FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Military history of New Zealand

The military history of New Zealand spans several hundred years. Before and for some time after the arrival of Europeans, the indigenous Māori fought each other, first with close range weapons of wood and stone, and then with muskets purchased from Europeans. Colonisation by Britain led to a series of wars in the nineteenth century in which settler and imperial troops and their Māori allies fought against other Māori and a handful of Pākehā. In the first half of the twentieth century, New Zealanders of all races fought alongside Britain in the Boer War and both World Wars. In the second half of the century and into this century, New Zealand gave token military assistance to the United States in various wars. New Zealand has also contributed peacekeeping troops to various areas. Languages Māori, English Religions Māori religion, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Polynesian peoples, Austronesian peoples The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and their language. ... A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smooth-bore long gun. ... Pākehā is a term generally used to describe New Zealanders of Anglo/European extraction, but some Māori may use it to refer to any non-Māori person. ...

Contents

Māori tribal warfare before 1806

The level of inter-tribal warfare amongst pre-European Māori is unknown. Oral histories, legends and whakapapa include many stories of battles and wars but little research has been carried out into how often wars actually happened. Warriors were held in high esteem, and fought with a range of weapons including stone and wooden clubs (patu) fighting staffs (taiaha) and spears (tao). Māori were unusual in having no distance weapons, so all fighting took place at close range. Defence was based on hill forts (pā), the remains of which can be seen all over New Zealand, especially the North Island. Warfare seems to have been uncommon following the arrival of Māori in New Zealand, as there was enough land and resources to go around. Archaeological evidence suggests that following population growth and the extinction of the moa (a large flightless bird), warfare increased as tribes and hapū (subtribes) competed over scarce resources. At some point, perhaps before this cultural change, one group migrated to the Chatham Islands, where they developed the largely pacifist Moriori culture. Their pacifism left the Moriori unable to defend themselves when the islands were invaded by mainland Māori in the 1830s. Languages Māori, English Religions Māori religion, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Polynesian peoples, Austronesian peoples The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and their language. ... Whakapapa or genealogy is a fundamental principle that permeates the whole of Maori culture. ... A patu is a short-handled Māori club made of bone, stone or wood. ... A Taiaha (pronounced Tie-ah-ha) is a weapon carried by the Maori warriors of New Zealand. ... Pā or Marae were the pre-European, Māori forts considerd the Tribal social centre and socio-political center of all Iwi. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... Pacifist may mean: an advocate of pacifism. ... Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Musket Wars (1806-1845)

Main article: Musket Wars

The Musket Wars were a series of battles in the early nineteenth century, fought between various Māori tribal groups, mainly on the North Island. Northern tribes, such as the rival Ngā Puhi and Ngāti Whātua, were the first to obtain muskets and inflicted heavy casualties upon each other and on neighbouring tribes, some of whom had never seen firearms. In time, all the tribes traded to obtain muskets and the conflict ultimately reached an uneasy stalemate. The wars gave Māori experience in fighting with and defending against guns - experience which would be vital in the New Zealand Wars. The Musket Wars were a series of battles fought between various tribal groups of Maori in the early 1800s, primarily on the North Island in New Zealand. ... The Musket Wars were a series of battles fought between various tribal groups of Maori in the early 1800s, primarily on the North Island in New Zealand. ... Languages Māori, English Religions Māori religion, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Polynesian peoples, Austronesian peoples The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and their language. ... Ngā Puhi form one of the major and (with over 100,000 members) the single most numerous of the Māori tribes or iwi in New Zealand, occupying much the Northland Peninsula, also known as Tai Tokerau, north of the city of Auckland. ... Ngāti Whātua is a Maori iwi (tribe) of New Zealand. ... A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smooth-bore long gun. ...


Land Wars / New Zealand Wars

Main article: New Zealand Land Wars

The New Zealand or Land Wars were a series of wars fought between Māori on one side and a mixture of settler troops, imperial troops and other Māori on the other. What the wars were 'about' has been debated by historians, with Keith Sinclair arguing that they were about land, while James Belich has argued that although land was a major factor, the wars were essentially a contest over sovereignty. This debate is reflected in the naming of the wars: there is no real consensus over whether they should be called the 'New Zealand Wars' or the 'Land Wars', although Belich's television series about the conflict has popularised the former term. The name 'Māori Wars' has fallen into disuse. A Māori name for the conflict is 'Te Riri Pākehā' (white man's anger). While the fighting began in 1843 and the last shots were arguably fired in the early twentieth century, the bulk of fighting took place in the 1860s. A room at the Auckland War Memorial Museum commemorates those who died, both European and Māori, in the New Zealand Wars. ... Sir Keith Sinclair Sir Keith Sinclair KBE (December 5, 1922—June 20, 1993) was a poet and noted historian of New Zealand. ... There are two notable people named James Belich. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ...


The first skirmish of the New Zealand Wars was the 1843 Wairau Affray at the north end of the South Island. It was an isolated incident caused by the Nelson settlers trying to seize land they did not own, an extra-legal vigilante action that resulted in twenty-two of them being killed. The Flagstaff or Northern War took place in the far north of New Zealand, around the Bay of Islands, in March 1845 and January 1846. This was about mana—tribal prestige—and customs duties. It was really a war between rival Māori chiefs with the British fighting on one side for the prestige of the British Empire. This was followed almost immediately by the Hutt Valley Campaign, March to August 1846, and the Wanganui Campaign, April to July 1847, in the south-west of the North Island. Both these conflicts were about the encroachment of the European settlers onto Māori land. In the first three wars Māori fought the British to a standstill each time. From the engagements emerged an understanding: English law prevailed in the townships and settlements, and Māori law and customs elsewhere. There followed a period of relative peace and economic cooperation from 1848 to 1860. Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... In New Zealand history, the Wairau Affray on June 17, 1843, also known as the Wairau Massacre in most older texts, was the first serious clash of arms between the Maori natives and the British settlers after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. ... The South Island The South Island is one of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the North Island. ... A view of Nelson from the Centre of New Zealand Nelson stands on the southern corner of Tasman Bay, at the northern end of the South Island of New Zealand and is the administrative centre of the Nelson region. ... The First Maori War, also known as the Flagstaff War was fought between 11 March 1845 and 11 January 1846, in and around the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. ... Russell, Bay of Islands Kerikeri, Bay of Islands Location of the Bay of Islands The Bay of Islands is an area in the Northland region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Mana is a traditional term that refers to a concept among the speakers of Oceanic languages, including Melanesians, Polynesians, and Micronesians. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Hutt Valley Campaign of 1846 during the Maori Wars could almost be seen as a sequel to the Wairau Massacre. ... The Wanganui Campaign was centred on the settlement that eventually became the city of Wanganui, New Zealand, which was established in 1841. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ...


During this time European settlement accelerated and in about 1859 the number of Pākehā came to equal the number of Māori, at around 60,000 each. By now Pākehā had largely forgotten the painful lessons of the earlier conflicts. They tried to use military might to push through a very dubious land sale that one of their own courts later repudiated. The result was the First Taranaki War. Once again the local British forces were more than evenly matched by Māori, and after twelve months both sides were happy to settle for a draw. 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Pākehā is a term generally used to describe New Zealanders of Anglo/European extraction, but some Māori may use it to refer to any non-Māori person. ... The Taranaki War is a conflict that took place between Maori and Pakeha in New Zealand from March 1860 to March 1861. ...


However this was clearly just a preliminary. The British settlers were not prepared to countenance Māori controlling and ruling most of the North Island. War broke out again in 1863 with the Invasion of the Waikato. The Waikato War, including the Tauranga Campaign, was the biggest of all the New Zealand Wars. The outcome of this war was the major confiscation of Māori land, which quickly provoked the Second Taranaki War. By the mid 1860s the conflict had forced the closing of all the native schools. Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Invasion of the Waikato was an invasion during the Maori Wars fought in the North Island of New Zealand from July 1863 to April 1864 between the military forces of the Colonial Government and a federation of Maori tribes known as the King Movement (Kiingitanga). ... The Tauranga Campaign took place in New Zealand, from January 21, 1864 to June 21 1864, during the Maori Wars. ... The Second Taranaki War is the name of a series of conflicts between the Maori and European settlers in the Taranaki province of New Zealand between 1864 and 1866. ... In New Zealand, Native Schools were established to provide education for the Maori. ...


The period from the second half of 1864 until early 1868 was relatively quiet. Possibly the most notorious incident during this time was the murder of the missionary Carl Volkner. There were also two serious intra-tribal conflicts, civil wars in Māori tribes, between adherents and non-adherents of the Pai Marire or Hau Hau sect—a vehemently anti-Pākehā religious group which was intent upon destabilizing the developing cooperation between the Māori and Pākehā. These are sometimes known as the East Cape War, but that label oversimplifies a complicated series of conflicts. The last major conflicts were Te Kooti's War and Titokowaru's War. These were fought at the same time but were not related to each other and should be considered as separate conflicts. This ended the major, violent conflicts between the new colonial government and the original occupants of the land. The Volkner Incident describes the murder of the missionary, Karl Volkner, in New Zealand in 1865 and the consequent reaction of the Government of New Zealand in the midst of The Land Wars, previously known as the Maori Wars. ... Pai Marire / Hauhau The Pai Marire movement was the first independent, organised Maori church. ... The East Cape War, sometimes also called the East Coast War, refers to a series of conflicts that were fought in the North Island of New Zealand from about May 1865 to June 1868. ... Te Kootis War was one of the New Zealand Wars, the series of conflicts fought between 1845 and 1872 between the Maori and the colonizing British settlers, often referred to as Pakeha. ... Titokowarus War is a conflict that took place in the Taranaki Region of the North Island of New Zealand between Wanganui and Mount Taranaki from June 1868 to March 1869. ...


There were subsequently other conflicts and incidents that were a part of the overall conflict, but are not usually seen in the context of the New Zealand Wars. The invasion of Parihaka in 1881 was certainly one of these. There was an incident in the 1890s that became known as the Dog Tax War. Another was the arrest of Rua Kenana in 1916. It is even possible that events at Bastion Point in the 1970s should be considered as part of the same scenario. Parihaka, 19. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... The Dog Tax war is described by some authors as the last gasp of the 19th century wars between the Maori and the Pakeha, the British settlers of New Zealand. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Bastion Point (Tarapakawha in Maori) is a coastal piece of land in Orakei, Auckland, New Zealand, overlooking the Waitemata Harbour. ... Template:A year The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


Second Boer War 1899-1902

Members of the Seventh Contingent packing up camp in South Africa.
Members of the Seventh Contingent packing up camp in South Africa.
Further information: Second Boer War

The Second Boer War, fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 and between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic), resulted from the history of British encroachment into or involvement in areas already settled by Afrikaners — who were known colloquially as Boers (farmers) — the descendants of the original Dutch settlers. This was exacerbated by the discovery of gold and diamonds in the South African Republic, after which many miners from British Empire countries migrated there. Image File history File links Saw-004. ... Image File history File links Saw-004. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Redvers Buller Frederick Roberts Herbert Kitchener Paul Kruger Martinus Steyn Louis Botha Christiaan de Wet Casualties 22,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War, commonly referred to as... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Redvers Buller Frederick Roberts Herbert Kitchener Paul Kruger Martinus Steyn Louis Botha Christiaan de Wet Casualties 22,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War, commonly referred to as... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Capital Pretoria Created 1857 - Independence 1881 - First Boer War Dissolved 1877 - 1st British Annexation 1900 - Formal Annexation Official language Dutch Spoken language Afrikaans This article is about the former country in Africa. ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Capital Pretoria Created 1857 - Independence 1881 - First Boer War Dissolved 1877 - 1st British Annexation 1900 - Formal Annexation Official language Dutch Spoken language Afrikaans This article is about the former country in Africa. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


New Zealand decided to help fight for the Empire and sent 6,500 mounted troops to assist the British efforts. Virtually every man in New Zealand was desperately keen to get to war, so the first soldiers to go were selected on the basis of who could afford to go. If one could provide your own horse, rifle and equipment, to the tune of about 25 pounds, one could go to war. The first two of the 10 contingents paid their own way. The proposal to send the first contingent - 200 mounted rifleman - was approved by Parliament prior to the outbreak of war on September 28, 1899. Prime Minister Richard Seddon's proposition to do so was overwhelmingly supported, meeting opposition from only five members of parliament. The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... Richard John Seddon (1845 - 1906), sometimes known as King Dick, was the longest serving Prime Minister of New Zealand. ...


In total, New Zealand provided ten contingents to the British, numbering 6,500 men. New Zealand losses were seventy-one men killed in action, twenty-five killed in accidents and 133 of disease. Figures for New Zealanders serving with units outside of the New Zealand contingents are unknown.


First World War 1914-1918

When the United Kingdom declared war on Germany at the start of the First World War, the New Zealand government followed without hesitation, despite its geographic isolation and small population. When the United Kingdom declared war on Germany at the start of the First World War, the New Zealand government followed without hesitation, despite its geographic isolation and small population. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


The total number of New Zealand troops and nurses to serve overseas in 1914-1918, excluding those in British and other Dominion forces, was 103,000, from a population of just over a million. Forty-two percent of men of military age served in the NZEF. 16,697 New Zealanders were killed and 41,317 were wounded during the war - a 58 percent casualty rate. Approximately a further thousand men died within five years of the war's end, as a result of injuries sustained, and 507 died whilst training in New Zealand between 1914 and 1918. New Zealand had the highest casualty and death rate per capita of any country involved in the war. The First World War saw Māori soldiers officially serve for the first time in a major conflict with the New Zealand Army. 2688 Māori and 346 Pacific islanders served with New Zealand forces in total. A Pacific Islander or Pacific Person (plural: Pacific People, also called Oceanic[s]), is a term used in several places, such as New Zealand and the United States, to describe the inhabitants of Oceania. ...


New Zealand's first act of the war was to seize and occupy German Samoa. Although Germany refused to officially surrender the islands, no resistance was offered and the occupation took place without any fighting – the first German territory to be occupied in the name of King George V. The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...


The first major battle fought by New Zealand troops was Gallipoli. A navigational error led to the ANZACs (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) being dropped off at the wrong place, and as a result the offensive failed, with 2701 New Zealanders killed and 4852 wounded. Despite this, the significance of the battle of Gallipoli was strongly felt in New Zealand (and Australia) where it was the first great conflict experienced by the fledgling nation. The landing is commemorated in New Zealand and Australia each year, on Anzac Day. Gallipoli peninsula (Turkish: , Greek: ) is located in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. ... An ANZAC soldier gives water to a wounded Turk The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli, in the Middle East and on the Western Front. ... ANZAC Day Dawn Service at Australian War Memorial, 25 April 2005, 90th anniversary Australia and New Zealand commemorate the ANZAC Day public holiday on 25 April every year to honour the bravery and sacrifice of the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), and of all those...


New Zealanders fought elsewhere in the Middle East, where they took part in the ultimately successful Sinai and Palestine Campaign against the Turkish. New Zealanders fought in most of the battles leading up to the fall of Jerusalem and the defeat of the Ottoman Army, and were praised for their fighting alongside their Australian and British comrades. A total of 17,723 New Zealanders served in this campaign and New Zealand casualties were 640 killed in action and 1,146 wounded. Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of...

Infantry from the 2nd Battalion, Auckland Regiment, New Zealand Division in the Switch Line near Flers, taken some time in September 1916, after the Battle of Flers-Courcelette.
Infantry from the 2nd Battalion, Auckland Regiment, New Zealand Division in the Switch Line near Flers, taken some time in September 1916, after the Battle of Flers-Courcelette.

In France, the New Zealand Division participated in the Battle of the Somme, where they advanced three kilometres and captured eight kilometres of enemy front line. 7,048 had become casualties, of whom 1,560 were killed. In June 1917, the New Zealand Division further distinguished itself in the storming of Messines ridge and the capture of the village of Messines. During the fighting at Passchendaele in the following October, however, it was bloodily repulsed in its second attack, with 850 dead in exchange for no more than 500 yards of ground gained. This was the first time the Division had failed in a major operation; but more notably remains the worst disaster in New Zealand's history in terms of lives lost in a single day. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (970x636, 526 KB) Infantry from the 2nd Battalion, Auckland Regiment, New Zealand Division in the Switch Line near Flers, taken some time in September 1916, after the Battle of Flers-Courcelette. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (970x636, 526 KB) Infantry from the 2nd Battalion, Auckland Regiment, New Zealand Division in the Switch Line near Flers, taken some time in September 1916, after the Battle of Flers-Courcelette. ... The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, which began on 15 September 1916 and lasted for one week, was the third and last of the large-scale offensives mounted by the British Army during the Battle of the Somme. ... Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British and 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10½ divisions (initial) 50 divisions (final) Casualties 419,654... The Battle of Messines was launched on June 7, 1917 by British General Herbert Plumers second army, which included the 16th (Irish) Division and the 36th (Ulster) Division, near the villages of Mesen (in French Messines, as it was on most maps at that time) and Wytschaete. ... Mesen (French: Messines) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Arthur Currie Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third...


The Division also fought against the German Spring Offensive of 1918. Later they captured the town of Le Quesnoy in a daring assault on 4 November 1918. The day proved to be Division's most successful of their whole time on the Western Front as they pushed east and advanced ten kilometres, capturing 2000 German soldiers and sixty field guns. The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... Le Quesnoy is a commune of the Nord département in northern France. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


New Zealand also contributed to the war at sea. The cruiser HMS Philomel patrolled the Gulf of Alexandretta in the Eastern Mediterranean, supporting several landings and sustaining three fatal casualties, one being the first New Zealander killed in action in the war. She also took part in the defence of the Suez Canal, operations in the Gulf of Aden and patrols in the Persian Gulf. In June 1917, a German raider laid minefields in New Zealand waters, causing the loss of a merchant ship off Farewell Spit and another off Three Kings Islands. The Gulf of İskenderun (Turkish: İskenderun Körfezi), formerly the Gulf of Alexandretta, is a gulf or inlet of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of Turkey near its border with Syria. ... The Gulf of Aden is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somaliland in Africa. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Farewell Spit is situated at the northern end of the South Island of New Zealand; running eastwards from Cape Farewell, the islands northernmost point. ... Three Kings Islands are a small group of 13 islands about 55 kilometres (35 miles) northwest of the top of the North Island of New Zealand, where the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea converge. ...


New Zealand had no air force of her own during the First World War but several hundred New Zealanders served with the Royal Flying Corps, the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Air Force. The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. Origin and Early History Formed by Royal Warrant on May 13, 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ... Personnel of No 1 Squadron RNAS in late 1914 The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of World War I, when it merged with the British Armys Royal Flying Corps (RFC) to form the Royal Air Force. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Second World War 1939-1945

Recruits marching to Papakura camp.

New Zealand entered the Second World War by declaring war on Germany at 9.30 pm 3 September 1939 (NZT). Politically, New Zealand had been a vocal opponent of European fascism and also the appeasement of those dictatorships, national sentiment for a strong show of force was generally supported. Economic and defensive considerations also motivated the New Zealand involvement; reliance on Britain meant that if she were threatened, New Zealand would be too in terms of economic and defensive ties. There was also a strong sentimental link between the former British colony and the United Kingdom, with many seeing Britain as the "mother country" or "Home". Prime Minister of the time Michael Joseph Savage summed this up at the outbreak of war with a quote that would become a popular cry in New Zealand during the war;:"Where Britain goes, we go! Where she stands, we stand!"[1] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (447x660, 68 KB) Recruits march bound for Papakura camp. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (447x660, 68 KB) Recruits march bound for Papakura camp. ... Papakura district (boundary red, urban area orange) in relation to the Auckland metropolitan area (grey) The Papakura District (informally just Papakura, or Kura) in New Zealand is one of the several recognized districts in Auckland. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... On November 2, 1868, New Zealand officially adopted a standard time to be observed nationally, and was perhaps the first country to do so. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Michael Joseph Savage (March 23, 1872 - March 27, 1940) was a New Zealand politician and the first Labour Prime Minister of New Zealand. ...


New Zealand provided personnel for service in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy, the Royal New Zealand Navy was placed at the Admiralty's disposal and new medium bombers waiting in the United Kingdom to be shipped to New Zealand were made available to the RAF. The New Zealand Army contributed the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force (2NZEF). In total, around 140,000 New Zealand personnel served overseas for the Allied war effort, and an additional 100,000 men were armed for Home Guard duty. At its peak in July 1942, New Zealand had 154,549 men and women under arms (excluding the Home Guard) and by the war's end a total of 194,000 men and 10,000 women had served in the armed forces at home and overseas. The costs for the country were high - 11,625 killed, a ratio of 6684 dead per million in the population which was the highest rate in the Commonwealth (Britain suffered 5123 and Australia 3232 per million population). The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... The New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) was the title of the military force sent from New Zealand to fight for Britain in World War I. Upon the outbreak of war, New Zealand immediately offered to provide two brigades — one of infantry and one of mounted troops — a total of 8...


Middle East and Europe

The 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force (2NZEF) was formed under Major-General Bernard Freyberg and would see active service in Greece, Crete, North Africa, Italy, and Yugoslavia. The main fighting unit of the expeditionary force was the New Zealand 2nd Division also commanded by Major-General Bernard Freyberg. The Rt Hon. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... The New Zealand 2nd Division was that countrys major land formation during much of World War II. Commanded for much of its existence by Lieutenant General Sir Bernard Freyberg. ...


The 2NZEF participated in the 1940 Battle of Greece along with British and other Commonwealth troops, and Greek defenders. After Germany invaded Greece the Allies were forced to retreat, and the New Zealanders lost 291 men killed, 1,826 captured and 387 seriously wounded. Most of the remaining New Zealand troops were evacuated to Crete, where Freyberg became commander of the Allied forces on the island. The Germans subsequently invaded Crete, and after several days of heavy fighting in the Battle of Crete, took the island. Ultimately 17,000 troops were evacuated to Alexandria by the British surrender on 1 June. Most of the New Zealanders made it, but 2,180 were captured. Additional New Zealand casualties for the Battle of Crete were 671 dead and 967 wounded. New Zealand Second Lieutenant Charles Upham, the only person to receive two Victoria Crosses during World War II and the only combat soldier to receive the award twice, gained his first award during the battle. Combatants Germany, Italy, Bulgaria Greece, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand Commanders Wilhelm List, Maximilian von Weichs Alexander Papagos, Henry Maitland Wilson, Thomas Blamey Strength Germany: 680,000 men,[1] 1200 tanks, 700 aircraft, Italy: 529,000 men Greece: 350,000 men, British Commonwealth: 58,000 men Casualties Italy: 13,755... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Combatants Greece United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength United Kingdom: 15,000 Greece: 11,000 Australia: 7,100 New Zealand: 6,700 Total: 40,000 (10,000 without fighting capability. ... ---- Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Charles Upham Captain Charles Hazlitt Upham VC and bar (September 21, 1908 – November 22, 1994) was a New Zealand soldier who won the Victoria Cross twice during the Second World War: in Crete in May 1941, and at Ruweisat Ridge, Egypt, in July 1942. ... Victoria Cross medal, ribbon, and bar. ...


From November 1941, the 2NZEF was heavily involved in the North African Campaign. As part of Operation Crusader, New Zealand troops relieved Tobruk after the city had been besieged by the German Afrika Korps. Subsequently, the New Zealand government insisted that the Division be withdrawn to Syria to recover - 879 men were killed and 1700 wounded in Operation Crusader, the most costly battle the Division fought in the Second World War. In June 1942, the Afrika Korps captured Tobruk, and the 2NZEF was recalled from Syria. The Korps' advance was halted by the Allies in the First Battle of El Alamein, where New Zealand troops captured Ruweisat Ridge in a successful night attack. Heavy casualties were suffered by the two New Zealand brigades involved as they were attacking by German tanks, and several thousand men were taken prisoner. Charles Upham earned a bar for his Victoria Cross in this battle. Subsequent fighting, including the Second Battle of El Alamein resulted in German retreat from the area. On 13 May 1943, the North African campaign ended, with the surrender of the last 275,000 Axis troops in Tunisia. On the 15th the Division began the withdrawal back to Egypt and by June 1 the division was back in Maadi and Helwan, on standby for use in Europe. Total New Zealand losses since November 1941, were 2,989 killed, 7,000 wounded and 4,041 taken prisoner. New Zealand troops were transferred to Italy later in the year and participated in the taking of the country from Germany. During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Poland Germany Italy Commanders Claude Auchinleck Alan Gordon Cunningham Neil Ritchie Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Strength 8th Army comprising XIII Corps, XXX Corps and 70th Division. ... Combatants Australia United Kingdom South Africa Poland Czechoslovakia Germany Italy Commanders Leslie Morshead Erwin Rommel Strength 14,000 35,000? Casualties Britain: 9009 killed 941 captured estimated 12,000 total 8,000 The Siege of Tobruk was a lengthy confrontation between Axis and Allied forces, mostly Australian, in the North... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK  ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... The First Battle of El Alamein 1–July 27, 1942 was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of World War II, fought between the German–Italian Afrika Korps commanded by Erwin Rommel and the British Eighth Army, commanded by Claude Auchinleck. ... Charles Upham Captain Charles Hazlitt Upham VC and bar (September 21, 1908 – November 22, 1994) was a New Zealand soldier who won the Victoria Cross twice during the Second World War: in Crete in May 1941, and at Ruweisat Ridge, Egypt, in July 1942. ... For the Battle of Alam Halfa, which is also often termed the Second Battle of El Alamein, see Battle of Alam Halfa Combatants British Eighth Army Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 220,000 men 1,100 tanks[1] 116,000 men[1] 559 tanks(220 panzers... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Hulwan, also spelled Helwan or Hilwan is a southern suburb of Cairo in Egypt on the bank of the Nile river, with a population (1989 estimate) 230,000. ...


Pacific

When Japan entered the war in December 1941, the New Zealand Government raised another expeditionary force known as the 2nd NZEF In the Pacific, or 2nd NZEF (I.P.), for service with the Allied Pacific Ocean Areas command. This force supplemented existing garrison troops in the South Pacific. The main fighting formation of the 2nd NZEF (I.P.) was the New Zealand 3rd Division. However the 3rd Division never fought as a formation; its component brigades being involved in semi-independent actions as part of the Allied forces in the Solomons, Treasury Islands and Green Island. Pacific Ocean Areas was a major Allied military command during World War II. It was one of four major commands during the Pacific War, and one of two United States commands in the Pacific theatre of operations. ... The New Zealand 3rd Division was the main New Zealand Army unit to see action in the Pacific Theatre of the Second World War. ... Motto To Lead is to Serve Anthem God Save Our Solomon Islands Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Honiara Official languages English Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Nathaniel Waena  -  Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare Independence from the UK   -  Date 7 July 1978  Area  -  Total... Treasury Islands (7° 20′60″S, 155° 34′0″E) are a small group of islands a few kilometers to the south of Bougainville and 24 kilometers from the Shortland Islands. ... Green Island is the largest of the Green Islands of Papua New Guinea. ...


The New Zealand army units were eventually replaced by American formations, which released personnel for service with the 2nd Division in Italy, or to cover civilian labour shortages. Air force squadrons and Navy units contributed to the Allied island hopping campaign.


German and Japanese surface raiders and submarines operated in New Zealand waters on several occasions in 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943 and 1945 sinking a total of four ships. The Japanese submarine I-25 A small number of Axis surface raiders and submarines operated in New Zealand Waters during World War II. // The following German surface raiders operated in New Zealand waters: HSK Orion (13-19 June 1940, late August 1940, late September 1940, November 1940, March 1941) Komet...


Naval war

At the outbreak of war, New Zealand still contributed to the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy. Many New Zealanders served alongside other commonwealth sailors in vessels of the Royal Navy and would continue to do so throughout the war.


Not until 1941 was the Royal New Zealand Navy formed. Before then New Zealand men and ships had already been in action. On the 13 December 1939 HMNZS Achilles took part in The Battle of the River Plate as part of small British force against the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. The action resulted in the German ship retiring to neutral Uruguay and being scuttled a few days later. Other cruisers HMNZS Gambia and HMNZS Leander took the RNZN to all theatres - Leander destroyed Italian "auxiliary cruiser" Ramb I and helped destroy the Japanese cruiser Jintsu. Gambia was present at the Japanese surrender. A morale boosting episode was the encounter between two small and out gunned minesweepers — HMNZS Kiwi and Moa — and a much larger Japanese submarine, which was destroyed by ramming. HMNZS Te Mana The Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) is the navy of New Zealand. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... HMS Achilles (from 1941 HMNZS Achilles) was a Leander class cruiser of 7,200 tons built in Birkenhead, England and launched on 1 September 1932. ... Combatants Nazi Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 pocket battleship (Panzerschiffe) Admiral Graf Spee 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 pocket battleship scuttled 36 killed 1 heavy cruiser Exeter heavily damaged 72 killed The Battle of the River Plate (December 13, 1939... Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser which served with the Kriegsmarine of Germany during World War II. Originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff), she was later reclassified as a heavy cruiser, and was referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... HMS Gambia was a Crown Colony class cruiser of the Royal Navy. ... HMNZS Leander was the lead ship of her class of light cruisers. ... Built by Ansaldo in 1937 as the first of four sister ships for the Regia Azienda Monopolio Banane, for transporting refrigerated bananas from Somaliland and Eritrea. ... Japanese Light Cruiser Jintsu started life being both laid down and completed at the Kobe Shipyard, Japan. ...


Air war

The role of the Royal New Zealand Air Force was initially seen as a purely training organisation which supplied pilots to the Royal Air Force. New Zealand's only modern aircraft - 30 Vickers Wellington bombers - had been loaned to the United Kingdom, along with their aircrew, in August 1938. The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) is the air force arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. ... The Vickers Wellington was a twin-engine, medium bomber designed in the mid-1930s at Brooklands in Weybridge, Surrey, by Vickers-Armstrongs Chief Designer, R.K. Pierson. ...


Over ten thousand New Zealanders served as aircrew with the Royal Air Force, 3290 of them lost their lives, and 580 were made prisoners of war. Three won Victoria crosses. While the majority served with squadrons composed of airmen from all parts of the Commonwealth, 7 squadrons of the Royal Air Force were designated New Zealand units, one of these, No. 75 Squadron RNZAF flew the most missions and suffered the highest casualties of any allied bomber squadron. Several New Zealanders rose to high rank in the Royal Air Force, of whom Air Vice Marshall Sir Keith Park is probably the best known. The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with No. ... Air Chief Marshal Sir Keith Rodney Park GCB, KBE, MC, DFC, DCL (June 15, 1892 - February 6, 1975) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force in World War II. // Early Life and Army Career Park was born near Auckland, New Zealand. ...


When Japan entered the war the RNZAF was immediately in the front line. The undertrained and equipped No. 488 Squadron RNZAF fought a futile defence of Singapore, while obsolete giant biplane Short Singapores and Vickers Vincents were operating from Fiji. The Royal New Zealand Air Force had already undertaken some combat operations, against German commerce raiders. However, in December 1941, it was still essentially a training organisation for the RAF. Over the next 12 months the RNZAF undertook rapid transition into a combat force - intially arming all available machines, including airliners, against possible Japanese attack, then, re-equipping with more modern lendlease machines, before moving forward to take the war to Japan. Including training establishments, more New Zealanders ended up serving with the RNZAF than RAF, (although fewer aircrew). Ultimately the RNZAF sent 13 squadrons of fighter aircraft, 6 bomber squadrons, two torpedo bomber squadrons, two flying boat squadrons and three transport squadrons against the Japanese , and this force achieved considerable success in 1943-1944. The highest scoring commonwealth ace in the Pacific was a New Zealander, Geoff Fisken. 488(NZ) Squadron, Royal Air Force 488 Squadron formed in September 1941 at Rongotai, New Zealand under squadron leader W.G. Clouston, a veteran of the Battles of France and Britain with 9 victories to his credit. ... The Short S. 19 Singapore name was given to developments of the original long range record breaking long range prototype. ... The Vickers Vildebeest was a very large 2- to 3-seat single-engined biplane acting as a light bomber, torpedo bomber and in the army cooperation role. ... Geoffrey Bryson Fisken born February 17, 1916, was New Zealand and the British Commonwealth’s leading air ace in the Pacific theatres of World War II. // Early Life Fisken was born in Gisborne. ...


Aftermath

Troops of the 2NZEF and an RNZAF squadron helped occupy Japan after the end of the war, remaining there until 1948.[1] The RNZAF was also involved in the airlift of supplies to West Berlin during the Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union in the late 1940s. This was the first involvement New Zealand had in what was to become the Cold War. Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Compulsory Military Training 1949-1959, 1962-1972

From the late 1940s to the early 1970s, compulsory military training (CMT) was twice established by a National Party government (the first time on the basis of a referendum) and then abolished by a Labour Party government. On August 3, 1949 a national referendum was held in regards to instituting CMT, and conscription into the Territorial Force of the New Zealand Army. The vote was 553,016 in favour of conscription and 152,443 against, no doubt aided by a government propaganda campaign in favour of CMT. More than 60,000 young New Zealanders completed the 18 weeks of training. The second Labour government abolished the programme in 1958, but it was reinstated in revised form after Labour lost power. About 3,000 young 18 year olds were selected annually by a ballot of birthdates. The scheme was abolished by the third Labour government on December 31, 1972. Since that date, all service in the New Zealand Armed Forces has been voluntary. Conscripts were never sent to battle zones in this period, although many opted to continue their military careers and fight in Malaysia, Vietnam and other theatres of conflict.[2] Current National Party logo The New Zealand National Party is the second largest political party in the New Zealand Parliament, and forms the core of the Opposition. ... Current Labour Party logo The New Zealand Labour Party formed as a political party in 1916, bringing together socialist groups advocating proportional representation and the Recall of Members of Parliament, as well as the nationalisation of production and of exchange. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Ngāti Tumatauenga or New Zealand Army is the land armed force of the New Zealand military and comprises around 4,500 regular personnel and 2,500 non-regulars and civilians. ... The Second Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1957 to 1960. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Third Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1972 to 1975. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Malaysia 1949-1966

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Malayan Emergency 1949-1964

New Zealand Special Air Service troopers training for service in Malaya.
New Zealand Special Air Service troopers training for service in Malaya.

The Malayan Emergency was declared by the British government on June 18, 1948 after guerillas of the Malayan Races Liberation Army, the militant arm of the Malayan Communist Party killed three British rubber planters. Initially New Zealand made a small contribution of planes, officers and frigates. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (440x665, 75 KB) SAS troopers parachute training for Malaya service. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (440x665, 75 KB) SAS troopers parachute training for Malaya service. ... The Special Air Service of New Zealand (NZ SAS) was formed in June 1955 as an elite New Zealand Army unit capable of undertaking special missions. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) was a combatant in the Malayan Emergency, an insurrection and guerrilla war against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Communist Party of Malaya (CnoPM), also known as the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) until the 1960s was founded in Singapore in 1930 with a predominantly Chinese membership, carrying out armed resistance to the Japanese during World War II. From 1948 to 1960, its military arm, the Malayan Peoples Liberation Army...


New Zealand became more directly involved in the Emergency from 1955, following its decision to contribute forces to the British Commonwealth Far East Strategic Reserve, the primary role of which was to deter communist aggression in South-East Asia, and to provide a capacity for the immediate implementation of defence plans in the event that deterrence failed. As a secondary role, the forces committed to the Reserve were permitted to take part in actions against the guerrillas. The Special Air Service (SAS) and the RNZAF were deployed, with the RNZAF carrying out its first operational strike mission since the Second World War and its first with jet aircraft. In 1958 the New Zealand Regiment replaced the SAS. By the time the 2nd Battalion of the New Zealand Regiment arrived in late 1959, to replace the 1st Battalion, most of the Communist guerrillas had retreated across the border into southern Thailand and the Malayan government saw the security situation to be stable enough to declare the Emergency over on 31 July 1960. New Zealand soldiers would be periodically deployed to Border Security Area as part of counter-insurgency measures over the next four years. About 1300 New Zealanders served in the Emergency, of whom only 15 died. Only three men were killed as a result of enemy action. The Far East Strategic Reserve (FESR) began in response to communist aggression in South East Asia following World War II. The socio-political climate of the period was one of fear and uncertainty as totalitarianism evolved from fascism to communism. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Special Air Service of New Zealand (NZ SAS) was formed in June 1955 as an elite New Zealand Army unit capable of undertaking special missions. ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... The Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment (1 NZIR) is the main unit in the regular army of New Zealand. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ...


Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation 1963-66

Further information: Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation

As a part of its withdrawal from its Southeast Asian colonies, the United Kingdom moved to combine its colonies on Borneo, Sarawak and British North Borneo, with those on peninsular Malaya, to form the Federation of Malaysia. This move was opposed by the government of Indonesia. The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation began on January 20, 1963 when Indonesian Foreign Minister Subandrio announced that Indonesia would pursue a policy of Konfrontasi (Confrontation) with the Malaysia. The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


From late 1963 the British requested New Zealand military aid in the area. The second National government initially refused, not wishing to be involved in a war with Indonesia. However when Indonesian paratroopers landed in Johore in September 1964, the New Zealand Infantry Regiment was one of the only Commonwealth units in the region and with the New Zealand government's permission hunted down the infiltrators. The following month, 52 soldiers landed in Pontian on the Johore-Malacca border and were also captured by New Zealand soldiers. Keith Holyoake was Prime Minister for almost all of the Second National Governments term in office. ... State Motto: the state moto as appeared on the coat of arms reads kepada Allah berserah which literally means all hopes is to God (Allah) Capital Johor Bahru Bandar DiRaja Bandar Maharani Sultan Iskandar Al-haj Chief minister Abdul Ghani Othman Area 19,984 km² Population 2. ... Pontian also refers to a group of Greek people that formerly inhabited the north part of present day Turkey. ...


A change in New Zealand policy came as Sukarno increased the flow of Indonesian insurgents into Borneo and British military resources were stretched to almost breaking point. The New Zealand government could no longer deny the genuine appeals for assistance and the first New Zealand deployment was made to fight the insurgency - a Special Air Service detachment and the 1st Battalion of the Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment, along with several Navy ships. New Zealand forces were involved in some fighting, but in late 1965 General Suharto came to power in Indonesia, following a coup d'état. Due to this domestic conflict, Indonesian interest in pursuing the war with Malaysia declined, and the conflict officially ended in May 1966. Haji Mohammad Soeharto (born June 8, 1921), more commonly referred to as simply Soeharto (Suharto in the English-speaking world), is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ...


Korean War 1950-1953

"Kiwi Hill", the headquarters of the 16th Field Regiment.

New Zealand contributed six frigates, several smaller craft and a 1044 strong volunteer force (known as KAYFORCE) to the Korean War. The ships were under the command of a British flag officer and formed part of the US Navy screening force during the Battle of Inchon, performing shore raids and inland bombardment. New Zealand troops remained in Korea in significant numbers for four years after the 1951 armistice, although the last New Zealand soldiers did not leave until 1957 and a single liaison officer remained until 1971. A total of 3,794 New Zealand soldiers served in KAYFORCE and 1300 in the Navy deployment. 33 were killed in action, 79 wounded and 1 soldier was taken prisoner. That prisoner was held in North Korea for eighteen months and repatriated after the armistices. A New Zealander flying with the Royal Air Force was also captured when he was shot down near P'yongyang, and was repatriated at around the same time. One RNZN sailor was killed during the conflict. Image File history File links Kiwi_hill,_Korean_War. ... Image File history File links Kiwi_hill,_Korean_War. ... Kiwi Hill, the headquarters of the 16th Field Regiment. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Combatants UN forces: United States; United Kingdom; South Korea; Canada; Australia; Netherlands; France North Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Jeong Il-Gwon Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun Strength 40,000[1]  ? Casualties 566 killed 2,713 wounded 14,000 casualties[2] 7,000 captured[2] The Battle... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... HMNZS Te Mana The Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) is the navy of New Zealand. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Pyŏngyang (Pyeongyang) is the capital city of North Korea, located in the northwest of the country, near the Taedong River. ...


Peacekeeping and observation

The New Zealand military has been involved in a number of peacekeeping and observation missions. These have included military observation in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 to 2004, humanitarian action in Somalia from 1992 to 1994, military observation in Haiti from 1994 to 1995, and military liaison in Kosovo from 1999 to the present. Operations in which a significant number of New Zealanders participated include: For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ...


Kashmir 1952-76

Further information: Sino-Indian War, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

In 1952, three New Zealand officers were seconded as military observers for the United Nations Military Observer Group in the Kashmir, to supervise a ceasefire between India and Pakistan. Many New Zealand officers, including Territorial Force officers, saw service with the force until 1976.[3] Combatants Peoples Republic of China India Commanders Lin Biao B.M. Kaul Strength 80,000[2][3] Casualties Never released[4] Killed 1,383 Captured 3,968 Missing 1,696[4] The Sino-Indian War (Hindi: भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-ChÄ«n Yuddha; Simplified Chinese: 中印边境战争; Traditional Chinese: 中印邊境戰爭; pinyin: Zhōng-Y... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Gen J N Chaudhuri, Lt Gen Harbakhsh Singh Field Marshal Ayub Khan, Gen Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800[2] - 6,917 killed[3] (17 day period alone) 4,000 - 7,000 killed/ captured[4... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 1,000,000+ troops[] 90,000+ troops[] Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Rhodesia: Operation Agila 1979-80

1st ZIPRA Battalion on parade.
1st ZIPRA Battalion on parade.
Main article: Operation Midford

In 1979, New Zealand contributed a force of seventy-five officers and men to the Commonwealth Monitoring Force which was established to oversee the implementation of the agreement which had ended the Rhodesian War. Troops supervised the concentration of the guerrilla forces into sixteen Assembly Places during the period in which the cease fire was implemented and national elections held. Following the election the Commonwealth Monitoring Force began withdrawing from the newly independent and renamed Zimbabwe on March 2, 1980 with the final members of the force leaving on March 16. Image File history File linksMetadata AP_Lima_1st_ZIPRA_Bn_sm. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AP_Lima_1st_ZIPRA_Bn_sm. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Second_Chimurenga. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in leap years). ...


Multi-National Force and Observers 1982-current

MFO logo
MFO logo

On ANZAC Day 1982, a small group of six New Zealand soldiers arrived in the Sinai as New Zealand's commitment to the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO). This was to be the beginning of an ongoing commitment of New Zealand Peacekeepers to the Sinai region. The task of the MFO was initially to supervise the withdrawal of Israeli military units from Egyptian territory. A rotary wing of the Royal New Zealand Air Force also served until 1986. New Zealand increased its commitment to this Mission, which is now tri-service in nature, with a group of about two platoons of specialist servicemen and women serving a six month Tour of Duty with the MFO. Image File history File links MFO_Logo. ... Image File history File links MFO_Logo. ... ANZAC Day Dawn Service at Australian War Memorial, 25 April 2005, 90th anniversary Australia and New Zealand commemorate the ANZAC Day public holiday on 25 April every year to honour the bravery and sacrifice of the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), and of all those... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force. ... Peacekeeping is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. ... The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) is the air force arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. ... Look up mission in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... See also Platoon (movie) and platoon (automobile) for the concept for reducing traffic congestion. ... In the military, a tour of duty is a period of time spent at sea or assigned to service in a foreign country. ...


East Timor/Timor Leste 1999-2003, 2006

Further information: History of East Timor#Towards independence
A Royal New Zealand Air Force medic assisting an East Timorese civilian.
A Royal New Zealand Air Force medic assisting an East Timorese civilian.

Following East Timor's vote for independence in 1999, the United Nations INTERFET (International Force for East Timor) was dispatched into the area. INTERFET was comprised of contributions from 17 nations, about 9,900 in total. At its peak, the New Zealand Defence Force had 1,100 personnel in East Timor - New Zealand's largest overseas military deployment since the Korean War. Overall New Zealand's contribution saw just short of 4,000 New Zealanders serve in East Timor. In addition to their operations against militia, the New Zealand troops were also involved in construction of roads and schools, water supplies and other infrastructural assistance. English lessons and medical aid were also provided. New Zealand Defence Force personnel were completely withdrawn by November 2002, but in May 2006 widespread fighting broke out in the Timorese capital of Dili. A contingent of 120 troops were dispatched and were responsible for providing security in the Dili alongside soldiers and police from Australia, Malaysia and Portugal. Four New Zealand peacekeepers have been killed on operations in East Timor. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wn04009730. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wn04009730. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... INTERFET (standing for INTERnational Force East Timor) was a multinational peacekeeping taskforce, mandated by the United Nations to address the humanitarian and security crisis which took place in East Timor from 1999-2000 until the arrival of United Nations peacekeepers. ... Dili, also spelled Díli, Dilli or Dilly, is the capital of East Timor. ...


Solomon Islands (2000 to date)

Further information: History of the Solomon Islands#Civil war and the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands

New Zealand participated in the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), which aimed to restore peace following the Solomon Islands civil war. RAMSI acted as an interim police force and has been successful in improving the country's overall security conditions, including brokering the surrender of a notorious warlord, Harold Keke. New Zealand contributed four helicopters and about 230 personnel consisting of infantry, engineers, medical and support staff. RAMSI was scaled down in July, 2004, as stability had gradually been restored to the country. It is now primarily a police force. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Solomon Islands The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), also known as Operation Helpem Fren, was created in 2003 in response to a request for international aid by the Governor-General of the Solomon Islands. ... Map of the Solomon Islands The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), also known as Operation Helpem Fren, was created in 2003 in response to a request for international aid by the Governor-General of the Solomon Islands. ... Harold Keke (born 1971??) is a Solomon Islands warlord. ...


Iraq (2003 to date)

NZ forces in Iraq
Further information: Iraq War, Post Invasion Iraq

The New Zealand government opposed and officially condemned the 2003 Invasion of Iraq by the United States-led "Coalition of the Willing" and did not contribute any combat forces. However in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483 New Zealand contribued a small engineering and support force to assist in post-war reconstruction and provision of humanitarian aid. The engineers returned home in October, 2004 and New Zealand is still represented in Iraq by liaison and staff officers working with coalition forces. Image File history File links NZ_engineers_busy_at_work_on_the_Al_Tannumah_Bridge,_Basra,_Iraq. ... Image File history File links NZ_engineers_busy_at_work_on_the_Al_Tannumah_Bridge,_Basra,_Iraq. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... The Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I), also known as the Coalition, are the nations whose governments have military personnel in Iraq as part of the American-led war effort. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483 was adopted by a vote of 14 to zero (with Syria absent) on 22 May 2003. ...


Tonga (2006 to date)

On November 18, 2006, a contingent of seventy-two New Zealand Defence Force personnel and additional New Zealand Police officers was deployed to Tonga in an effort to restore calm after the escalation in violence. They were joined by Australian soldiers and Australian Federal Police officers. Their main objective is to protect and patrol Tonga's international airport in Nuku'alofa. November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The New Zealand Police (Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa in Māori) is the national police force of New Zealand, responsible for enforcing criminal and traffic law, enhancing public safety, maintaining order and keeping the peace throughout the country. ... The Australian Federal Police (AFP) is the national police agency of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Busy Talamahu market in Nukualofa Nukualofa, population 22400 (1996), is the capital of Tonga. ...


Antarctica

New Zealand's armed forces have been involved in Antarctic research and exploration since the 1950s. The navy has escorted supply ships and conducted its own supply missions, provided weather monitoring and support for U.S. activities in the 'frozen continent', conducted scientific research, and helped build Scott Base. In 1965, No. 40 Squadron, Royal New Zealand Air Force, was re-equipped with the C130 Hercules and commenced regular flights to and from the Antarctic. The army, and later the other two services, have provided cargo handlers. Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... Scott Base beneath the active volcano Mount Erebus Scott Base is a base located at 77°51′S 166°45′E in Antarctica, operated by New Zealand. ... The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) is the air force arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. ...


Vietnam War 1964-75

The Vietnam War would prove to be a highly controversial conflict for New Zealand, sparking wide-spread protest at home from anti-Vietnam War movements modelled on their American counterparts. This conflict was also the first in which New Zealand did not fight alongside the United Kingdom, instead following the loyalties of the ANZUS Pact. New Zealand's contribution was minimal, despite American pressure to supply more troops. New Zealands involvement in the Vietnam War was highly controversial, sparking widespread protest at home from anti-Vietnam War movements modelled on their American counterparts. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which bound New Zealand and the United States to co-operate on defense matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in any area. ...


The Middle East (1982-present)

A Royal New Zealand Air Force C-130 Hercules flying over the New Zealand base in the Bamian Province of Afghanistan.

New Zealand has assisted the United States and Britain in many of their miltitary activities in the Middle East. However New Zealand forces have fought only in Afghanistan; in other countries New Zealand support has been in the form of support and engineering. During the Iran-Iraq War two New Zealand frigates joined the Royal Navy in monitoring merchant shipping in the Persian Gulf. and in 1991, New Zealand contributed three transport aircraft and a medical team to assist coalition forces in the Gulf War. Image File history File linksMetadata RNZAF_Hercules_over_base,_Afghanistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RNZAF_Hercules_over_base,_Afghanistan. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders - Ruhollah Khomeini, - Abolhassan Banisadr, - Ali Shamkhani, - Mostafa Chamran† - Saddam Hussein, - Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 1,000 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 450 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 4,500 tanks... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War...


New Zealand's heaviest military involvement in the Middle East in recent decades has been in Afghanistan following the United States-led invasion of that country after the September 11 attacks. Fifty SAS units were dispatched, and in March 2002 they took part in Operation Anaconda against about 500 to 1000 al-Qaeda and Taliban forces in the Shahi-Kot Valley and Arma Mountains southeast of Zorma, Afghanistan. New Zealand has also supplied two transport aircraft and a 122-strong tri-service Provincial Reconstruction Team, which has been located in Bamyan Province since 2003. The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... ... Combatants  United States,  Canada,  United Kingdom,  New Zealand,  Australia,  Denmark,  France,  Norway,  Germany Taliban insurgents, al-Qaeda Commanders Buster Hagenbeck Unknown Strength 2,000 500-1,500 Casualties 8 U.S. servicemen dead, 82 wounded 500-800 [1] In early March 2002 the United States military, along with allied Afghan... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Armed Taliban in pickup truck in Herat, July 2001. ... The Shahi-Kot Valley (also Shah-i-Kot, Shah-e-Kot and other variant spellings) is a valley located in Afghanistans Paktia province, southeast of the town of Zormat. ... Bamiyan province is one of the thirty_four provinces of Afghanistan. ...


See also

The military of New Zealand consists of three branches- the New Zealand Army; the Royal New Zealand Navy; and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The following people are New Zealander recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... This is a list of New Zealand divisions in World War II: New Zealand 2nd Division part of the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force, served in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean theatres New Zealand 3rd Division part of the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force in the Pacific, served in the Allied...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Subritzky, Mike (1995). The Vietnam Scrapbook The Second ANZAC Adventure. Blenheim: Three Feathers. ISBN 0-9583484-0-5; Major M.R. Wicksteed RNZA NZ Army Public Relations pamphlet.
  2. ^ Subritzky, Mike (1995). The Vietnam Scrapbook The Second ANZAC Adventure. Blenheim: Three Feathers. ISBN 0-9583484-0-5; Major M.R. Wicksteed RNZA NZ Army Public Relations pamphlet.
  3. ^ Subritzky, Mike (1995). The Vietnam Scrapbook The Second ANZAC Adventure. Blenheim: Three Feathers. ISBN 0-9583484-0-5; Major M.R. Wicksteed RNZA NZ Army Public Relations pamphlet.

References

  • War and Society. New Zealand's history online.
  • A History of the New Zealand Army, 1840 to 1990s. A History of the New Zealand Army, 1840 to 1990s.
  • Australian & New Zealand Military History from 1788. Australian & New Zealand Military History from 1788.
  • John Crawford (1999). "New Zealand and the Boer War". New Zealand Defence Quarterly. 
  • Wright, Matthew (2005). Western Front : the New Zealand Division in the First World War 1916-18. Auckland: Reed. ISBN 0-7900-0990-0. 
  • WARS – FIRST WORLD WAR, 1914–18. An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock.
  • New Zealand in the First World War. New Zealand and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.
  • NZ Forces. The AIF & NZEF in the Great War.
  • ROYAL NEW ZEALAND FORCES. The Korean War.
  • ^ Larsen, Lieutenant General Stanley Robert; Brigadier General James Lawton Collins, Jr. (1985). Allied Participation in Vietnam. Washington D.C.: Department of the Army. LCC 74-28217. 
  • Subritzky, Michael (1995). The Vietnam Scrapbook The Second ANZAC Adventure. Blenheim: Three Feathers. ISBN 0-9583484-0-5. 
  • ^ "Korea orders Agent Orange payments", Mercury News, January 26, 2006.
  • ^ "Government apology for Vietnam War veterans", New Zealand Herald, December 15, 2004.
  • ^ Health Committee (2004). "Inquiry into the exposure of New Zealand defence personnel to Agent Orange and other defoliant chemicals during the Vietnam War and any health effects of that exposure, and transcripts of evidence".
  • Kaye, C.M.S. Mission Extraordinary Zimbabwe - Rhodesia, British Army Review, 1980. Lock, Peter. & Cooke Peter, Fighting Vehicles and Weapons of Rhodesia, P&P Publishing, Wellington, 1995. Lovett, John. Contact, Galaxie Press, Salisbury, 1979. Moorcroft, Paul. Contact II, Sygma Press, Johannesburg, 1981. Subritzky, Mike. Rhodesia - Operational Diary, unpublished, 1979 - 1980. Subritzky, Mike. Letters from Comrade Lt. Thomas Sabanda ZIPRA 1980.
  • East Timor. New Zealand Army Overseas.
  • East Timor. New Zealand Defence Force: Deployments.
  • East Timor. Riots, Rebellion, Gunboats and Peace Keepers.
  • Timor Leste. New Zealand Defence Force: Deployments.
  • Controller and Auditor-General (2001). "New Zealand Defence Force: Deployment to East Timor".
  • "NZ Commitment To Timor To Become Battalion", Scoop, September 30, 1999.
  • Solomon Islands. New Zealand Army Overseas.
  • Solomon Islands. New Zealand Police: Overseas Assistance.
  • New Zealand Defence Force (July 6, 2004). NZ contribution to Solomon Islands to continue. Press release.
  • New Zealand Defence Force (August 5, 2004). Ongoing assistance to Solomon Islands. Press release.
  • Afghanistan. New Zealand Defence Force: Deployments.
  • ^ New Zealand Defence Force (February 1, 2006). Goff positive about Afghanistan contribution. Press release.
  • Iraq - UNMOVIC. New Zealand Army Overseas.
  • RNZ. "More troops as Dili violence escalates", Television New Zealand, May 27, 2006.</ref>

John Crawford is: Sir John Crawford (1910-1984) – Australian economist John Crawford (b. ... Library of Congress reading room The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links

 
Military history of New Zealand
Musket Wars | New Zealand land wars | World War I | World War II | Malaysia | Korean War | Vietnam War
----------
New Zealand Army | Royal New Zealand Navy | Royal New Zealand Air Force

  Results from FactBites:
 
Military history of New Zealand during World War II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (779 words)
Politically, New Zealand had been a vocal opponent of European fascism and the national sentiment for a strong show of force was generally supported.
New Zealand provided personnel for service in the RAF and Royal Navy and its own division, the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force (2NZEF).
Most of the New Zealand and other allied troops evacuated from Greece were transported to Crete where Freyberg was appointed commander of all allied forces.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m