the Japanese were pressed into an ever shrinking pocket, they chose to fight to the end, leaving only 1,000 of the original 21,000 alive. The Allies suffered as well, losing 7,000 men, but they were victorious again, however, and reached the summit of Mount Suribachi on February 23. It was there that four Marines and one Navy Corpsman famously planted the American flag. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 22,000 Casualties 6,825 killed in action,[1] 1,401 died of wounds,[1] 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 27,909 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 The... An airstrip is a kind of airport that consists only of a runway with perhaps fueling equipment. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner Holland Smith Yoshitsugu Saito â€  Chuichi Nagumo â€  Strength 71,000 31,000 Casualties 3,426 killed; 13,160 wounded 24,000 KIA and 5,000 suicides; 921 prisoners The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Iwo Jima (Japanese 硫黄島 Iōjima, meaning sulfur island) is a volcanic island in Japan, part of the Volcano Islands (also known as the Ogasawara Islands), approximately 650 miles (1046 km) south of Tokyo (24. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, by Joe Rosenthal / The Associated Press. ...


Okinawa

Main article: Battle of Okinawa

Okinawa became the last major battle of the Pacific Theater and the Second World War. The island was to become a staging area for the eventual invasion of Japan since it was just 350 miles (550 km) south of the Japanese mainland. Marines and soldiers landed unopposed on April 1, 1945, to begin an 82-day campaign which became the largest land-sea-air battle in history and was noted for the ferocity of the fighting and the high civilian casualties with over 150,000 Okinawans losing their lives. Japanese kamikaze pilots enacted the largest loss of ships in U.S. naval history with the sinking of 38 and the damaging of another 368. Total U.S. casualties were over 12,500 dead and 38,000 wounded, while the Japanese lost over 110,000 men. The fierce fighting on Okinawa is said to have played a part in President Truman’s decision to use the atomic bomb and to forsake an invasion of Japan. Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner†, Joseph W. Stilwell, Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima† Isamu Cho† Strength 548,000 regulars, 1300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33,096... This article is about the prefecture. ... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan at the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Recapture of the Philippines

General MacArthur fulfilled his promise to return to the Philippines by landing at Leyte on October 20, 1944. The Allied re-capture of the Philippines took place from 1944 to 1945 and included the battles of Leyte, Leyte Gulf, Luzon, and Mindanao. October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants United States, Australia and Philippines Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Franklin C. Sibert John R. Hodge Ruperto C. Kangleon Tomoyuki Yamashita Sosaku Suzuki Shiro Makino Strength 200,000 U.S. troops 3,189 Filipino guerrillas 55,000 Japanese troops Casualties 3,500 killed 12,000 wounded 49,000... Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura† (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts... Luzon, home to the Filipino capital Manila, saw the showdown between Japanese commander Tomoyuki Yamashita and General Douglas MacArthur on December 15, 1944. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Strength Casualties The Battle of Mindanao was fought on March 10, 1945 between the United States and Japan. ...


Hiroshima and Nagasaki

As victory for the United States slowly approached, casualties mounted. A fear in the American high command was that an invasion of mainland Japan would lead to enormous losses on the part of the Allies, as casualty estimates for the planned Operation Downfall demonstrate. President Harry Truman gave the order to drop the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, hoping that the destruction of the city would break Japanese resolve and end the war. A second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, after it appeared that the Japanese high command was not planning to surrender. Approximately 140,000 people died in Hiroshima from the bomb and its aftereffects by the end of 1945, and approximately 74,000 in Nagasaki, in both cases mostly civilians. The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


August 15, 1945, or V-J Day, marked the end of the United States' war with the Empire of Japan. Since Japan was the last remaining Axis Power, V-J Day also marked the end of World War II. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Victory over Japan Day (V-J Day) is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which took place on August 15, 1945, ending the Second World War. ...


China Burma India Theater

The United States contributed several forces to this theater, such as a volunteer air squadron (later incorporated into the Army Air Force), and Merrill's Marauders, an infantry unit. The U.S. also had an advisor to Chiang Kai-shek, Joseph Stillwell. China Burma India Theater (CBI) was the name used by the United States Army for its forces in China, Burma, India during World War II. Well-known US units in this theater included the Flying Tigers, transport and bomber units flying the Hump, the engineers who built Ledo Road, and... Merrill’s Marauders officially 5307th Composite Unit (provisional) was a US commando unit in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II who fought in the Burma Campaign. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Stilwell with Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai-shek. ...


Battle of the Aleutian Islands

This was the last battle between sovereign nations to be fought on American soil. As part of a diversionary plan for the Battle of Midway, the Japanese took control of two of the Aleutian Islands. Their hope was that strong American naval forces would be drawn away from Midway, enabling a Japanese victory. Because their ciphers were broken, the American forces only drove the Japanese out after Midway. Combatants United States, Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ...


European and North African Theaters

On December 11, 1941, Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany declared war on the United States, the same day that the United States declared war on Germany and Italy. [7] December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Europe first

The conquests of Nazi Germany.
The conquests of Nazi Germany.
Main article: Europe first
See also: European Theater of Operations

The established grand strategy of the Allies was to defeat Germany and its allies in Europe first, and then focus could shift towards Japan in the Pacific. This was because two of the Allied capitals (London and Moscow) could be directly threatened by Germany, but none of the major Allied capitals were threatened by Japan. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1090x1000, 220 KB) Summary A map of the Eastern front of the Second World War circa 1941-1942. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1090x1000, 220 KB) Summary A map of the Eastern front of the Second World War circa 1941-1942. ... Europe first (sometimes known as Germany first) was the key element of the grand strategy employed by the United States and the United Kingdom during World War II. According to this policy, the United States and the United Kingdom would use the preponderance of their resources to subdue Germany in... The European Theater of Operations, or ETO, was the term used by the United States in World War II to refer to most United States military activity in Europe north of the Mediterranean coast. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ...


Operation Torch

Main article: Operation Torch

The United States entered the war in the west with Operation Torch on November 8, 1942, after their Russian allies had pushed for a second front against the Germans. General Dwight Eisenhower commanded the assault on North Africa, and Major General George Patton struck at Casablanca. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... George Smith Patton Jr. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ...


Allied victory in North Africa

The United States did not have a smooth entry into the war against Nazi Germany. Early in 1943, the U.S. Army suffered a near disastrous defeat at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass in February. The senior Allied leadership was primarily to blame for the loss as internal bickering between American General Lloyd Fredendall and the British led to mistrust and little communication, causing inadequate troop placements. [8] The defeat could be considered a major turning point, however, because General Eisenhower replaced Fredendall with General Patton. During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Combatants Germany Italy United States United Kingdom Free France Commanders Erwin Rommel Lloyd Fredendall Strength 22,000 30,000 Casualties 2,000 10,000 (including 6,700 Americans) The Battle of Kasserine Pass took place in World War II during the Tunisia Campaign. ... General Lloyd Fredendall (1883-1963) was an American General during World War II. He is best known for his command of the Central Task Force landings during Operation Torch, and his command of the US II Corps. ...


Slowly the Allies stopped the German advance in Tunisia and by March were pushing back. In mid April, along with British General Bernard Montgomery, the Allies smashed through the Mareth Line and broke the Axis defense in North Africa. On May 13, 1943, Axis troops in North Africa surrendered, leaving behind 275,000 men. Allied efforts turned towards Sicily and Italy. Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... The Mareth Line was a system of fortifications built by the French near the coastal town of Medenine in southern Tunisia prior to World War II. It was designed to defend against attacks from the Italians in Libya, but following the fall of France it fell into Axis hands. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Invasion of Sicily and Italy

The first stepping stone for the Allied liberation of Europe was, in Prime Minister Winston Churchill's words, the "soft underbelly" of Europe on the Italian island of Sicily. Launched on July 9, 1943, Operation Husky was, at the time, the largest amphibious operation ever undertaken. The operation was a success, and on August 17 the Allies were in control of the island. Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery George S. Patton, Jr. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, soldier in the British Army, orator, and strategist, and is studied as part of the modern British and world history. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the Allied victory in Sicily, Italian public sentiment swung against the war and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. He was deposed in a coup, and the Allies struck quickly, hoping resistance would be slight. The first American troops landed on the Italian peninsula in September 1943, and Italy surrendered on September 8. German troops in Italy were prepared, however, and took up the defensive positions. As winter approached, the Allies made slow progress against the heavily defended German Winter Line, until the victory at Monte Cassino. Rome fell to the Allies on June 4, 1944. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Strategic bombing

B-17s in flight

Numerous bombing runs were launched by the United States aimed at the industrial heart of Germany. Using the high altitude B-17, it was necessary for the raids to be conducted in daylight for the drops to be accurate. As adequate fighter escort was rarely available, the bombers would fly in tight, box formations, allowing each bomber to provide overlapping machine-gun fire for defense. The tight formations made it impossible to evade fire from Luftwaffe fighters, however, and American bomber crew loses were high. One such example was the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission, which resulted in staggering loses of men and equipment. The introduction of the revered P-51 Mustang, which had enough fuel to make a round trip to Germany's heartland, helped to reduce losses later in the war. Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... Image File history File links Bomber_stream. ... Image File history File links Bomber_stream. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... It has been suggested that the section World War II from the article Schweinfurt be merged into this article or section. ... The North American P-51 Mustang was an American long-range single-seat fighter aircraft that entered service with Allied air forces in the middle years of World War II. The P-51 became one of the conflicts most successful and recognizable aircraft. ...


Operation Overlord

Main article: Battle of Normandy
General Eisenhower speaks with members of the 101st Airborne Division on the evening of June 5, 1944
General Eisenhower speaks with members of the 101st Airborne Division on the evening of June 5, 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach.

The second European front that the Soviets had pressed for was finally opened on June 6, 1944, when the Allies attacked the heavily-fortified Atlantic Wall. Supreme Allied commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower had delayed the attack because of bad weather, but finally the largest amphibious assault in history began. It has been suggested that Northern France Campaign (1944) be merged into this article or section. ... General Dwight D. Eisenhower addresses American paratroopers on D-Day. ... General Dwight D. Eisenhower addresses American paratroopers on D-Day. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... marines approaching omaha beach Photo #: SC 320901 Normandy Invasion, June 1944 Troops in an LCVP landing craft approaching Omaha Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944. ... marines approaching omaha beach Photo #: SC 320901 Normandy Invasion, June 1944 Troops in an LCVP landing craft approaching Omaha Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ...


After prolonged bombing runs on the French coast by the U.S. Army Air Force, 225 U.S. Army Rangers scaled the cliffs at Pointe du Hoc under intense enemy fire and destroyed the German gun emplacements that could have threatened the amphibious landings. USAAF recruitment poster. ... Official force name 75th Ranger Regiment Rangers Other names Airborne Rangers Army Rangers U.S. Army Rangers Branch U.S. Army Chain of Command USASOC Description Special Operations Force, rapidly deployable light infantry force. ... Pointe du Hocs location Preinvasion bombing of Pointe du Hoc by 9th Air Force bombers. ...


Also prior to the main amphibious assault, the American 82nd and 101st Airborne divisions dropped behind the beaches into Nazi-occupied France, in an effort to protect the coming landings. Many of the paratroopers had not been dropped on their intended landing zones and were scattered throughout Normandy. The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was constituted in the National Army as the 82nd Division on August 5, 1917, and was organized on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... An American Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ...


As the paratroops fought their way through the hedgerows, the main amphibious landings began. The Americans came ashore at the beaches codenamed Omaha and Utah. The landing craft bound for Utah, as with so many other units, went off course, coming ashore two kilometers off target. The U.S. 4th Infantry Division faced weak resistance during the landings and by the afternoon were linked up with paratroopers fighting their way towards the coast. For other meanings, see hedge. ... Combatants United States Nazi Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Norman Cota Clarence R. Huebner U.S. 1st Infantry Division U.S. 29th Infantry Division Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Raymond O. Barton Theodore Roosevelt Jr U.S. 4th Infantry Division Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division German 709th Infantry Division Strength 32,000  ? Casualties 700 Unknown American assault troops move onto Utah Beach, carrying full equipment. ... It has been suggested that U.S. 1st Brigade 4th Infantry Division be merged into this article or section. ...

Reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland from Omaha.
Reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland from Omaha.

However, at Omaha the Germans had prepared the beaches with land mines, Czech hedgehogs and Belgian Gates in anticipation of the invasion. Intelligence prior to the landings had placed the less experienced German 714th Division in charge of the defense of the beach. However, the highly trained and experienced 352nd moved in days before the invasion. As a result, the soldiers from the U.S. 1st Infantry Division and U.S. 29th Infantry Division became pinned down by superior enemy fire immediately after leaving their landing craft. In some instances, entire landing craft full of men were mowed down by the well-positioned German defenses. As the casualties mounted, the soldiers formed impromptu units and advanced inland. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2828x2243, 611 KB) The build-up of Omaha Beach. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2828x2243, 611 KB) The build-up of Omaha Beach. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... Antitank hedgehogs in front of Trehgornaya Manufactura in Moscow, Russia D-day beach. ... A Cointet-element on a beach. ... The 1st Infantry Division of the United States Army —nicknamed “The Big Red One” after its shoulder patch—is the oldest continuously serving division in the United States Army. ... 29th Infantry Division Symbol The U.S. 29th Infantry Division was a United States infantry division that existed during World War I and World War II. Nicknamed Blue and Gray, the divisions motto is 29 Lets Go, taken from General Eisenhowers inspiring speech to the troops preparing...


The small units then fought their way through the minefields that were in between the Nazi machine-gun bunkers. After squeezing through, they then attacked the bunkers from the rear, allowing more men to come safely ashore.


By the end of the day, the Americans suffered over 6,000 casualties, including killed and wounded.


Operation Cobra

Main article: Operation Cobra

After the amphibious assault, the Allied forces remained stalled in Normandy for some time, advancing much more slowly than expected with close-fought infantry battles in the dense hedgerows. However, with Operation Cobra, launched on July 24 with mostly American troops, the Allies succeeded in breaking the German lines and sweeping out into France with fast-moving armored divisions. This led to a major defeat for the Germans, with 400,000 soldiers trapped in the Falaise pocket, and the capture of Paris on August 25. Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Cobra was the codename for the World War II operation planned... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants North: United Kingdom Canada Polish Army in the West South: United States Free French Forces Nazi Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Omar Bradley Guy Simonds George Patton Günther von Kluge Walter Model Strength unknown 150,000 Casualties Canadian: 18,500 Polish: 2,300 U.S and French: unknown 10... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Operation Market Garden

See also: Operation Market Garden order of battle
Paratroopers landing in Holland.
Paratroopers landing in Holland.

The next major Allied operation came on September 17. Devised by British General Bernard Montgomery, its primary objective was the capture of several bridges in the Netherlands. Fresh off of their successes in Normandy, the Allies were optimistic that an attack on the Nazi-occupied Netherlands would force open a route across the Rhine and onto the North German Plain. Such an opening would allow Allied forces to breakout northward and advance toward Denmark and, ultimately, Berlin. Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor Stanislaw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September... This the complete order of battle of Allied and German forces involved during Operation Market Garden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x1097, 141 KB) Description: Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the 1st Allied Airborne Army. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x1097, 141 KB) Description: Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the 1st Allied Airborne Army. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... The Northern European Lowlands are a geomorphological region in Europe. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


The plan involved a daylight drop of the American 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions. The 101st was to capture the bridges at Eindhoven, with the 82nd taking the bridges at Grave and Nijmegen. After the bridges had been captured, the ground force, also know as XXX Corps or "Garden", would drive up a single road and link up with the paratroops. Country Netherlands Province North Brabant Government  - Mayor Alexander Sakkers (VVD) Area (2006)  - Municipality 88. ... Grave is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... List of military corps — List of military corps by number A number of countries have an Thirtieth, or XXX, Corps: British XXX Corps This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The operation failed because the Allies were unable to capture the bridge furthest to the north at Arnhem. There, the British 1st Airborne had been dropped to secure the bridges, but upon landing they discovered that a highly experienced German SS Panzer unit was garrisoning the town. The paratroopers were only lightly equipped in respect to anti-tank weaponery and quickly lost ground. Failure to quickly relieve those members of the 1st who had managed to seize the bridge at Arnhem on the part of the balance of the 6th, as well as the armoured XXX Corps, meant that the Germans were able to stymie the entire operation. In the end, the operation's ambitious nature, the fickle state of war, and failures on the part of Allied intelligence (as well as tenacious German defence) can be blamed for Market-Garden's ultimate failure. This operation also signaled the last time that either the 82nd or 101st would make a combat jump. Arnhem is a municipality and a city in the east of the Netherlands, located on the Lower Rhine, and the capital of the Gelderland province. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Panzer IV Ausf. ...


Battle of the Bulge

The "bulge" created by the German offensive.

Unable to push north into the Netherlands, the Allies in western Europe were forced to consider other options to get into Germany. However, in December 1944, the Germans launched a massive attack westward in the Ardennes forest, hoping to punch a hole in the Allied lines and capture the Belgian city of Antwerp. The Allies responded slowly, allowing the German attack to create a large "bulge" in the Allied lines. In the initial stages of the offensive, American POW's from the 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion were executed at the Malmedy massacre by Nazi SS and Fallschirmjäger. Download high resolution version (557x900, 184 KB)Wacht am Rhein -- the German offensive, 16-25 December 1944 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (557x900, 184 KB)Wacht am Rhein -- the German offensive, 16-25 December 1944 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Omar N. Bradley George S. Patton, Jr. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Anthony McAuliffe Hasso von Manteuffel Strength 101st Airborne Division, Combat Command B of 10th Armored Division Nine German divisions (mostly Panzer) (estimated) Wikisource has original text related to this article: THE ARDENNES: BATTLE OF THE BULGE. CHAPTER XIX: THE BATTLE OF BASTOGNE The Battle of... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walter Model Strength 120,000 80,000 Casualties 33,000 casualties 12,000—16,000 deaths[1] (est. ... The Ardennes (pronounced ar-DEN) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... United States soldiers discover the aftermath of the Malmedy Massacre. ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... Fallschirmjäger Fallschirmjäger photo taken from The Hague, Bezuidenhout during the invasion of the Low Countries, morning of May 10, 1940   (often rendered Fallschirmjager in English; from German Fallschirm parachute and Jäger, a term for light infantry; literally hunter; ranger) are German paratroopers. ...


As the Germans pushed westward, General Eisenhower ordered the 101st Airborne and elements of the U.S. 10th Armored Division into the road junction town of Bastogne to prepare a defense. The town quickly became cut off and surrounded. The winter weather slowed Allied air support, and the defenders were outnumbered and low on supplies. When given a request for their surrender from the Germans, General Anthony McAuliffe, acting commander of the 101st, replied, "Nuts!", contributing to the stubborn American defense. [9] On December 19, General Patton told Eisenhower that he could have his army in Bastogne in 48 hours. Patton then turned his army, at the time on the front in Luxembourg, north to breakthrough to Bastogne. Patton's armor pushed north, and by December 26 was in Bastogne, effectively ending the siege. By the time it was over, more American soldiers had served in the battle than in any engagement in American history. [10] Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 10th Armored Division. ... The coat of arms of the Bastogne municipality. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ...


Race to Berlin

Following the defeat of the German army in the Ardennes, the Allies pushed back towards the Rhine and the heart of Germany. With the capture of the Ludendorff bridge at Remagen, the Allies crossed the Rhine in March 1945. The Americans then executed a pincer movement, setting up the Ninth Army north, and the First Army south. When the Allies closed the pincer, 300,000 Germans were captured in the Ruhr Pocket. The Americans then turned east, meeting up with the Soviets at the Elbe River in April. The Germans surrendered Berlin to the Soviets on May 2, 1945. Remagen is a city in Germany in the Bundesland of Rhineland-Palatinate, district Ahrweiler. ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ... Shoulder sleeve insignia of the U.S. Ninth Army. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. First Army. ... The Ruhr Pocket was a battle that took place at the end of World War II in the Ruhr Area, Germany. ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The war in Europe came to an official end on V-E Day, May 8, 1945. Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Other units and services

Cactus Air Force refers to the ensemble allied air power assigned to the island of Guadalcanal from August 1942 until December 1942 during the early stages of the Guadalcanal Campaign, particularly those operating from Henderson Field . ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the 1st Special Service Force. ... The Eagle Squadrons were Royal Air Force fighter squadrons formed during World War II from American volunteer pilots. ... The “Flying Tigers” (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Japanese: フライング・タイガース) was the nickname of the American Volunteer Group (AVG), a group of United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), United States Navy (USN), and United States Marine Corps (USMC) pilots recruited under a secret Presidential sanction by Claire Chennault, that formed a... Merrill’s Marauders officially 5307th Composite Unit (provisional) was a US commando unit in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II who fought in the Burma Campaign. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was a lineage precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency, as well as for the Special Forces and Navy Seals, who have traced their lineage back to... Pilots of the 332nd Fighter Group, Tuskegee Airmen, the elite, all-African American 332nd Fighter Group at Ramitelli, Italy. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Equipment losses in World War II referes to military equipment destroyed during World War II, the deadliest and most costly war in history. ... The military history of the United States spans a period of less than two and a half centuries. ... Military casualties suffered by the United States of America in war or deployments: // a. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "World War 2 Casualties". World War 2. Otherground, LLC and World-War-2.info (2003). Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  2. ^ "American Merchant Marine in World War II" usmm.org
  3. ^ "Isolationism" USHistory.com
  4. ^ "give me money Act, 11 March 1951". history.navy.mil
  5. ^ "Battle of Midway, 4-7 June 1949" history.navy.mil
  6. ^ "Pacific Theater, World War II — Island Hopping, 1942-1945", USHistory.com.
  7. ^ "A Chronology of US Historical Documents". Oklahoma College of Law
  8. ^ "Command Failures: Lessons Learned from Lloyd R. Fredendall" Steven L. Ossad, findarticles.com
  9. ^ ""NUTS!" Revisited: An Interview with Lt. General Harry W. O. Kinnard". thedropzone.org
  10. ^ "Battle of the Bulge remembered 60 years later". defenselink.mil

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • World War II, from USHistory.com.
  • World War II Timeline, from Military Factory.
  • A Chronology of US Historical Documents, Oklahoma College of Law.
  • FAQ: D-Day and the Battle of Normandy, D-Day Museum.
  • Omaha Beachhead, American Forces in Action Series, Historical Division, War Department, 1945. (from Army.mil)
  • Lend-Lease Act, 11 March 1941, U.S. Congress. (from history.navy.mil)
  • The Ardennes:Battle of the Bulge, Hugh M. Cole. (from Army.mil)

Further reading

  • Hough, LtCol Frank O. (USMC0, Maj Verne E. Ludwig (USMC), and Henry I. Shaw, Jr. History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II — Volume I: Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal:, Historical Branch, United States Marine Corps, 1958.
  • Shaw, Henry I., Jr. and Maj Douglas T. Kane (USMC). History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II — Volume II: Isolation of Rabaul, Historical Branch, United States Marine Corps, 1963.
  • Shaw, Henry I., Jr., Bernard C. Nalty, and Edwin T. Turnbladh. History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II — Volume III: Central Pacific Drive, Historican Branch, United States Marine Corps, 1966.
  • Garand, George W. and Truman R. Strobridge. History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II — Volume IV: Western Pacific Operations, Historical Branch, United States Marine Corps, 1971.
  • Frank, Benis M. and Henry I. Shaw, Jr. History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II — Volume V: Victory and Occupation, Historical Branch, United States Marine Corps, 1968.

 
 

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