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Encyclopedia > Military history of Japan

History of Japan Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ...

Glossary The Japanese Paleolithic ) covers a period from around 100,000 [citation needed] to 30,000 BCE, when the earliest stone tool implements have been found, to around 12,000 BCE, at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... The Kofun period ) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Nanboku-chō period , South and North courts period, also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period), spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... “Sengoku” redirects here. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... The Namban trade(Japanese: 南蛮貿易, nanban-bōeki, southern barbarian trade) or The Nanban trade period (Japanese: 南蛮貿易時代, nanban-bōeki-jidai, southern barbarian trade period) in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Japan participated in World War I ) from 1914-1917, as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Kaiserliche Marine. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952... Heisei (Japanese: 平成) is the current era name in Japan. ... The Eco history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late twentieth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become the... The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. ... The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... This is the glossary of Japanese history including historical figures, events, places, policies and others. ...

The military history of Japan is characterised by a long period of feudal wars, followed by domestic stability, and then foreign conquest. It culminates with Japan's defeat by the Allies in World War II. Since then, Japan's constitution has prohibited the use of military force to wage war against other countries. Unless one counts the Allied Occupation following World War II, the Japanese main islands have never been successfully invaded in historical times. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Prehistory

Recent archaeological research has uncovered traces of wars as far back as the Jōmon period (ca. 10,000 - 300 BC) between the various tribes existing on the Japanese Archipelago. Some theorists believe that shortly after the Yayoi period (ca. 300 BC - 250 AD) horse riders from the Korean Peninsula invaded southern Kyūshū, then spread to all the way to northern Honshū. This is when horse-riding and iron tools were first introduced to the islands. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...


Jōmon Period (ca. 10,000 - 300 BC)

Near the end of the Jōmon period (ca. 300 BC), villages and towns became surrounded by moats and wooden fences due to increasing violence within or between communities. Some remains were found with head and arrow injuries. Battles were fought with weapons like the sword, sling, spear, and bow and arrow. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Home-made sling. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... Traditional target arrow and replica medieval arrow. ...


Yayoi Period (300 BC - 250 AD)

Bronze goods and bronze-making techniques from the Asian mainland reached what is now Japan as early as the 3rd century BC. It is believed that horses were introduced to Japan near the end of this time (and well into the early Yamato era), as were bronze and later iron implements and weapons. However, archaeological findings suggest that bronze and iron weapons were not used for war until later, particularly at the beginning of the Yamato era, as the metal weapons found from the remains do not show wear consistent with use as weapons. The transition from the Jōmon to Yayoi, and later to the Yamato, period is likely to have been characterized by violent struggle as the natives were soon displaced by the invaders and their vastly superior military technology. [1] Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...


Around this time, the Wei Chih (or Chinese Chronicles) from the Han Dynasty first refer to the nation of Wo (or "Wa" in Japanese). According to this work, Wa was "divided into more than 100 tribes" and for some 70 or 80 years there were many disturbances and warfare. About 30 of the communities had been united by a sorceress-queen named Pimiko (or "Himiko" in Japanese). She sent an emissary named Nashonmi with a tribute of slaves and cloth to Daifang in China, establishing diplomatic relations with Cao Wei (the Chinese kingdom of Wei). Cao was competing with the three kingdoms. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Ideogram for Wa, formed by the radical for person (on the left), and the phonetic element Wei on the right (itself represented by a rice plant in the upper part and a woman in the lower part). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Daifang (帶方郡 dai4 fang1 jun4) was one of the Chinese commanderies in the Korean peninsula. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later...


Ancient and Classical Japan

Iron helmet and armour with gilt bronze decoration, Kofun era, 5th century. Tokyo National Museum.
Iron helmet and armour with gilt bronze decoration, Kofun era, 5th century. Tokyo National Museum.

By the end of the 4th century, the Yamato clan was well settled on the Nara plain with considerable control over the surrounding areas. It exchanged diplomatic envoys with the Three Kingdoms of Korea and Chinese rulers. Yamato was even strong enough to have sent an army against the powerful state of Goguryeo, which then dominated the Korean Peninsula at the time. It was most closely associated with the southwestern Korean kingdom of Baekje (百斉, or "Kudara" in Japanese), whence came the Seven-Branched Sword (or "shichishito" in Japanese). Download high resolution version (605x927, 84 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (605x927, 84 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Kofun period (Japanese: 古墳時代, Kofun-jidai) is an era in the history of Japan from around AD 250 to 538. ... The Tokyo National Museum. ... The Yamato people ) are the dominant native ethnic group of Japan. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... The Seven-Branched Sword (in Japanese: nanatsusaya no tachi or shichishitō; in Korean: Chiljido) is one of the national treasures of Japan. ...


Near the end of the Heian period, the samurai became a powerful political force, thus starting the feudal period. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ...


Yamato Period (250 - 710 AD)

Wa Japan had close ties with the Gaya Confederacy in the Korean peninsula as well as with the Korean kingdom of Baekje, with whom the Wa royal family had blood ties. Gaya exported abundant quantities of iron armor and weapons to Wa (there was an abundance of naturally occurring iron in the Gaya region) and there may have even been a Japanese military post there with Gaya and Baekje cooperation. Although the Nihonshoki claims that Gaya ("Mimana" in Japanese, "Imna" in Korean, which refers to one of the many provinces in what was known at the time as Gaya) was a colony or tributary of Wa, most scholars[citation needed] have rejected this on the basis that there is no mention of it in either the older Kojiki or in any Korean records, nor in any Chinese records. In addition, no archaeological evidence indicating Japanese military presence has been found in the area from this period. Ideogram for Wa, formed by the radical for person (on the left), and the phonetic element Wei on the right (itself represented by a rice plant in the upper part and a woman in the lower part). ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy and later annexed by Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ...


In 552, the ruler of Baekje appealed to Yamato for help against its enemies, the neighboring Silla and its ally Tang Dynasty China. Along with his emissaries to the Yamato court, the Baekje king sent bronze images of Buddha, some Buddhist scriptures, and a letter praising Buddhism. These gifts triggered a powerful burst of Japanese interest in Buddhism. Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Media:Example. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...


The Battle of Baekgang (白村江) took place in 663 AD, near the conclusion of the Korean Three Kingdoms period. The Nihonshoki records that Yamato sent 32,000 troops and 1,000 ships to support Baekje against Silla-Tang force. However, these ships were intercepted by a Silla-Tang fleet and defeated. Baekje, without aid and surrounded by Silla and Tang forces on the land, collapsed. A hostile Silla (Silla was a rival of Baekje, and as Baekje had a close relationship with Wa Japan, Silla viewed Wa Japan also as a rival and was hostile to it) prevented Japan from having any further meaningful contact with the Korean peninsula until far later in time. Combatants Silla and Tang Dynasty China Baekje and Japan Commanders Unknown Boksin, Buyeo Pung, Abe no Hirafu Strength 130,000 warriors; at least 170 ships 29,000 warriors; at least 170 ships Casualties Unknown 400 ships; Unknown number of warriors lost The Battle of Baekgang, also known as Battle of... Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ...


Nara Period (710-784 AD)

In nearly all of the ways that matter, the Nara period was the beginning of Japanese culture becoming what we today think of as Japanese. It was in this period that Japan first gained Buddhism, the Chinese writing system, and tea ceremony. The country was united and centrally governed for the first time, and much of the basics of the feudal system were set down. The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... A tea ceremony is a ritualised form of making tea. ...


While much of the discipline, weapons, armor, and technique of the samurai was probably not developed yet, the skeleton of the Japanese feudal warrior began here. Mounted archers, swordsmen, and spearmen fought with weapons not too different from those of any other culture, across the world, who had the same level of technology.


Succession disputes were prevalent here, just as in most of the later periods, and the Nara period also saw the first Shogun, Otomo no Yakamochi. Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Ōtomo no Yakamochi (大伴家持 c. ...


Heian Period (794 - 1185 AD)

Scene of the Genpei War (17th century screen).
Scene of the Genpei War (17th century screen).

The Heian Period, militarily, consisted mainly of conflicts and battles between samurai clans over political power and influence, especially fought over control over the line of succession to the Chrysanthemum Throne. The Imperial family struggled against the control of the Fujiwara clan, which almost exclusively monopolized the post of regent. Feudal conflicts over land, political power, and influence eventually culminated in the Genpei War between the Taira and Minamoto clans, and a large number of smaller clans allied with one side or the other. The end of the Genpei War brought about the end of the Heian and the beginning of the Kamakura period. Image File history File links GenpeiWar. ... Image File history File links GenpeiWar. ... The Genpei or Gempei War (源平合戦、寿永・治承の乱) (1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Imperial Seal of Japan. ... Fujiwara (藤原) can refer to: The Fujiwara clan and its members Kamatari Fujiwara Keiji Fujiwara Fujiwara-no-Sai, character of Hikaru no Go Takumi Tak Fujiwara, character of Initial D Zakuro Fujiwara, character of Tokyo Mew Mew (Known as Renee Roberts in the Mew Mew Power English anime) This... The Genpei or Gempei War (源平合戦、寿永・治承の乱) (1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ... Taira (平) is a Japanese surname. ... Minamoto (源) was an honorary surname bestowed by the Emperors of Japan of the Heian Period to their sons and grandsons after accepting them as royal subjects. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ...


During this period, samurai were still, largely, archers first and foremost, before swordsmen. Nearly all duels and battles began with an exchange of arrowfire, before single combat was entered, with sword and dagger. For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ...


The 12th century conflicts, particularly the Genpei War, and the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate which followed, mark the rise of the samurai class over the court nobility (kuge). Shogunates, essentially military governments, would dominate Japanese politics for nearly seven hundred years (1185-1868), subverting the power of the Emperor and of the Court. The kuge (公家) was a Japanese aristocratic class that dominated the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto until the rise of the Shogunate in the 12th century at which point it was eclipsed by the daimyo. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Militarily speaking, this period also marks a crucial shift from a Japanese state which was relatively peacefully united against outside threats, to one which did not fear invasion and instead was focused on internal division and clashes between factions within society. With the exception of the Mongol invasions of the 13th century, Japan would not face considerable outside threats until the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, and thus pre-modern Japanese military history is largely defined not by wars with other states but by conflict within. Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ...


Feudal Japan

This period is marked by the departure from tournament-like battles, and a move to massive clashes of clans for the control of Japan. In the Kamakura period, Japan successfully repulsed Mongol invasions and this started a change to conscripted armies with a core of samurai as an elite force and as commanders. Following roughly fifty years of bitter fighting over control of the Imperial succession, the Muromachi period under the Ashikaga shogunate saw a brief period of peace before the traditional systems of administration under the Court collapsed. Provincial governors and other officials under the Imperial government transformed into a new class of daimyo (feudal lords), and bringing the archipelago into a period of 150 years of fractious disunity and war. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Ashikaga shogunate (Jp. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ...


Kamakura Period (1185 - 1333 AD)

The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongols, during the Mongol invasions of Japan. Moko Shurai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongols, during the Mongol invasions of Japan. Moko Shurai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.

Having subdued their rivals, the Taira clan, the Minamoto samurai clan established the Kamakura shogunate, which brought with it a period of peace. The only battles fought between Japanese in this period, prior to those which brought the fall of the shogunate, consisted of agents of the Minamoto suppressing rebellions or the like. Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ...


The Mongols, who controlled China at the time under the Yuan Dynasty, attempted to invade Japan twice in the 1200s, marking the key military events of the Kamakura period, and two of the very few invasion attempts upon Japan in the 2nd millennium. In early October 1274, the Battle of Bun'ei began with a combined force of Mongols and Koreans seizing Tsushima, and then attacking Kyūshū, landing at Hakata Bay. On 19 October, they lost many battle ships due to typhoon and the remaining troops retreated. Anticipating a second assault, the shogunate organized the construction of walls and fortresses along the shore, and gathered forces to defend against further invasions. A second invasion attempt was made in 1281, in what has come to be known as the Battle of Kōan; the Mongol-led forces retreated after losing many ships due to a typhoon once again. For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Battle of Bunei Conflict Mongol Invasions of Japan Date November 20, 1274 Place Hakata Bay, near present-day Fukuoka, Kyushu Result Invasion fails. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in world history founded in Mongolia, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its... Tsushima is a name related to Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The city of Fukuoka encircling Hakata Bay. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Kamakura shogunate Mongols Commanders Hōjō Tokimune Mongol-Chinese Joint Command Strength 100,000? 142,000 men in 4400 ships? Casualties Unknown 120,000+ The battle of Kōan ), also known as the Second Battle of Hakata Bay, was the second attempt by the Mongols to invade Japan. ...


The equipment, tactics, and military attitudes of the samurai and their Mongol opponents differed greatly, and while both invasions failed miserably, their impact on developments and changes in samurai battle were quite significant. The samurai remained attached to ideas of single combat, that of honorable battle between individual warriors, and to certain ritual elements of battle, such as a series of archery exchanges conducted before entering into hand-to-hand fighting. The Mongols, of course, knew nothing of Japanese conventions, and were arguably much more organized in their strike tactics. They did not select individual opponents with whom to conduct honorable duels, but rode forth on horseback, with various forms of gunpowder weapons and the now-famous Mongol bow, charging into enemy lines and killing as many as they could without regard to Japanese conceptions of protocol. Though archery and mounted combat were central to Japanese warfare as well at this time, the Mongols remain famous even today for their prowess in these matters. The ways in which samurai tactics and attitudes were affected directly by these experiences, and their extent, are of course difficult to ascertain, but were certainly significant. The Mongol bow is a special recurve bow. ...


Muromachi Period (1336 - 1467 AD)

The shogunate fell in the wake of the 1331 Genkō War, an uprising against the shogunate organized by the Emperor Go-Daigo. After a brief period under true Imperial rule, the Ashikaga shogunate was established in 1336, and a series of conflicts known as the Nanboku-chō Wars began. For over fifty years, the archipelago became embroiled in disputes over control of the Imperial succession, and thus over the country. Combatants Imperial forces loyal to Emperor Go-Daigo Forces of Kamakura shogunate Commanders Ashikaga Takauji, Nitta Yoshisada, Kusunoki Masashige Hōjō Mototoki, Hōjō Takatoki, Hōjō Sadaaki, Hōjō Moritoki The Genkō War (元弘の乱, Genkō no Ran) (1331-1333) was a civil war in Japan which marked the fall of... Woodblock print triptych by Gekko Ogata. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but... The Ashikaga shogunate (Jp. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ...


Battles grew larger in this period, and were less ritualized. Though single combats and other elements of ritual and honorable battle remained, organized strategies and tactics under military commanders began to emerge, along with a greater degree of organization of formations and divisions within armies. It was in this period as well that weaponsmithing techniques emerged creating so-called "Japanese steel" blades, flexible yet extremely hard and sharp; the katana, and a myriad of similar or related blade weapons, appeared at this time and would dominate Japanese arms, relatively unchanged, through the mid-20th century. As a result, it was also during this period that the shift of samurai from archers to swordsmen began in a significant way. For other uses, see Katana (disambiguation). ...


Sengoku Period (1467-1603 AD)

Less than a century after the end of the Nanboku-chō Wars, peace under the relatively weak Ashikaga shogunate was destroyed by the outbreak of the Ōnin War, a roughly ten-year struggle which would see the conversion of the capital of Kyoto into a battlefield, and a heavily fortified city which suffered destruction so severe and extensive it was never matched before or since. Marker at location of outbreak of ÅŒnin War The ÅŒnin War (応仁の乱 ÅŒnin no Ran) was a civil war from 1467 to 1477 during the Muromachi period in Japan. ...


The authority of both the shogunate and the Imperial Court all but collapsed, and provincial Governors (shugo) and other local samurai leaders emerged as the daimyo, who would battle each other, religious factions (e.g. the Ikkō-ikki) and others for land and power for the next 150 years or so. The period has come to be called Sengoku (戦国), after the Warring States period in ancient Chinese history. Over one hundred domains clashed and warred throughout the archipelago, as clans rose and fell, boundaries shifted, and some of the largest battles in all of global pre-modern history were fought. Shugo (守護) is an official post named by the Shogun, which oversees a province (kuni) in Japan. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... The Japanese Ikkō-ikki ), literally single-minded leagues, were mobs of peasant farmers, monks, Shinto priests and local nobles, who rose up against samurai rule in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Sengoku Period (戦国時代 Sengoku jidai) or warring-states period, is a period of long civil war in the History of Japan that spans through the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally...


A great many developments and significant events took place during this period, ranging from advances in castle design to the advent of the cavalry charge, the further development of campaign strategies on a grand scale, to the significant changes brought on by the introduction of firearms.


Army compositions changed and grew more strategic; masses of ashigaru footsoldiers, armed with long lances (yari) served a role alongside mounted samurai, archers, and later, gunners. Siege tactics and weaponry were exceedingly rare, as they would remain until the modern era, and naval battles likewise consisted of little more than the use of boats to move troops within range of bow or arquebus, and then into hand-to-hand fighting. The Japanese ashigaru (足軽) were conscripted foot-soldiers of medieval Japan. ... several yari, including one hafted with a simple crossbar straight yari head with saya Jumonji yari head use of yari in mock combat Yari (槍) is the Japanese term for spear, or more specifically, the straight-headed spear. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppō) Example of an arquebus The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; from Dutch haakbus, meaning hook gun[2]) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ...


The Hōjō clan, in and around the Kantō area, were among the first to establish networks of satellite castles, and the complex use of these castles both for mutual defense and coordinated attacks. The Takeda, under Takeda Shingen, developed the Japanese equivalent of the cavalry charge; though debate continues today as to the force of his charges, and the appropriateness of the term, comparing them to Western cavalry charges, it is evident from contemporary sources that it was a revolutionary development, and powerful against defenders unused to it. Battles of particular interest or significance are too numerous to list here, but suffice it to say that this period saw a myriad of strategic and tactical developments, and some of the longest sieges and largest battles in the history of the pre-modern world. The Late Hōjō clan ) was one of the most powerful warrior clans in Japan in the Sengoku period. ... Kantō region, Japan The Kantō region (Japanese: 関東地方, Kantō-chihō) is a geographical area of HonshÅ«, the largest island in Japan. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Battle of WoÅ‚odarka Polish infantry charging enemy positions during the Polish Defensive War A charge is a maneuver in battle in which soldiers advance towards their enemy at their best speed to engage in close combat. ...


Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1568 -1600 AD)

Nanban (Western)-style samurai cuirass, 16th century.
Nanban (Western)-style samurai cuirass, 16th century.

This period, named for the castle-cities which became increasingly important, is marked with the introduction of firearms, after contact with the Portuguese, and a further push towards all-out battle, away from individual combats and the influences of concepts of personal honor and bravery. Nanbandoo, western-style cuirass. ... Nanbandoo, western-style cuirass. ... The period of Nanban (Southern Barbarian) contacts in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under the promulgation of the Seclusion Laws. ...


The arquebus was introduced to Japan in 1543, by Portuguese onboard a Chinese ship which crashed upon the tiny island of Tanegashima in the southernmost parts of the Japanese archipelago. Though their introduction was not seen to have particularly dramatic effects for several decades, by the 1560s, thousands of gunpowder weapons were in use in Japan, and began to have revolutionary effects upon Japanese battle tactics and strategies, army compositions, and castle architecture. Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppō) Example of an arquebus The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; from Dutch haakbus, meaning hook gun[2]) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... Yoshinobu Launch Complex (© JAXA) in Tanegashima Tanegashima (Japanese: 種子島) is an island lying to the south of Kyushu, south Japan, and is part of the Kagoshima Prefecture. ...


The 1575 Battle of Nagashino, in which about 3,000 arquebusiers led by Oda Nobunaga cut down charging ranks of thousands of samurai, remains one of the chief examples of the effect of these weapons. Highly inaccurate, and taking a long time to reload, arquebusses, or teppō (鉄砲) as they are called in Japanese, did not win battles on their own. Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and other commanders, however, conceived of tactics which honed their use to the greatest advantage. At Nagashino, Nobunaga's gunners hid behind wooden barricades, embedded with large wooden spikes to ward off cavalry, and took turns firing volleys and reloading. Combatants Takeda forces combined Oda-Tokugawa forces Commanders Takeda Katsuyori, Anayama Nobukimi, Takeda Nobukado, Takeda Nobutoyo Oda Nobunaga, Tokugawa Ieyasu, Okudaira Sadamasa Strength 15,000 38,000 Casualties 10,000 dead, incl. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppō) Example of an arquebus The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; from Dutch haakbus, meaning hook gun[2]) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ...


As in Europe, the debilitating effects of wet (and therefore largely useless) gunpowder were decisive in a number of battles. But, one of the key advantages of the weapon was that, unlike bows which required years of training largely available only to the aristocratic samurai class, guns could be used by the relatively untrained footman. Samurai stuck to their swords and their bows, engaging in cavalry or infantry tactics, while the ashigaru wielded the guns. Some militant Buddhist factions, began to produce firearms in the foundries normally employed to make bronze temple bells. In this manner, the Ikkō-ikki, a group of monks and lay religious zealots, turned their Ishiyama Honganji cathedral-fortress into one of the most well-defended fortresses in the country. The ikki and a handful of other militant religious factions thus presented significant powers unto themselves, and fought fierce battles against some of the chief generals and samurai clans in the archipelago. The Ishiyama Honganji (石山本願寺) was the primary fortress of the Ikko-ikki, mobs of warrior monks and peasants who opposed samurai rule. ...


Though Sengoku battles continued to rage as they had for the previous century, growing larger and more tactically complex, it was at this time that the many "warring states" began to be united, first under Oda Nobunaga, then under Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and finally by Tokugawa Ieyasu. This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until...


In 1592 and 1598 Toyotomi Hideyoshi organized a 160,000-man army and navy for the conquest of China's Ming Dynasty by way of Korea, after the latter's refusal to allow Japanese forces to march through. Although the Japanese forces scored initial victories on land, reaching as far as the Yalu River, the Japanese navy was completely devastated by the much smaller but technologically effective Korean navy. In addition, China sent military aid to Korea, helping seal the victory against Japan. After Hideyoshi's death, the Council of Five Elders ordered the remaining Japanese forces in Korea to retreat. Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... For other uses, see Ming. ... The council of five regents, also known as the five Tairō (五大老 go-tairō), was formed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi to rule Japan in the place of his son, Hideyori, until such time as he came of age. ...


Tokugawa Ieyasu, one of the regents, took control of most of the former leader's forces. In 1600 he won the battle of Sekigahara and solidified his rule. In 1603, he received the title of shogun, making him the nominal ruler of the entire country. Combatants Forces loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori, many clans from Western Japan Forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Clans of Eastern Japan Commanders Ishida Mitsunari, Mōri Terumoto, others Tokugawa Ieyasu, others Strength Approximately 100000 Approximately 80000 Casualties 5000-32000 dead Otani Yoshitsugu Shimazu Toyohisa Unknown; but not excessive The Battle of Sekigahara... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ...


Edo Period (1603 - 1867 AD)

This period was one of relative peace under the authority of the Tokugawa shogunate. The forced imposition of peace, through a variety of measures which weakened the daimyo and ensured their loyalty to the shogunate, maintained this state. The Tokugawa peace would be ruptured only rarely and briefly prior to the violence surrounding the Meiji Restoration of the 1860s. The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ...


The siege of Osaka which took place in 1614-15 was essentially the last gasp for Toyotomi Hideyori, heir to Hideyoshi, and an alliance of clans and other elements who opposed the shogunate. A samurai battle on a grand scale, in terms of strategy, scale, methods employed, and the political causes behind it, this is widely considered the final conflict of the Sengoku period. Combatants Tokugawa shogunate Toyotomi clan Commanders Tokugawa Ieyasu Toyotomi Hideyori Strength 164,000 (winter) 150,000 (summer) 113,000 (winter) 60,000 (summer) Inscription on bell at Hokoji in Kyoto The Siege of Osaka ), more commonly called ), was a series of battles undertaken by the Tokugawa shogunate against the Toyotomi... Grave of Toyotomi Clan at Mount Koya Toyotomi Hideyori (豊臣 秀頼 Toyotomi Hideyori), 1593-1615, was the son and designated successor of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the general who first united all of Japan. ...


Outside of the siege of Osaka, and the later conflicts of the 1850s-60s, violence in the Edo period was restricted to small skirmishes in the streets, peasant rebellions, and the enforcement of maritime restrictions and the ban on Christianity imposed in the 1630s-40s. The spread of Christianity, and the Portuguese missionaries who came to Japan with Western and Chinese merchants, were seen as threats to the unity and stability of the Tokugawa state. With some very particular exceptions, foreigners were banned from the interior parts of the archipelago, and Japanese Christians persecuted. This, along with famines and other difficulties later in the Edo period brought a number of rebellions and uprisings, the largest and most famous of which was the 1638 Shimabara Rebellion. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Samurai of the Satsuma clan, during the Boshin War period, circa 1867. Photograph by Felice Beato
Samurai of the Satsuma clan, during the Boshin War period, circa 1867. Photograph by Felice Beato

The appearance of gunboat diplomacy in Japan in the 1850s, and the forced so-called "opening of Japan" by Western forces underscored the weaknesses of the shogunate and led to its collapse. Though the actual end of the shogunate and establishment of an Imperial government following Western modes was handled entirely peacefully, through political petitions and the like, the years surrounding the event were not an entirely bloodless revolution. Following the formal termination of the shogunate, the Boshin War (戊辰戦争 Boshin Sensō, literally "War of the Year of the Dragon") was fought in 1868-1869 between the Tokugawa army and a number of factions of nominally pro-Imperial forces to seize power and fill the gap thus created. ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... Satsuma is the name of a town in Japan, Satsuma, Kagoshima, the surrounding district, Satsuma District, Kagoshima, the former province, Satsuma Province, which is now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, a revolt, the Satsuma Rebellion. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Felice Beato, unknown photographer, c. ... In international politics, gunboat diplomacy refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power—implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ...


Modern Period

After a long peace, Japan rearmed by importing, then manufacturing Western weapons, and finally manufacturing weapons of Japanese design. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Japan became the first Asian nation since Genghis Khan's Mongols to win a war against a European nation. In 1902 it became the first Asian nation to sign a mutual defence pact with a European nation, Britain. Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... This article is about the person. ...


Japan was also the last major power to enter the race of global colonization. Severely hampered by its still-developing industries, Japan started a war against the United States during World War II with less than one-tenth of the industrial capabilities of the U.S. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Japan has never participated in a major war as a combatant after being defeated in World War II. Even though Japan maintains a powerful defense force, its Constitution, originally drawn under the guidelines of GEN Douglas MacArthur in 1945, formally renounces war and the use of military force in aggressive or offensive ways. Japan also maintains a policy against the exporting of military hardware. In addition, Japan is the only nation with a space exploration program, but no nuclear weapons.


Meiji Period

Modern Army Established

In 1873, the Imperial government enacted the conscription law and established the Imperial Japanese Army. As class distinctions were all but eliminated in attempts to modernize and create a representative democracy, samurai lost their status as the only class with military obligations. A sensationalized depiction of this can be seen in The Last Samurai starring Tom Cruise. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Last Samurai is an action/drama film written by John Logan and Edward Zwick & Marshall Herskovitz based on a story by Logan. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ...


Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)

Main article: First Sino-Japanese War

The Sino-Japanese War was fought against the forces of the Qing Dynasty of China in the Korean peninsula, Manchuria, and the coast of China. It was the first major conflict between Japan and an overseas military power in modern times. Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Treaty of Shimonoseki (下関条約 Shimonoseki Jyoyaku?) signed between Japan and China ended the war. Through this treaty, Japan forced China to open ports for international trade and ceded the southern portion of China's Liaoning province as well as the island of Taiwan to Japan. China also had to pay a war indemnity of 200 million Kuping taels. As a result of this war, Korea ceased to be a tributary state of China, but fell into Japan's sphere of influence. However, many of the material gains from this war were lost by Japan due to the Triple Intervention. The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... Liaoning (Simplified Chinese: 辽宁; Traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The tael (兩), PY: Liang, was part of the Chinese system of weights and currency. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... The Tripartite Intervention or Triple Intervention ) was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing dynasty China, which ended the First Sino-Japanese War. ...


Russo-Japanese War

Main article: Russo-Japanese War

The Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 was the third time in history in which an Eastern power defeated a Western one (Genghis Khan, 1162-1227, and Attila the Hun, 406-453 AD), and marks the emergence of Japan as a major military power. Japan demonstrated that it could apply Western technology, discipline, strategy, and tactics in an effective war. Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict...


Taisho Period - World War I

1914: Japan was a member of the Allies during World War I and was rewarded with control of German colonies in the Pacific. The 70,000-strong Japanese force also intervened in Russia during the Russian Civil War, supporting the anti-Communist factions, but failed to achieve their objective and was forced to withdraw. A small group of Japanese cruisers and destroyers also participated in various missions in the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Britain, France, Canada and the United States, along with other World War I Allied countries, conducted a military intervention into the Russian Civil War during the period of 1918 through 1920. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Far Eastern Republic Chinese Volunteers White Movement Allied Intervention: Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania  Turkey UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist movements  German Empire  Mongolia Warlords Commanders Vladimir Lenin...


Showa Period - World War II

Main article: Pacific War
See also: Development of Japanese tanks in World War II

Already controlling an area directly surrounding the South Manchuria Railroad, Japan's Kwantung Army further invaded Manchuria (Northeast China) in 1931, following the Mukden Incident, in which they claimed to have had territory attacked by the Chinese (a few meters of the South Manchuria Railway was destroyed in a bombing sabotage). By 1937, Japan had annexed territory north of Beijing and, following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, a full-scale invasion of China began. Japanese military superiority over a weak and demoralized Chinese Republican army allowed for swift advances down the eastern coast, leading to the fall of Shanghai and Nanjing (Nanking, then capital of the Republic of China) the same year. The Chinese suffered greatly in both military and civilian casualties. An estimated 300,000 civilians were killed during the first weeks of Japanese occupation of Nanjing, during the Nanking Massacre. For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Express train on South Manchuria Railway Locomotive for Asia Express Advertisement The South Manchuria Railway Company (Japanese: 南満州鉄道株式会社 Minami ManshÅ« Tetsudō Kabushiki-gaisha; abbreviated as 満鉄 Mantetsu) was a company founded by Japan in 1906, after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), and operated in Japanese-occupied Manchuria. ... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... It has been suggested that Manchuria Incident be merged into this article or section. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Song Zheyuan Kanichiro Tashiro Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變 or the Lugouqiao Incident) was a battle between the Republic of Chinas National Revolutionary Army and the Empire of Japans... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... “Nanking” redirects here. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... “Rape of Nanking” redirects here. ...


In September 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan became allies under the Tripartite Pact. Germany, which had previously trained and supplied the Chinese army, halted all Sino-German cooperation, and recalled its military advisor (Alexander von Falkenhausen). In July 1940, the U.S. banned the shipment of aviation gasoline to Japan, and by 1941, shipments of scrap metal, steel, gasoline, and other materials had virtually ceased. Meanwhile, American economic support to China began to increase. The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Benito Mussolini of Fascist Italy entering as a military alliance... Close Sino-German cooperation, dating back to the 1920s, was instrumental in modernising the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China, especially in the period immediately preceding the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... Alexander von Falkenhausen (October 29, 1878 - July 31, 1966) was the head of the military government of Belgium during the German occupation, from 1940 until 1944 in the Second World War. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Categories: Stub | Waste ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Petrol redirects here. ...


In April 1941, Japan and the Soviet Union signed a neutrality pact and Japan increased pressure on the Vichy French and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia to cooperate in economic matters. On July 22 1941, Japanese forces invaded French Indochina and occupied its naval and air bases. Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency...


Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and against several other countries on 7 December 1941, the United States, United Kingdom and the other Allies declared war; the Second Sino-Japanese War became part of the global conflict of World War II. Japanese forces initially experienced great success against Allied forces in the Pacific and South East Asia, capturing Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, the Philippines and many Pacific Islands. They also made major offensives in Burma and air and naval attacks against Australia. The Allies turned the tide of war at sea in mid-1942, at the Battle of Midway. Japanese land forces continued to advance in the New Guinea and Solomon Islands campaigns but suffered significant defeats and/or were forced to retreat at the battles of Milne Bay, the Kokoda Track and Guadalcanal. This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... →this is tuff i mean kyle carters tuff Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... Combatants United Kingdom British India Republic of China United States Empire of Japan Indian National Army Burma National Army Thailand Commanders Louis Mountbatten William Slim Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San(From 1944) Masakazu Kawabe Hyotaro Kimura Renya Mutaguchi Subhash Chandra Bose Aung San(until 1944) Strength Unknown Unknown... An Australian propaganda poster released in 1942. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi â€  Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Combatants  United States  Australia New Guinea[1]  New Zealand  United Kingdom Colony of Fiji[2] Solomon Is. ... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Nishizo Tsukahara Shojiro Hayashi Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 3,200 Casualties about 550 dead 1,000 dead New Guinea campaign Battle for Australia Air raids – Darwin – Broome – Coral Sea – Naval attacks – Sydney & Newcastle – Kokoda – Milne... Combatants  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Thomas Blamey Sydney Rowell Edmund Herring Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Hisaichi Terauchi Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii â€  Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ...


From 1943 onwards, hard-fought battles at the battles of Battle of Buna-Gona, the Tarawa, Battle of the Philippine Sea, Battle of Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and others resulted in horrific casualties on both sides, but eventually produced further Japanese retreats. On August 6 and 9 August 1945, the U.S. dropped two atomic bombs, on Hiroshima and on Nagasaki respectively. More than 200,000 people died as a direct result of these two bombings, after which the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan. Combatants Australia, United States Japan Commanders George Vasey (Australia); Edwin F. Harding/ Robert L. Eichelberger (United States) Ken Yamagata Strength 20,000+ 7,400+ Casualties 3,500 (not counting tropical diseases); 1,300 Australian and 1,000 US personnel killed in action. ... Combatants  United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Keiji Shibazaki  â€  Strength 35,000 troops 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,001 killed 4,713 killed 17 Japanese and 129 Koreans captured Map of Tarawa Atoll Map of Betio, Tarawa Atoll The Battle... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Kakuji Kakuta Strength 7 fleet carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 5 fleet carriers, 4 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties... Combatants  United States  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 8,226 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 27,909 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought between the United... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Japan surrendered on August 15 1945 and a formal Instrument of Surrender was signed on 2 September 1945, on the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. The surrender was accepted by General Douglas MacArthur as Supreme Allied Commander, with representatives of each Allied nation, from a Japanese delegation led by Mamoru Shigemitsu. A separate surrender ceremony between Japan and China was held in Nanking on 9 September 1945. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender The Instrument of Surrender of Japan was the armistice ending World War II. It was signed by representatives of the Empire of Japan, the United States, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... Tokyo Bay from space Tokyo Bay ) is a bay in the southern Kantō region of Japan. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Douglas MacArthur signs the formal surrender of Japanese forces on the USS Missouri, 1945-09-02
Douglas MacArthur signs the formal surrender of Japanese forces on the USS Missouri, 1945-09-02

Following this period, MacArthur established bases in Japan to oversee the postwar development of the country. This period in Japanese history is known as the Occupation. U.S. President Harry Truman officially proclaimed an end of hostilities on 31 December 1946. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1464x1047, 227 KB) Description: General Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1464x1047, 227 KB) Description: General Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender The Instrument of Surrender of Japan was the armistice ending World War II. It was signed by representatives of the Empire of Japan, the United States, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... For the victim of Mt. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Over the course of the war, Japan displayed many significant advances in military technology, strategy and tactics. Among them were the Yamato class battleship, the Sensuikan Toku submarine bomber carriers, the Mitsubishi Zero fighters, and Kamikaze bombers. The Yamato class battleships ) of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) were the largest naval vessels of World War II and were the largest, heaviest battleships ever constructed to this day, displacing 72,800 metric tons (at full load) and armed with nine 46 cm (18. ... The Sen Toku I-400 class (伊四〇〇型潜水艦) submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy were the largest submarines of WW2, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed, and the largest in the world until the development of nuclear ballistic submarines in the 1960s. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ...


The Atlantis Documents

It is sometimes argued that the Japanese decision to attack the Allies was, in large part, influenced by the capture of British documents with regards to British forces, the defenses of Singapore, codes, and information on Australia and New Zealand, as well as an appraisal of Japanese intentions. These documents were captured by the German Hilfskreuzer (auxiliary cruiser) Atlantis, on 1940-11-11. Other elements show that Japanese military command chose to invade allied territory as a result of a failure to defend itself against Soviet forces in 1938-1939 during the Nomonhan Incident. The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... Atlantis, known to the Kriegsmarine as Schiff 16 and to the Royal Navy as Raider-C, was a converted German Hilfskreuzer (auxiliary cruiser, or merchant or commerce raider) of the Kriegsmarine, which, during World War II, travelled more than 161,000 km in 602 days, and sank 22 ships totaling... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Halhin Gol, sometimes spelled Khalkhin Gol and alternately known as the Nomonhan Incident in Japan, was the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939), or Japanese-Soviet War. ...


Post-World War II

After a period of U.S. occupation(1945-1952), Japan regained its independence. Japan was also forbidden to have a standing army or wage war by Article nine of its Constitution. Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied...


Although the Japanese constitution says "land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained," the Jieitai (自衛隊), or Japan Self-Defense Forces were created shortly after the end of U.S. occupation. The Jieitai is one of the most technologically advanced armed forces in the world and Japanese military expenditures are the seventh highest in the world. Though the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, signed in 1960, allows for the continued presence of American military bases in Japan, most of them on Okinawa, no formal agreement was ever set by which Japan officially relies on the United States, United Nations, or another body for its defense. The Japan Self-Defense Forces ), or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of World War II. The force has not been engaged in real combat but has been engaged in some international peacekeeping operations. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


In the aftermath of the Occupation, attempts were made by some administrations in Japan, particularly at the urging of the United States, to amend the Constitution and rearm. However, intense popular sentiment against this action, and against war in general, along with the attitudes and agendas of significant elements within the government, prevented this. In 1967, Prime Minister Eisaku Satō outlined the Three Non-Nuclear Principles by which Japan stands against its production, or possession of nuclear weaponry. Similar ideas were expressed several years later against the production and export of conventional arms. Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Satō negotiated with U.S. president Richard M. Nixon for the repatriation of Okinawa. ... Japans Three Non-Nuclear Principles ) are a parliamentary resolution (never adopted into law) that have guided Japanese nuclear policy since their inception in the late 1960s, and reflect general public sentiment and national policy since the end of World War II. The tenets state that Japan shall neither possess...


The Diet of Japan is currently deliberating an amendment to the Constitution which would repeal Article Nine, and allow Japan to once again have projective military capacity. The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ...


For the time being, Japan has deployed the Jieitai to aid in a number of non-combat missions, especially those involving humanitarian aid, such as aiding the victims of the 1995 Kobe earthquake, providing administrative support to the United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL) Norwegian Battalion (NORBATT) in the 1990s, and helping rebuild Iraq. Damage from the Great Hanshin Earthquake is kept intact at the Earthquake Memorial Park near the Port of Kobe. ... UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon) was created in 1978 by the United Nations to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. ...


Some Japanese state a desire to have their own military due to fear of the growing power of China and the hostility of North Korea. They claim that the U.S. has failed to properly address these issues, and therefore Japan must grant itself "the power to defend itself".


In 2004, then-United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan announced a plan to expand the number of permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council, and Japan seeks to gain one of those seats. Despite Japan's economic power and political influence, however, it is debatable whether or not a country with no standing military can be considered a "world power" such that it would be granted a permanent seat on the Council. Recent disputes with neighboring countries like China, South Korea, and Russia over territories such as the Senkaku Islands, Liancourt Rocks, and the Kuril Islands, as well as accusations of Japanese whitewashing of history in various textbook controversies have also complicated this process. Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... // Aerial view of Uotsuri-jima / Diaoyu-dao Kuba Jima (久場島) or Huangwei Yu (黃尾嶼 Yellow Tail) is located at has an area of 1. ... “Dokdo” redirects here. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... The Japanese history textbook controversies are about government-approved history textbooks used in the secondary education (junior high schools and high schools) of Japan. ...


References

  1. ^ 江上波夫 騎馬民族国家 ISBN 4122011264
  • Gordon, David M. "The China-Japan War, 1931-1945" Journal of Military History (Jan 2006) v 70#1, pp 137-82. Historiographical overview of major books
  • Sansom, George (1958). 'A History of Japan to 1334'. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Sansom, George (1961). "A History of Japan: 1334-1615." Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Sansom, George (1963). "A History of Japan: 1615-1867." Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Turnbull, Stephen (1998). 'The Samurai Sourcebook'. London: Cassell & Co.
  • Turnbull, Stephen (2002). 'War in Japan: 1467-1615'. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Japan - History (3598 words)
The latter became a Japanese protectorate in 1905 and was annexed by Japan in 1910.
Japan withdrew from the League of Nations (which had protested the Manchurian takeover) in 1933, started a full-scale invasion of China (the Second Sino-Japanese War, 1937–45), and signed the Anti-Comintern pact with Germany in 1936 and a triple alliance with Germany and Italy in 1940.
The military leadership, viewing the former USSR and the United States as chief barriers to Japanese expansion, negotiated a nonaggression pact with the USSR in April 1941, thus setting the stage for the attack on Pearl Harbor and other Pacific targets on 7 December of that year.
History of Japan - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (6085 words)
The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century A.D., but abundant archaeological evidence demonstrates that people were living on the islands, which were actually adjoined to the mainland until about 13,000 years ago, as early as the upper paleolithic period.
Japan was denied an indemnity, which lead to riots due to the massive amounts of public investiture and fervor in the war.
Japan went to the peace conference at Versailles in 1919 as one of the great military and industrial powers of the world and received official recognition as one of the "Big Five" of the new international order.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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