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Encyclopedia > Military history of Iran
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Ancient Iranian Women-Warriors. In unique Avestan pastoralist equestrian warrior society, women fought alongside their men, this so called upside-down society both fascinated and horrified the male dominated Greek and Romans cultures
Ancient Iranian Women-Warriors. In unique Avestan pastoralist equestrian warrior society, women fought alongside their men, this so called upside-down society both fascinated and horrified the male dominated Greek and Romans cultures[1]

With over 2500 years of history Iran, previously known as Persia until 1935, has had a long military history. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1673x1151, 317 KB) Authors own work (Watercolour) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1673x1151, 317 KB) Authors own work (Watercolour) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Look up equestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...

Contents

Achaemenid Era

Iran during in approximately 500 BC.
Iran during in approximately 500 BC.












Image File history File links Achaemenid-empire-500BCE.png‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Military history of Iran ... Image File history File links Achaemenid-empire-500BCE.png‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Military history of Iran ...


Seleucid Empire (330 to 150 BCE)

Parthian Empire (250 BCE– 226 CE)

Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE.
Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE.












Image File history File links The location of ancient Parthia, an Iranian kingdom, c. ...


Sassanid Era (226 CE to 637 CE)

The Sassanid Empire in 602 to 629.
The Sassanid Empire in 602 to 629.

See Sassanid army for information on the actual army. Image File history File links Sassanid-empire-610CE.png‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Iran Persian Empire Zurvanism Talk:Sassanid Empire Fall of Sassanids Template:Sassanid Empire infobox Sassanid Empire ... Image File history File links Sassanid-empire-610CE.png‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Iran Persian Empire Zurvanism Talk:Sassanid Empire Fall of Sassanids Template:Sassanid Empire infobox Sassanid Empire ... Relief of Ardashir I, in Naqsh-e Rustam The birth of the Sassanid army (Persian: ‎ Læškar-e Sāsānīyān) dates back to Ardashir I rise to the throne, when he planned a clear military aimed at the revival of the Persian Empire by forming a standing...














Islamic conquest (637 to 651)

The Islamic conquest of Persia.
The Islamic conquest of Persia.












Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ...


Tahirid dynasty (821 to 873)

Alavid dynasty (864 to 928)

Saffarid dynasty (861 to 1003)

Samanid dynasty (875 to 999)

Ziyarid dynasty (928 to 1043)

Buwayhid dynasty (934 to 1055)

Ghaznavid Empire (963 to 1187)

Seljukid empire (1037 to 1187)

Khwarezmid Empire (1077 to 1231)

Iran at the height of the Khwarezmid Empire.
Iran at the height of the Khwarezmid Empire.












Image File history File links Khwarezmid-empire-1220CE.png‎ Alternate search terms: Khanate of Khiva, Khwarezm, Khwarezmia, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Khorezm, Khoresm, Khorasam, Chorezm, Chorasmia. ... Image File history File links Khwarezmid-empire-1220CE.png‎ Alternate search terms: Khanate of Khiva, Khwarezm, Khwarezmia, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Khorezm, Khoresm, Khorasam, Chorezm, Chorasmia. ...


Ilkhanate (1256 to 1353)

Muzaffarid dynasty (1314 to 1393)

Chupanid dyansty (1337 to 1357)

Jalayerid dynasty (1339 to 1432)

Timurid Empire (1370 to 1506)

Qara Qoyunlu Turcomens (1407 to 1468)

Aq Qoyunlu Turcomans (1378 to 1508)

Iranian military armor, steel and leather, dated 1450CE. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Iranian military armor, steel and leather, dated 1450CE. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 475 KB) Source: Encyclopedia WikIran: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 475 KB) Source: Encyclopedia WikIran: http://www. ... There is also the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), located in Manhattan. ...

Safavid Era (1501 to 1736)

The Safavid Empire and its zones of conflict.
The Safavid Empire and its zones of conflict.

The then Safavid rulers of Persia, like the Mamluks of Egypt, viewed firearms with distaste, and at first made little attempt to adopt them into their armed forces. Like the Mamluks they were taught the error of their ways by the then powerful Ottoman armies. Unlike the Mamluks they lived to apply the lessons they had learnt on the battlefield. In the course of the sixteenth century, but still more in the seventeenth, the shahs of Iran took steps to acquire handguns and artillery pieces and to re-equip their forces with them. Initially, the principal sources of these weapons appears to have been Venice, Portugal, and England. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1033x717, 318 KB) Map of Safavid territories. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1033x717, 318 KB) Map of Safavid territories. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...


Despite their initial reluctance, the Persians very rapidly acquired the art of making and using handguns. A Venetian envoy, Vincenzo di Alessandri, in a report presented to the Council of Ten on 24 September 1572, observes: The Council of Ten, or simply the Ten, was, from 1310 to 1797, one of the major governing bodies of the Republic of Venice. ...


"They used for arms, swords, lances, arquebuses, which all the soldiers carry and use; their arms are also superior and better tempered than those of any other nation. The barrels of the arquebuses are generally six spans long, and carry a ball little less than three ounces in weight. They use them with such facility that it does not hinder them drawing their bows nor handling their swords, keeping the latter hung at their saddle bows till occasion requires them. The arquebus is then put away behind the back so that one weapon does not impede the use of the other."

An artist impression of a Safavid Qezelbash
An artist impression of a Safavid Qezelbash

This picture of the Persian horseman, equipped for almost simultaneous use of the bow, sword, and firearm, aptly symbolized the dramatic and complexity of the scale of changes that the Persian Military was undergoing. While the use of personal firearms was becoming commonplace, the use of field artillery was limited and remained on the whole ineffective. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (996x1550, 95 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (996x1550, 95 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ...

A painting on the wall of the Chel-Sooton Palace in Isfahan of Shah Abbas at war
A painting on the wall of the Chel-Sooton Palace in Isfahan of Shah Abbas at war

In bringing about a 'modern' gunpowder era Persian army it can not be argued that Shah Abbas (1587-1629) was not instrumental. Following the Ottoman Army model that had impressed him in combat the Shah set about to build his new army. He was much helped by two English brothers, Anthony and Robert Sherley, who went to Iran in 1598 with twenty-six followers and remained in the Persian service for a number of years. The brothers helped organise the army into an officer-paid and well-trained standing army similar to a European model. It was organised along three divisions: Ghulams ('crown servants or slaves' usually conscripted from Armenian, Georgian and Circassian lands), Tofongchis (musketeers), and Topchis (artillery-men) Image File history File linksMetadata Shah_Abbas_Chel_Soutoon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shah_Abbas_Chel_Soutoon. ... Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun palace; Isfahan Shah Abbas King of the Persians Copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. ... Sir Anthony Sherley was in Persia from Dec 1, 1599 to May 1600. ...


Shah Abbas's new model army was massively successful and allowed him to re-unite parts of Greater Iran and expand his nations territories at a time of great external pressure and conflict. Greater Iran (in Persian: ایران بزرگ pron: Iran-e Bozorg, also ایران‌زمین pron: Iran-zameen) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to the entire region where Iranian languages are today spoken as a first language, or as a second language by a significant minority. ...


Upon the fall of the Safavid dynasty Persia entered into a period of uncertainty. The previously highly organised military fragmented and the pieces were left for the following dynasties to collect. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Afsharid Dynasty (1750 to 1794)

Following the decline of the Safavid state a brilliant general by the name of Nadir Shah took the reins of the country. This period and the centuries following it were characterised by the rise in Russian power to Persia's north. The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid...


From the time of Peter The Great, the northern states of the Persian Empire were under threat of Russian annexation. In 1710, Tsar Peter formulated his foreign policy principles. The backbone of which was 'invasion and territorial expansion'. The first to suffer from the new Russian power was the Ottoman Empire. However, pressure was soon exerted on the Persian Empire as well. In May 1723, the first major Russo-Persian War occurred and the invasion came as far as the northern city of Rasht. At the Treaty of Bab-e Ali the Ottoman and Russian Empires divided up large portions of Persia between themselves. It was Nadir Shah who, with great force[citation needed], drove the Ottomans and Russians[citation needed] out of the occupied lands and eventually began expanding the borders of Greater Iran. Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Eugene Lanceray. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Rasht Rasht ( رشت in Persian, also transcribed as Resht) is the capital of Gilan province in northwestern Iran. ... Greater Iran (in Persian: ایران بزرگ pron: Iran-e Bozorg, also ایران‌زمین pron: Iran-zameen) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to the entire region where Iranian languages are today spoken as a first language, or as a second language by a significant minority. ...


Following Nadir Shah, many of the other leaders of the Afsharid dynasty were weak and the state they had built quickly gave way to the Qajars. As the control of the country de-centralised with the collapse of Nadir Shah's rule, many of the peripheral territories of the Empire gained independence and only paid token homage to the Persian State.


Qajar Era (1781 to 1925)

The second half of the 18th Century saw a new dynasty take hold in Iran. The new Qajar dynasty made an attempt to form, and yet again modernise the Iranian military following the break up of Nadir Shah's army. The rise of the Qajars was very closely timed with Catherine the Great's order to invade Persia once again. During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Russian troops crossed the Aras River and invaded parts of Azarbaijan and Gilan, while they also moved to Lankaran with the aim of occupying Rasht again. The Qajars, under their dynasty founder, Agha Mohammad Khan was the saviour of Persia by defeating the Russian in several important battles[citation needed]. Agha Mohammad Khan, with 60,000 cavalry under his command, drove the Russians back[citation needed] beyond Tbilisi. Following the capture of Georgia, Agha Mohammad Khan was murdered by two of his servants hoping to steal the crown jewels. His son, Fath Ali Shah, after several successful campaigns of his own against the Afshars, with the help of Minister of War Mirza Assadolah Khan and Minister Amir Kabir created a new strong army, based on the latest European models, for the newly chosen Crown-Prince Abbas Mirza. The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... The Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great, alongside the Persian Expedition of Peter the Great, was one of the Russo-Persian Wars of the 18th century which did not entail any lasting consequences for both belligerents. ... Aras may refer to: Aras Free Zone, an industrial Zone situated in north-west of Iran, adjacent to Autonomous Rep. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iranian Azerbaijan. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Lankaran, or Lenkoran, (Azeri: LÉ™nkÉ™ran) is a small city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran, with a population of 48,400 (2002), at least half of which are Talysh. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Rasht Rasht ( رشت in Persian, also transcribed as Resht) is the capital of Gilan province in northwestern Iran. ... This engraving depicts Agha Mohammad Khan wearing the Taj-i-kiyani, or the Kiyanid Crown. ... Coordinates:  - Governing Mayor Giorgi Gigi Ugulava Area    - City 372 km² Population (2005)  - City 1,093,000 Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი , IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura (Mtkvari) River, at . ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ... Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر in Persian), also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Amir_Nezam (میرزا تقی‌خان امیرنظام), was the chancellor of Persia under Nasereddin Shah. ... Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا in Persian) ‎(August 26, 1789 - October 25, 1833), was a crown prince of Persia, known because of his wars with Russia and the Ottoman empire, and his death before his father, the shah. ...


This period marked a decline in Persia's power and thus its military performance. From here onwards the Qajar dynasty would face great difficulty in its efforts due to the international policies mapped out by some western superpowers and not Persia herself. Persia's efforts would also be weakened due to continual economic, political, and military pressure from outside of the country (see The Great Game), and social and political pressures from within would make matters worse. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Central Asia, circa 1848 The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Conolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ...

'Prince Abbas Mirza'

In 1803, Russia invaded[citation needed] and annexed[citation needed] Georgia, and then moved south towards Armenia and Azarbaijan. In the Russo-Persian War (1806-1813) the Russians appeared victorious. From the beginning, Russian troops had a great advantage over the Persians as they possessed modern Artillery, the use of which had never sunk into the Persian army since the Safavid dynasty three centuries earlier. Nevertheless, the Persian army under the command of Abbas Mirza managed to win several victories from the Russians. Iran's inability to develop modern artillery over the preceding, and Qajar, dynasty resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Golestan in 1813. This marked a turning point in the Qajar attitude towards the military. Abbas Mirza sent a large number of Persians to England to study Western military technology and at the same time he invited British officers to Persia to train the Persian forces under his command. The army's transformation was phenomenal as can be seen from the Battle of Erzeroum (1821) where the new army routed an Ottoman army. This resulted in the Treaty of Erzeroum whereby the Ottoman Empire acknowledged the existing frontier between the two empires. These efforts to continue the modernisation of the army through the training of officers in Europe continued until the end of the Qajar dynasty. With the exceptions of Russia and Britain the Qajar army of the time was unquestionably the most powerful in the region. Image File history File links AbbasMirza. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iranian Azerbaijan. ... This painting by Franz Roubaud illustrates an episode when 493 Russians for two weeks repelled attacks by a 20,000-strong Persian army. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا in Persian) ‎(August 26, 1789 - October 25, 1833), was a crown prince of Persia, known because of his wars with Russia and the Ottoman empire, and his death before his father, the shah. ... Gulistan Peace Treaty of 1813, a peace treaty between imperial Russia and Persia, signed on October 24 (November 5) in a village of Gulistan in Karabakh at the end of the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813. ... Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا in Persian) ‎(August 26, 1789 - October 25, 1833), was a crown prince of Persia, known because of his wars with Russia and the Ottoman empire, and his death before his father, the shah. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...

Iran in the 20th century.
Iran in the 20th century.

With his new army, Abbas Mirza invaded Russia in 1826. The Persian army proved no match for the significantly larger and equally capable Russian army. The following Treaty of Turkomanchay in 1828 crippled Persia through the ceding of much of Persia's northern territories and the payment of a colossal war indemnity. The scale of the damage done to Persia through the treaty was so severe that The Persian Army and state would not regain its former strength till the rise and creation of the Soviet Union and the latter's cancellation of the economic elements of the treaty as 'tsarist imperialistic policies'. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1096x911, 358 KB) Note : Inspired by Historical Atlas of Georges Duby (p. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1096x911, 358 KB) Note : Inspired by Historical Atlas of Georges Duby (p. ... The Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire. ... [[Image:Turkmanchai. ...


The reigns of both Mohammad Shah and Nasser ed-Din Shah also saw attempts by Persia to bring the city of Herat, occupied by the Afghans, again under Persian rule. In this, though the Afghans were no match for the Persian Army, the Persians were not successful, this time because of British Intervention as part of The Great Game (See papers by Waibel and Esandari Qajar within the Qajar Studies source). See Mohammad Shah Qajar for the Ruler of Persia Muhammad Shah (1702 - 1748) was a Mughal emperor of India between 1719 and 1748. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Central Asia, circa 1848 The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Conolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ...


Ultimately, under the Qajars Persia was shaped into its modern form. Initially, under the reign of Agha Mohammad Khan Persia won back control of several independent regions and the northern territories, only to be lost again through a series of bitter wars with Russia. In the west the Qajars effectively stopped Ottoman encroachment and in the east the situation remained fluid. Ultimately, through Qajar rule the military institution was further developed and a capable and regionally superior military force was developed. This was quashed by the then superpowers of the day: Russia and Britain. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This engraving depicts Agha Mohammad Khan wearing the Taj-i-kiyani, or the Kiyanid Crown. ...


Pahlavi Era (1925 to 1979)

'Iranian Imperial Guards'
'Iranian Imperial Guards'

When the Pahlavi dynasty came through power the Qajar dynasty was already weak from years of war with Russia. The standing Persian army was almost non-existent. The new king Reza Shah Pahlavi, was quick to develop a new military. In part, this involved sending hundreds of officers to European and American military academies. It also involved having foreigners re-train the existing army within Iran. In this period the Iranian Air Force was established and the foundation for a new Navy was laid. Image File history File linksMetadata Iranian_Imperial_Guards. ... Reza Shah the Great, also Reza Pahlavi (Persian: ‎) (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), styled His Imperial Majesty, was Shah of Persia from December 15, 1925 until 1935 (at which time he requested that the international community refer to the country by its local name, Iran) and Shah of Iran... Markings of the IRIAF The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) is the aviation branch of the Iranian armed forces. ... The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy is the naval force of Iran. ...


Following Germany's invasion of the USSR in June 1941, Britain and the Soviet Union became allies. Both saw the newly opened Trans-Iranian Railroad as a strategic route to transport supplies from the Persian Gulf to the Soviet region. In August 1941, Britain and the USSR invaded Iran and deposed Reza Shah Pahlavi in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Following the end of the Second World War Iran's independence was respected and both countries withdrew. For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Reza Shah the Great, also Reza Pahlavi (Persian: ‎) (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), styled His Imperial Majesty, was Shah of Persia from December 15, 1925 until 1935 (at which time he requested that the international community refer to the country by its local name, Iran) and Shah of Iran... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā Pahlavī) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Following a number of clashes in April 1969, international relations with Iraq fell into a steep decline, mainly due to a dispute over the Arvand waterway in the 1937 Algiers Accord. Iran abrogated the 1937 accord and demanded a renegotiation which ended completely in its favor. Furthermore, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi embarked on an unprecedented modernisation program for the armed forces. In many cases Iran was being supplied with advanced weaponry even before it was supplied to the armies of the countries that developed it. The Iranian military, while very well armed and trained at this point was totally reliant on external suppliers for its equipment. By 1978 Iran had the worlds 5th strongest and largest army and was the clear undisputed regional superpower. During this period of strength Iran protected its interests militarily in the region: In Yemen, the Dofar Liberation Front was quashed. In November 1971 Iranian forces seized control of three uninhabited but strategic islands at the mouth of the Persian Gulf. The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Islamic Republic of Iran (1979 to Present)

In 1979, the year of the Shah's departure and the revolution, the Iranian military experienced a 60% desertion from its ranks. Following the ideological principles of the Islamic revolution in Iran, the new revolutionary government sought to strengthen its domestic situation by conducting a purge of all military personnel associated with the Pahlavi Dynasty. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ...

Iranian soldiers landing from a CH-47 Chinook helicopter in the northern front of the Iran-Iraq war.
Iranian soldiers landing from a CH-47 Chinook helicopter in the northern front of the Iran-Iraq war.

It is still unclear how many were killed, but numbers go into the tens-of-thousands. The purge resulted in tempting the dictator of Iraq, Saddam Hussein to view Iran as disorganised and weak causing the Iran-Iraq War. The indecisive eight year war wreaked havoc on the region and the Iranian military, only coming to an end in 1988 after it expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between the United States Navy and Iranian military forces between 1987-1988. Following the Iran-Iraq War an ambitious military rebuilding program was set into motion with the intention to create a fully fledged military industry. Iran-Iraq war. ... Iran-Iraq war. ... The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is a versatile, twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. ... Saddam Hussein Abid al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Abolhassan Banisadr Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Baseej militia 1,000 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 65 aircraft 720 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 4,500... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Abolhassan Banisadr Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Baseej militia 1,000 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 65 aircraft 720 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 4,500... Irans military industry has taken great strides in the past 25 years, and now manufactures many types of sophisticated arms and equipment. ...


Regionally, since the Islamic Revolution, Iran has sought to exert its influence by supporting various groups (militarily and politically). It openly supports Hizbullah in Lebanon in order to keep itself involved in the Israel/Palestine peace process and in order to influence Lebanon. Various Kurdish groups are also supported as needed in order to maintain control of its Kurdish regions. In neighbouring Afghanistan, Iran supported the Northern Alliance for over a decade against the Taliban, and nearly went to war against the Taliban in 1998.[2] Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi Lotter... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


See also

The IRIAF began as the Imperial Iranian Air Force (IIAF) which was officially formed in August of 1955 by the Shah of Iran. ... The Islamic Republic of Iran has two kinds of armed forces: the regular forces and the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC). ...

Sources

  • The Middle East: 2000 Years of History From The Rise of Christianity to the Present Day, Bernard Lewis, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1995.
  • Qajar Studies: War and Peace in the Qajar Era, Journal of the Qajar Studies Association, London: 2005.


Military of the Islamic Republic of Iran The Islamic Republic of Iran
Iranian Army | Iranian Navy | Iranian Air Force | IRGC

 
 

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